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Harshen Khekhoe

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Khoekhoe
Nama/Damara
Khoekhoegowab
Asali a Namibia, Botswana and South Africa
Yanki Orange River, Great Namaland, Damaraland
Ƙabila Khoikhoi, Nama, Damara, Haiǁom, ǂKhomani
'Yan asalin magana
200,000 ± 10,000 (2011)[1]
Khoe–Kwadi
  • Khoe
    • Khoekhoe
      • Khoekhoe
kasafin harshe
Official status
Recognised minority language in
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 Either:Samfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelistSamfuri:Infobox language/codelist
Glottolog nort3245  Subfamily: North Khoekhoe[3]
nama1264  Language: Nama[4]
haio1238  Language: Haiǁom-Akhoe[5]
The distribution of the Nama language in Namibia
Harshen Khoe
Mutum Ko-i
Mutane Khoekhoen
Harshe Khoekhoegowab

Harshen Khoekhoe / ˈk ɔɪk ɔɪ / KOY -koy harshe ( Khoekhoegowab</link> ), wanda kuma aka sani da kalmomin kabilanci Nama ( Namagowab ) / ˈnɑːmə / NAH - NAH, [6] Damara ( ǂNūkhoegowab ), ko Nama/Damara [7] kuma a da kamar Hotentot, [lower-alpha 2] shine mafi yaɗuwar harsunan Bantu na Kudancin Afirka waɗanda ke yin amfani da latsa baƙaƙe don haka a da an ƙidaya su a matsayin Khoisan, ƙungiyar da aka gane yanzu a matsayin wadda ta ƙare. Yana cikin dangin harshen Khoe, kuma ana magana da shi a Namibiya, Botswana, da Afirka ta Kudu da farko daga kabilu uku: Namakhoen, ǂNūkhoen, da Haiǁomkhoen .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haiǁom, wanda ya yi magana da yaren Juu, daga baya ya koma Khoekhoe. Sunan masu magana, Khoekhoen, ya fito ne daga kalmar khoe "mutum", tare da maimaitawa da kari -n don nuna jam'i na gaba ɗaya. Georg Friedrich Wreede shi ne Bature na farko da ya fara nazarin harshen, bayan ya isa ǁHui!gaeb (daga baya Cape Town) a shekara ta 1659.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2016)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Matsayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Khoekhoe harshe ne na ƙasa a Namibiya. A Namibiya da Afirka ta Kudu, hukumomin watsa shirye-shirye mallakar gwamnati suna samarwa da watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo a Khoekhoe.

An kiyasta cewa kusan masu magana da Khoekhoe 167,000 ne kawai suka rage a Afirka, wanda ya sa ya zama yare mai hatsarin gaske . A cikin 2019, Jami'ar Cape Town ta gudanar da jerin gajerun darussan koyar da harshe, kuma 21 ga Satumba 2020 ta ƙaddamar da sabuwar Khoi da San Center. Ana shirin kaddamar da shirin digiri na farko a shekaru masu zuwa.

Yaruka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Malaman zamani gabaɗaya suna ganin yaruka uku:

Sun bambanta sosai da za a iya la'akari da harsuna biyu ko uku daban-daban.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2016)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

  • Eini (bacewa) shima yana kusa amma yanzu gabaɗaya ana kirga shi azaman yare dabam.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2016)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nama man yana ba da darussa a kan yaren Khoekhoe

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai halayen wasali guda 5, ana samun su azaman baka /i e a o u/</link> da hanci /ĩ ã ũ/</link> . /u/</link> yana da ƙarfi sosai, /o/</link> dan kadan kawai. /a/</link> shine kawai wasali mai sanannen allophony; ana furtawa [ə]</link> kafin /i/</link> ko /u/</link> .

Sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An bayyana Nama da cewa yana da sautuna uku [10] ko huɗu [11] [12] [13], /á, ā, à/</link> ko /a̋, á, à, ȁ/</link> , wanda zai iya faruwa akan kowane mora (wasulan da baƙaƙen hanci na ƙarshe). Babban sautin yana da girma idan ya faru akan ɗayan manyan wasulan ( /í ú/</link> ) ko a kan hanci ( /ń ḿ/</link> ) fiye da tsakiyar ko ƙananan wasulan ( /é á ó/</link> ). [10]

Sautunan suna haɗuwa cikin iyakacin adadin 'waƙoƙin sautin' ( sautunan kalmomi ), waɗanda ke da nau'ikan sandhi a wasu mahalli na daidaitawa. Mahimman wakoki, a cikin nassosinsu da manyan siffofin sandhi, sune kamar haka: [11]

ambato Sandhi Ma'ana Melody
ǃ̃ˀȍm̀s ǃ̃ˀòm̏s butting, bugawa st ƙananan
ǃ̃ˀȍḿs nono low tashi
ǃ̃ˀòm̀s tilasta fita daga wani burrow tsakiyar
ǃ̃ˀòm̋s ǃ̃ˀòm̀s a pollard high tashi
ǃ̃ˀóm̀s ǃ̃ˀóm̏s coagulating, priizing out [ƙaya] low fadowa
ǃ̃ˀőḿs ǃ̃ˀóm̀s a dunkule babban fadowa

Damuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin jimla, kalmomin ƙamus suna karɓar damuwa fiye da kalmomin nahawu . A cikin kalma ɗaya, syllable na farko yana karɓar mafi yawan damuwa. Kalmomin da ke gaba suna samun raguwar damuwa kuma ana yin magana da sauri da sauri.

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nama yana da baƙaƙe 31: dannawa 20 kuma ba dannawa 11 kawai ba. [11]

Rashin dannawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Orthography a cikin brackets.

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m ⟨ m ⟩ n ⟨ n ⟩
M p ~ β ⟨ b/p ⟩ t ~ ɾ ⟨ /d/r ⟩ k ⟨ /g ⟩ ʔ ⟨ - ⟩
Haɗin kai t͜sʰ ⟨ ts ⟩ k͜xʰ ⟨ kh ⟩
Mai sassautawa s ⟨ s ⟩ x ⟨ x ⟩ h ⟨ h ⟩

Tsakanin wasali, /p/</link> ana furta [β]</link> da /t/</link> ana furta [ɾ]</link> . Jerin haɗin gwiwar yana da ƙarfi sosai, kuma ana iya bincikar shi ta hanyar sauti kamar yadda ake neman tsayawa; a cikin Kur'ani mai alaƙa sune [tʰ, kʰ]</link> .

Bakin teku (1938) [14] ya ruwaito cewa Khoekhoe na lokacin yana da alaƙar ɓarna a gefe, [kʟ̝̊ʼ]</link> , fahimta gama gari ko allophone na /kxʼ/</link> a cikin harsuna tare da dannawa. Wannan sautin baya fitowa a cikin Khoekhoe amma yana cikin dan uwansa Koran.

Dannawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An danna maballin baƙar magana sau biyu . Kowace dannawa ta ƙunshi ɗaya daga cikin manyan maganganu huɗu na farko ko "fitowa" da ɗaya daga cikin maganganun sakandare guda biyar ko "efluxes". Haɗin yana haifar da wayoyi 20.

rakiyar danna dannawa 'kaifi' dannawa daidaitacce



</br> rubutun kalmomi
hakori<br id="mwAT4"><br><br><br></br> dannawa na gefe<br id="mwAUE"><br><br><br></br> dannawa alveolar<br id="mwAUQ"><br><br><br></br> dannawa palatal<br id="mwAUc"><br><br><br></br> dannawa
Tenuis ᵏǀ ᵏǁ ᵏǃ ᵏǂ ⟨ ⟩
Mai sha'awa ᵏǀʰ ᵏǁʰ ᵏǃʰ ᵏǂʰ ⟨ ⟩
Nasal ᵑǀ ᵑǁ ᵑǃ ᵑǂ ⟨ ⟩
Hanci mara murya ᵑ̊ǀʰ ᵑ̊ǁʰ ᵑ̊ǃʰ ᵑ̊ǂʰ ⟨ h ⟩
Glottalized hanci ᵑ̊ǀˀ ᵑ̊ǁˀ ᵑ̊ǃˀ ᵑ̊ǂˀ ⟨ ⟩

Buri akan dannawa da ake nema sau da yawa haske ne amma ya fi 'raspier' fiye da danna hancin da ake nema, tare da sauti yana gabatowa ch of Scotland loch . Ƙwaƙwalwar da aka ɗauka a fili ba su da murya saboda riƙon kafin a saki, kuma ana rubuta su azaman maƙallan murya mai sauƙi a cikin rubutun gargajiya. Bangaren hanci ba a ji a wuri na farko; Bangaren hanci mara murya na danna dannawa shima yana da wahala a ji idan ba tsakanin wasali ba, don haka ga kunnuwan kasashen waje, yana iya zama kamar tsayin tsayi amma ba kasala ba na dannawar kwane-kwane.

Tindall ya lura cewa koyan turai kusan ba sa yin la'akari da dannawa ta gefe ta hanyar sanya harshe a gefen hakora kuma wannan furci "mai tsanani ne kuma baƙon abu ne ga kunnen ƙasa". A maimakon haka, Namaqua ya rufe baki dayan baki da harshe kuma ya samar da sautin "har zuwa baya a cikin palate kamar yadda zai yiwu". [15]

Wasan kwaikwayo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmomin tushen lexical sun ƙunshi moras biyu ko da wuya uku, a cikin sigar CVCV(C), CVV(C), ko CVN(C). (Ana buƙatar baƙar magana ta farko.) Baƙi na tsakiya na iya zama wrmn kawai ( w b~p da r is d~t ), yayin da baƙin ƙarshe (C) zai iya zama p, s, ts . Kowane mora yana ɗauke da sautin, amma na biyu na iya zama babba ko matsakaici kawai, don "waƙar waƙa" guda shida: HH, MH, LH, HM, MM, LM.

Jerin wasula na baka a CVV sune /ii ee aa oo uu ai [əi] ae ao au [əu] oa oe ui/</link> . Saboda rage yawan wasulan hanci, jerin hanci shine /ĩĩ ãã ũũ ãĩ [ə̃ĩ] ãũ [ə̃ũ] õã ũĩ/</link> . Jerin suna ƙarewa cikin babban wasali ( /ii uu ai au ui ĩĩ ũũ ãĩ ãũ ũĩ/</link> ) ana furtawa da sauri fiye da wasu ( /ee aa oo ae ao oa oe ãã õã/</link> ), ya fi kama da diphthongs da dogayen wasulan fiye da kamar jerin wasula a cikin hiatus. Sautunan ana gane su azaman kwane-kwane. Kalmomin CVCV sun kasance suna da jerin wasali iri ɗaya, kodayake akwai keɓanta da yawa. Sautunan biyu kuma sun fi bambanta.e /ii ee aa oo uu ai [əi] ae ao au [əu] oa oe ui/are /ĩĩ ãã ũũ ãĩ [ə̃ĩ] ãũ [ə̃ũ] õã ũĩ/(/ii uu ai au ui ĩĩ ũũ ãĩ ãũ ũĩ/(/ee aa oo ae ao oa oe ãã õã/

An taƙaita jerin nau'ikan wasali da hanci zuwa wasulan da ba na gaba ba: /am an om on um un/</link> . Sautunan su kuma ana gane su azaman contours.

Barbashi na nahawu suna da siffan CV ko CN, tare da kowane wasali ko sautin, inda C zai iya zama kowane baƙo amma dannawa, kuma na ƙarshe ba zai iya zama NN ba. Suffixes da mora na uku na tushen, suna iya samun siffan CV, CN, V, N, tare da kowane wasali ko sautin; akwai kuma suffixes C-only guda uku, -p 1m.sg, -ts 2m.sg, -s 2/3f.sg.

Rubutun Rubutu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An yi amfani da rubutun ƙididdiga da yawa don Nama. Kamus na Khoekhoegowab (Haacke 2000) yana amfani da mizanin zamani.

A daidaitaccen rubutun kalmomi, ana amfani da baƙaƙen bdg don kalmomi masu ɗaya daga cikin waƙoƙin ƙananan sauti da ptk don ɗayan mafi girman sautin; In ba haka ba ana kiransu iri daya. Ana amfani da W kawai tsakanin wasula, kodayake ana iya maye gurbinsa da b ko p bisa ga sautin. In ba haka ba an daina yin alamar sautin gabaɗaya.

Rubutun Rubutu Rubutu Melody Ma'ana
gao /kȁó/ low tashi 'mulki'
kao /kàő/ high tashi 'babu kunya'
Ƙhubu (ko huwu ) /ǀʰȕwú/ low tashi 'don daina ciwo'
Ƙhupu (ko huwu ) /ǀʰùwű/ high tashi 'don fita daga numfashi'

Ana rubuta wasulan hanci da dawafi. Duk wasulan hanci suna da tsayi, kamar a cikin /hũ̀ṹ/</link> 'bakwai'. Dogayen wasula (biyu) in ba haka ba ana rubuta su da macro, kamar yadda yake cikin ā /ʔàa̋/</link> 'kuka, kuka'; waɗannan sun ƙunshi moras guda biyu (raka'a masu ɗaukar sauti biyu).

Ba a rubuta tasha mai girma a farkon kalma (inda ake iya hasashenta), amma ana rubuta ta da saƙa a cikin kalmomin da aka haɗa, kamar gao-aob /kȁòʔòȁp/</link> 'shugaba'.

An rubuta dannawa ta amfani da alamun IPA:

  • ǀ ( sanshi a tsaye ) don danna haƙori
  • ǁ (masanin tsaye biyu a tsaye) don danna gefe
  • ǃ ( mashaya mai ɗigon ƙasa, kusan alamar motsi ) don danna alveolar
  • ǂ ( mashaya mai bugun giciye sau biyu) don latsawa ta palatal

Wani lokaci ana canza wasu haruffa, misali zanta (#) a maimakon ǂ.

Nahawu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nama yana da tsarin kalma -abu-abu-fi'ili, azuzuwan sunaye uku ( namiji/gu-class, mace/di-class da neuter/n-class ) da lambobi uku na nahawu ( mufuradi, dual da jam'i ). Ana amfani da ƙayyadaddun kalmomi don yiwa mutum alama, jinsi, da lamba akan jimlolin suna .

Mufuradi Dual Jam'i Gloss
Mata/Di-class Piri s Piri ra Piri di akuya
Namiji/Gu-class Ari b Ari kha Ari gu kare
Neutral/N-class Ko- i Ko ra Koyi n mutane

Mutum, jinsi da alamomin lamba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alamar PGN ( mutum - jinsi - lamba ) suna da ƙayyadaddun karin magana waɗanda ke haɗe zuwa jumlar suna . Alamar PGN sun bambanta mutum na farko, na biyu, da na uku, na namiji, na mace, da jinsin jinsi, da muɗaɗɗa, dual, da jam'i . Ana iya raba alamomin PGN zuwa naɗaɗɗen ƙira, abu, da ƙa'idodin ƙa'ida .

Nadinawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Namiji Na mata Neuter
Mutum 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Mufuradi ta ts b/mi/ni ta s s - - -i
Dual kum ku kha m ro ra m ro ra
Jam'i ge tafi gu se haka di da du n

Abu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

(PGN + i )

Namiji Na mata Neuter
Mutum 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Mufuradi te tsi bi/mi/ni te si si - - -i
Dual kum ku kha mi/im ro ra mi/im ro ra
Jam'i ge tafi gu se haka di da du ni/in

Oblique[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

(PGN + a )

Namiji Na mata Neuter
Mutum 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
Mufuradi ta tsa ba/ma/na ta sa sa - - -e
Dual kuma ku kha ma ro ra mo ro ra
Jam'i ge tafi ga se haka de da yi na

Labarai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Khoekhoe yana da takamaiman labarai guda huɗu: ti, si, sa, ǁî . Ana iya haɗa waɗannan ƙayyadaddun labaran labarai tare da alamun PGN.

Misalai daga Haacke (2013):

  • si-khom "mu maza biyu" (wani ban da addressee da ni)
  • sa-khom "mu maza biyu" (mai magana da ni)
  • ǁî-khom "mu maza biyu" (wani wanda ake magana a baya da ni)
ti si sa Ƙi
+tabbatacciyar +tabbatacciyar +tabbatacciyar +tabbatacciyar
+ mai magana + mai magana +adireshi + tattauna
+ mutum -adireshi + mutum
+ guda ɗaya + mutum
- guda ɗaya

Rubutun magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai alamomi guda uku, ge ( bayani ), kha ( tambaya ), da ko/km ( tabbatacce ). Waɗannan alamomin suna bayyana a cikin sassan matrix, kuma suna bayyana bayan batun. [16]

Misalin rubutu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mai zuwa shine samfurin rubutu a cikin yaren Khoekhoe. [17]

Nē ǀkharib ǃnâ da ge ǁGûn tî ǀGaen tsî doan tsîn; tsî ǀNopodi tsî ǀKhenadi tsî ǀhuigu tsî ǀAmin tsîn; tsî ǀkharagagu Ɓaon tsîna ra hō.
A cikin wannan yanki, muna samun springbuck, oryx, da duiker; francolin, guinea fowl, bustard, da jimina; da macizai iri-iri.

Kalmomin gama gari da jimloli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Gai tsēs - Barka da rana
  • ƁGâi Ɓagoas - Barka da safiya
  • ƁGai ƃoe - Barka da yamma
  • Matisa – ya ya kake?
  • Gâise ƃgu re – Barka da warhaka
  • Khawa mugus - Mu hadu anjima
  • Regkomtani – Zan sarrafa
  • Tae na Tae - Yaya yake rataye (fassara kai tsaye "Mene ne")

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Khoekhoegowab/Turanci don Yara, Editions du Cygne, 2013, 
  • Bakin teku, Douglas M. 1938. Wayoyin Sautin Harshen Hottentot. Cambridge: Heffer.
  • Brugman, Johanna. 2009. Yankuna, Sautuna da Rarrabawa a cikin Khoekhoe Prosody Archived 2019-03-06 at the Wayback Machine . Karatun PhD, Jami'ar Cornell.
  • Haka, Wilfrid. 1976. A Nama Grammar: Sunan-jumlar . Littafin MA. Cape Town: Jami'ar Cape Town .
  • Hacke, Wilfrid HG 1977. "Abinda ake kira "Personal Pronoun" a cikin Nama." A cikin Traill, Anthony, ed. , Nazarin Harshen Khoisan 3, 43-62. Sadarwa 6. Johannesburg: Cibiyar Nazarin Afirka, Jami'ar Wiwaterrand .
  • Haka, Wilfrid. 1978. Bayanin Jigo a Nama . Littafin MA. Colchester, UK: Jami'ar Essex .
  • Haka, Wilfrid. 1992. "Hanyoyin Jumlolin Suna a cikin Nama". A cikin Gowlett, Derek F., ed. , Gudunmawar Harshen Afirka (Festschrift Ernst Westphal), 189-194. Pretoria: Ta Afirka.
  • Haka, Wilfrid. 1992. "Kasuwancin Kalmomin Suna a cikin Khoekhoe (Nama/Damara): Ƙarin Shaida ga Hasashen Hasashen Jiki". Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, 29, 149–162.
  • Haka, Wilfrid. 1995. "Misalan Haɗawa da Haɗawa a Khoekhoegowab (Nama/Damara)". A cikin Anthony Traill, Rainer Vossen da Marguerite Anne Megan Biesele, ed. , Cikakken Linguist: Takardu a Tunawa da Patrick J. Dickens ", 339-361. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Hacke, Wilfrid; Eiseb, Elifas da Namaseb, Lawi. 1997. " Dangantakar Ciki da Waje na Yarukan Khoekhoe: Binciken Farko ". A cikin Wilfrid Haacke & Edward D. Elderkin, ed. , Harsunan Namibiya: Rahotanni da Takardu, 125–209. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag na Jami'ar Namibia .
  • Haka, Wilfrid. 1999. Tonology na Khoekhoe (Nama/Damara). Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung/Bincike a cikin Nazarin Khoisan, Bd 16. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid HG & Eiseb, Eliphas. 2002. Kamus na Khoekhoegowab tare da Fihirisar Turanci-Khoekhoegowab . Windhoek : Gamsberg Macmillan. ISBN 99916-0-401-4
  • Hagman, Roy S. 1977. Nama Hottentot Grammar . Halayen Kimiyyar Harshe, v 15. Bloomington: Jami'ar Indiana .
  • Krönlein, Johann Georg. 1889. Wortschatz der Khoi-Khoin (Namaqua-Hottentotten) . Berlin Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft.
  • Olpp, Johannes. 1977. Nama-grammatika. Windhoek : Inboorlingtaalburo van mutu Departement van Bantoe-onderwys.
  • Ruwa, Friedrich. 1965. Praktische Namagrammatik. Cape Town : Balkema.
  • Vossen, Rainer. 2013. Harsunan Khoesan . Oxon: Rutledge.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. (protected language)
  2. The term was applied to Cape Khoekhoe in particular.[8] In modern times, the term is seen as offensive and should be avoided.[9]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Brenzinger, Matthias (2011) "The twelve modern Khoisan languages." In Witzlack-Makarevich & Ernszt (eds.), Khoisan languages and linguistics: proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium, Riezlern / Kleinwalsertal (Research in Khoisan Studies 29). Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  2. "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 1: Founding Provisions". gov.za. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Khoekhoe". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nama (Namibia)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hai//om-Akhoe". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  7. Finex Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named britannica
  9. "Hottentot". Oxford Reference (in Turanci). Retrieved 2022-12-15.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Hagman (1977)
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Haacke & Eiseb (2002)
  12. Haacke 1999
  13. Brugman 2009
  14. D. Beach, 1938. The Phonetics of the Hottentot Language. Cambridge.
  15. Tindal (1858) A grammar and vocabulary of the Namaqua-Hottentot language
  16. Hahn, Michael. 2013. Word Order Variation in Khoekhoe. In Müller, Stefan (Ed.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Freie Universita t Berlin, 48–68. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
  17. Khoekhoegowab: 3ǁî xoaigaub. Gamsberg Macmillan, 2003

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