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Yaren meroitic

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Yaren meroitic
Meroitic script (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 xmr
Glottolog mero1237[1]

An yi magana da Harshen Meroitic (/mɛrOʊˈɪtɪk/) a Meroë (a Sudan ta yanzu) a lokacin Meroittic (an tabbatar da shi daga 300 BC) kuma ya ƙare game da 400 AD. An rubuta shi a cikin nau'o'i biyu na haruffa na Meroitic: Meroittic Cursive, wanda aka rubuta tare da stylus kuma an yi amfani da shi don adana tarihi gaba ɗaya; da Meroitish Hieroglyphic, wanda aka sassaƙa a dutse ko amfani da shi ga takardun sarauta ko na addini. Ba a fahimta sosai ba, saboda karancin matani na Harsuna biyu.

Sunan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Meroitic wani harshe wanda aka fi sani da shi a wasu wallafe-wallafen a matsayin Kushite bayan da aka tabbatar da shi Ya ce: cataracte cinq siècles plus tôt, stoppa l'avance égyptienne et contraignit les rois de la xiie dynastie à ériger un dispositif de forteresses entre la 1e et la 2e cataracte pour se protéger des incursions kermaïtes. Un nom apparaît alors dans les textes égyptiens pour désigner ce nouvel ennemi<span typeof=\"mw:DisplaySpace\" id=\"mw7A\"> </span>: Koush (ég. Kȝš), sans doute l'appellation que se donnaient les Kermaïtes eux-mêmes, et qui continuera à les désigner jusqu'à la disparition de la langue égyptienne. \" — paragraph #2 — Claude Rilly, «<span typeof=\"mw:DisplaySpace\" id=\"mw7Q\"> </span>Le royaume de Méroé<span typeof=\"mw:DisplaySpace\" id=\"mw7g\"> </span>», Afriques [En ligne], Varia, mis en ligne le 21 avril 2010, consulté le 20 juin 2018. URL: <a href=\"http://journals.openedition.org/afriques/379\" rel=\"mw:ExtLink nofollow\" class=\"external free\" id=\"mw7w\">http://journals.openedition.org/afriques/379</a>"}}" id="cite_ref-1" rel="dc:references" typeof="mw:Extension/ref">[./Meroitic_language#cite_note-1 [1]] Meroittic qes, qos (wanda aka fassara a cikin Masarawa kamar yadda kş). [2] Sunan Meroitic a cikin Turanci ya kasance a 1852 inda ya faru a matsayin fassarar Meroitisch na Jamusanci. Kalmar ta samo asali ne daga Latin Meroē, wanda ya dace da Girkanci Μερόη . Wadan sunayen na ƙarshe suna wakiltar sunan garin sarauta na Meroë na Masarautar Kush . [1] cikin Meroitic, ana kiran wannan birni da bedewi (ko wani lokacin Bedi), wanda aka wakilta a cikin matani na tsohuwar Masar kamar yadda bʹ-rʹ-wʹ ko makamancin haka.

Wurin da lokacin tabbatarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lokacin Meroitic ya fara ca. 300 BC kuma ya ƙare ca. 350 AD Yawancin shaidu na harshen Meroitic, ta hanyar rubutun asali, sun fito ne daga wannan lokacin, kodayake wasu shaidu kafin da bayan wannan lokacin. [3] Kushite ya shimfiɗa daga yankin First Cataract na Nilu zuwa yankin Khartoum na Sudan. Ana iya ɗauka cewa masu magana da Meroitic sun rufe yawancin wannan yankin bisa ga hulɗar harshe da aka tabbatar a cikin matani na Masar. [4] Meroitic a cikin matani na Masar, ya kai ga Masarautar Tsakiya ta Masar, Sabon Masarautar, da Marigayi 3rd Intermediate, Late, Ptolemaic, da Roman - bi da bi daidai da Kushite Kerman (ca. 2600-ca. 1500 BC), [1] Napatan (ca. 900/750-ca. 300 BC), da Meroitish. [5][6][7] tabbatar da sunan yankin Meroitic, da kuma sunayen ɗan adam na Meroit, tun daga farkon Daular Masar ta Tsakiya (kimanin 2000 KZ) a cikin matani na Masar game da Kerma. [8][9] Meroitic [10] jimloli sun bayyana a cikin New Kingdom Book of the Dead (Book of Coming Forth by Day) a cikin surori ko sihiri na "Nubian" (162-165). [1] [2] [3] [11][12] Meroitic [13] abubuwa masu mahimmanci, a cikin matani na Masar, galibi ana tabbatar da su a lokacin Napatan Kushite control na wasu ko dukkan sassan Masar [1] a ƙarshen 3rd Intermediate da Late Periods (kimanin 750-656 BC). [2] Dukkanin zamanin Meroitic Masarautar Kush kanta sun ƙare tare da faduwar Meroë (kimanin 350 AD), amma amfani da harshen Meroittic ya ci gaba da wani lokaci bayan wannan taron [1] kamar yadda akwai ƙamus na Meroitish da siffofin morphological a Tsohon Nubian. guda biyu sune: Meroitic: ̊ (a) -l (a) ̊[14] "sun" → Tsohon Nubian: mašal "sun"[15][16] da Tsohon Nuvian: -lo (focus particle) ← Meroitish: -̊loʹ Sanya aka yi nau'o'i biyu, -̊ (a), + ̊o'o'o (copula). [17] ya ƙare gaba ɗaya a ƙarni na 6 lokacin da Byzantine Greek, Coptic, da Tsohon Nubian suka maye gurbinsa.

Rubutun kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin Meroitic, an rubuta Meroittic a cikin nau'o'i biyu na Meroitic alphasyllabary: Meroitric Cursive, wanda aka rubuta tare da stylus kuma an yi amfani da shi don adana rikodin gaba ɗaya; da Meroitico Hieroglyphic, wanda aka sassaƙa a dutse ko amfani da shi ga takardun sarauta ko na addini. Rubutun Meroitic na ƙarshe da aka sani an rubuta shi a cikin Meroittic Cursive kuma ya kasance a ƙarni na 5. [18]

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani rubutun Meroitic na hieroglyphic ya yi wa wannan takardar sarauta ta sarki Tanyidamani ado. Ya fito ne daga haikalin Apedemak a Meroë . Kusan 100 BC, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Rarrabawar harshen Meroitic ba ta da tabbas saboda karancin bayanai da wahalar fassara shi. Tun lokacin da aka fassara haruffa a cikin 1909, an ba da shawarar cewa Meroitic yana da alaƙa da yarukan Nubian da makamantansu harsunan Nilo-Saharan. Da'awar da ke fafatawa ita ce Meroitic memba ne na ƙungiyar Afroasiatic .

Rowan (2006, 2011) ya ba da shawarar cewa kayan sauti na Meroitic da phonotactics (bangarorin da ke da aminci kawai) suna kama da na harsunan Afroasiatic, kuma sun bambanta da harsunan Nilo-Sahara. , ta lura C da wuya mutum ya sami jerin CV, inda consonants (C) duka labials ne ko duka velars, yana lura da cewa yana kama da ƙuntatawa da aka samu a duk faɗin iyalin yaren Afroasiatic, yana nuna cewa Meroitic na iya kasancewa harshen Afroasianic kamar Masarawa. Edward Lipiński (2011) ya kuma yi jayayya da goyon baya ga asalin Afro Asiatic na Meroitic wanda ya dogara da ƙamus.[19][20].

Claude Rilly (2004, 2007, 2012, 2016) shine mai gabatar da ra'ayin Nilo-Sahara na baya-bayan nan: ya ba da shawarar, bisa ga tsarinsa, yanayin, da kuma sanannun ƙamus, cewa Meroitic shine Gabashin Sudan, iyalin Nilo-Dahara wanda ya haɗa da yarukan Nubian. sami, alal misali, wannan tsari na kalma a cikin Meroitic "ya dace sosai da sauran harsunan Sudan na Gabas, inda jimloli ke nuna tsari na ƙarshe (SOV: batun-abu-kalma); akwai postpositions kuma babu prepositions; an sanya genitive a gaban babban suna; adjective ya bi sunan. "

Kalmomin kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Da ke ƙasa akwai ɗan gajeren jerin kalmomin Kushite da ɓangarorin magana waɗanda aka san ma'anonin su sosai kuma ba a san su da karɓa daga Masarawa ba. Ƙarƙashin kusurwa suna wakiltar rubutun, ko haruffa na orthographic, waɗanda aka yi amfani da su don rubuta kalma, sabanin wakilcin kalmar. Duk alamun da ba na syllabic ba, wadanda ba na ƙamus ba an rubuta su tare da asalin su a cikin parentheses. Dukkanin alamomi an rubuta su a cikin parentheses (ko brackets idan a cikin kalma a cikin parentses) saboda rashin sanin ko ma'anar ba ta da sauti don adana syllabicity na rubutun ko kuma a zahiri kalma ce. An san cewa na karshe a cikin Kandake / Kentake (mai mulki mata) yana da murya kuma sautin farko a cikin Sā, Sā, da Sā. Tun da yake an san su da murya, ba su cikin parentheses ba. Duk wani sanannen alamun aka sake rubuta a cikin matsayi na coda.

  • Sanya b (a) r (a) Sanya "mutum"
  • Shia "gurasa"
  • Sashen * (← tunanin) "ruwa"
  • -Xab (a) -Xab
  • An haife shi, an haife shi da ɗa na
  • Sanya "ya fara, ya haifa"
  • (n) "mace, mace, mace".
  • -Xë (e)
  • -XI (a)
  • Shia "babban, babba"
  • Shia "Allah, allahntaka"
  • Sashen "yaro, ɗa"
  • Shia "sun, sun god"
  • Shahuri "sarki, mai mulki"
  • Shia "ƙafafu, ƙafafu, ƙafa biyu"
  • -XI (e)
  • Sanya, ƙaunatacce, girmamawa, girmamawa da sha'awa
  • -Xë (e) -Xëy (a) -Xö (a irin locative) [1]
  • -X (a) -X (daga baya) -X- (e) -X - (ma'anar ma'anar)
  • Shia m (a) d (e) Shia "a ba na ɗa ba, ba na (babban) iyaye, ba na avuncular-mahaifiyar dangantaka"

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren meroitic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. "En fait, si notre hypothèse concernant l'équivalence du peuple de langue méroïtique avec l'ethnonyme « Koush » est avérée, c'est plus au nord encore, entre la deuxième cataracte et l'île de Saï 3, qu'on pourrait envisager de situer le berceau de cette population." — Rilly, Claude. 2007. La langue du royaume de Méroé: Un panorama de la plus ancienne culture écrite d'Afrique subsaharienne. (Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Hautes Études, 344.) Paris: Honoré Champion. 624pp. p. 37
  3. Egyptian rulers recognized the 1st Cataract of the Nile as the natural southern border of ancient Egypt. — Bianchi, Robert Steven. Daily Life of the Nubians. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2004. p.6.
  4. "Meroitic was the main language spoken in northern Sudan not only during the time of the Kingdom of Meroe (c. 300 BC–350 AD), after which it is named, but probably from as early as the time of the Kingdom of Kerma (2500–1500 BC), as is suggested by a list of personal names transcribed in Egyptian on Papyrus Golenischeff (Rilly 2007b). Similar transcriptions of early Meroitic names are known from some Egyptian texts of the New Kingdom, but such names occur with particular frequency with the rise of the Kushite 25th Dynasty and its Napatan successor state (664–ca. 300 BC), since the birth names of rulers and other members of the royal family were necessarily written in Egyptian documents. These Napatan transcriptions in Egyptian paved the way for the emergence of a local writing around the second half of the third century BC." – Claude Rilly (2016). "Meroitic" in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/3128r3sw. p. 1
  5. Ahmed Abuelgasim Elhassan. Religious Motifs in Meroitic Painted and Stamped Pottery. Oxford, England: John and Erica Hedges Ltd., 2004. xii, 176 p. BAR international series. p.1.
  6. Claude Rilly (2007). La langue du royaume de Méroé, Un panorama de la plus ancienne culture écrite d'Afrique subsaharienne, Paris: Champion (Bibliothèque de l'École pratique des hautes études, Sciences historiques et philologiques, t. 344)
  7. Claude Rilly (2011). Recent Research on Meroitic, the Ancient Language of Sudan. http://www.ityopis.org/Issues-1_files/ITYOPIS-I-Rilly.pdf. Under the sub-heading – The original cradle of Proto-NES: chronological and palaeoclimatic issues. p. 18
  8. Leonard Lesko (2006). "On Some Aspects of the Books of the Dead from the Ptolemaic Period". Aegyptus et Pannonia 3 2006. pp. 151 -159. https://www.academia.edu/36035302/ON_SOME_ASPECTS_OF_THE_BOOKS_OF_THE_DEAD_FROM_THE_PTOLEMAIC_PERIOD
  9. Leonard Lesko (1999). "Some Further Thoughts on Chapter 162 of the Book of the Dead", in: Emily Teeter and John A. Larson (eds.), Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente. SAOC 58. Chicago 158 1999, 255–59.
  10. Leonard Lesko (2003). "Nubian Influence on the Later Versions of the Books of the Dead", in: Zahi Hawass (ed.), Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century: Proceedings of the Eight International Congress of Egyptologists. Cairo 2003. vol. 1,314–318. https://www.academia.edu/36035303/Nubian_Influence_on_the_Later_Versions_of_the_Book_of_the_Dead
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  13. Peust, Carsten (1999). "Das Napatanische: Ein ägyptischer Dialekt aus dem Nubien des späten ersten vorchristlichen Jahrtausends". Monographien zur Ägyptischen Sprache 3. Göttingen: Peust & Gutschmidt Verlag. http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/peust1999a
  14. masa (sun) + la (determinant)
  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Rilly2008
  16. MEROITES AND NUBIANS: TERRITORY AND CONFLICTS: 2.5. Traces of extinct languages in Nile Nubian, p. 222 — https://www.academia.edu/36487671/Claude_Rilly_ENEMY_BROTHERS._KINSHIP_AND_RELATIONSHIP_BETWEEN_MEROITES_AND_NUBIANS_NOBA. There is also Ken(u)z(i): masil. See http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=new100&morpho=0&basename=new100\esu\nub&first=1&off=&text_word=sun for Ken(u)z(i). Further notes, Midob: *massal — proto-Nubian: */b/ or */m/ → Midob: /p/ and Midob: /l/ → /r/.
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  18. The inscription of the Blemmye king, Kharamadoye.
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Bayanan littattafai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  • [Inda Aka Ɗauko Hoto da ke shafi na 1] "Meroitic (Binciken labarin) " (PDF). Rocznik Orientalistyczny. LXIV (2): 87-. - bita na Rilly, Claude (2010). Meroic da danginsa na harshe. Kungiyar Nazarin Harshe da Anthropology na Faransa. Fashewa.  454. Peeters.Empty citation (help) 
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Ƙarin karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

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