Yarukan Ghana

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Wikidata.svgYarukan Ghana
languages of a country (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Ghana
Alamar gwamnati cikin Turanci a Accra.

Kasar Ghana kasa ce mai amfani da harsuna da yawa inda ake magana da kusan yare tamanin. Daga cikin waɗannan, Ingilishi, wanda aka gada daga zamanin mulkin mallaka, shine yaren hukuma da yaren franca. Daga cikin yarukan asalin Ghana, Akan ne akafi amfani dashi.

Kasar Ghana tana da kabilu sama da guda saba'in, kowannensu yana da nasa harshen na daban. Harsunan da ke cikin kabila ɗaya yawanci ana iya fahimtar juna. Misali, harshen Dagbanli da Pampelle na yankin Arewa, suna da fahimtar juna tare da yaren Frafra da Waali na Yankin Yammacin Ghana. Waɗannan yarukan guda huɗu sune ƙabilar Mole-Dagbani.

Harsuna goma sha ɗaya suna da matsayin yarukan da gwamnati ke tallafawa: yarukan Akan uku (Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi da Fante) da yarukan kabilu biyu na Mole-Dagbani (Dagaare da Dagbanli). Sauran sune Ewe, Dangme, Ga, Nzema, Gonja, da Kasem.

Harsunan da gwamnati ke daukar nauyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Adadin yarukan da gwamnati ke daukar nauyi sun kai guda goma sha daya ko tara, ya danganta da ko ana daukar Akuapem Twi, Asante Twi, da Fante a matsayin yare daya. Ofishin Harsunan na Ghana ne ke tallafa musu, wanda aka kafa a 1951 kuma yake buga littattafai a cikin yarukan; a lokacin da ake amfani da harsunan Gana a ilimin firamare, waɗannan sune yarukan da ake amfani dasu. Duk waɗannan yarukan suna cikin dangin harsunan Nijar – Congo, kodayake suna da rassa daban-daban.

Akan (Fante, Asante Twi da Akuapem Twi)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar yankuna da yare na Ghana.

Akan, wani bangare ne na reshen Kwa na dangin Niger-Congo, yare ne na ci gaba, amma, dangane da matsayin hukuma, uku ne kawai daga cikin ire-iren Akan da yawa ake ganewa: Fante, Asante Twi, Akuapem Twi. Idan aka ɗauka gaba ɗaya, Akan shine yaren da aka fi amfani da shi a Gana.

Ewe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ewe yare ne na Gbe, wani bangare na Volta – Niger reshen dangin Niger-Congo. Ana amfani da Harshen Ewe a kasashe kamar Ghana, Togo da Benin tare da alamar harshen a Yammacin Najeriya.

Dagbani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dagbani na ɗaya daga cikin yarukan Gur. Ya kasance daga babbar ƙabilar Mole-Dagbani da aka samo a ƙasashen Ghana da Burkina Faso. Dagombas ne ke magana da shi a yankin Arewacin Ghana.

Dangme[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangme ɗayan yare ne na Ga – Dangme a cikin reshen Kwa. Ana magana da shi a Greater Accra, a kudu maso gabashin Ghana da Togo.

Dagaare[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dagaare wani yare ne na Gur. Ana magana da shi a cikin Yankin Yammacin Ghana. Ana kuma magana da shi a Burkina Faso.

Ga[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ga shine sauran harshen Ga – Dangme a cikin reshen Kwa. Ana magana da Ga a kudu maso gabashin Ghana, a ciki da kewayen babban birnin Accra.

Nzema[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nzema ɗayan yarukan Bia ne, suna da kusanci da Akan. Mutanen Nzema ne ke magana da shi a Yankin Yammacin Ghana. Ana kuma magana da shi a cikin Ivory Coast.

Kasem[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasem yare ne na Gurunsi, a cikin reshen Gur. Ana magana da shi a cikin Yankin Gabashin Gabas na Ghana. Ana kuma magana da shi a Burkina Faso.

Gonja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gonja ɗayan yare ne na Guang, ɓangare na yarukan Tano a cikin reshen Kwa tare da Akan da Bia. Ana magana da shi a Yankin Arewacin Ghana da Wa.

Yaren da ake magana a Ghana ta yawan masu magana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan jadawalin yana nuna bayanan da aka bayar ta Ethnologue.

Fita Harshe Masu iya magana
1 Turanci 9,800,000
2 Akan(Fante/Twi) 9,100,000
3 Turanci Pidgin na Ghana 5,000,000
4 Ewe 3,820,000
5 Abron 1,170,000
6 Dagbani 1,160,000
7 Dangme 1,020,000
8 Dagaare 924,000
9 Kokomba 831,000
10 Ga 745,000
11 Farefare 638,000
12 Kusaal 535,000
13 Mampruli 316,000
14 Gonja 310,000
15 Sehwi 305,000
16 Nzema 299,000
17 Wasa 273,000
18 Sisaala, Tumulung 219,000
19 Sisaala, Western 219,000
20 Bimoba 176,000
21 Ahanta 175,000
22 Ntcham 169,000
23 Buli 168,000
24 Bisa 166,000
25 Kasem 149,000
26 Tem 134,000
27 Cherepon 132,000
28 Birifor, Southern 125,000
29 Anufo 91,300
30 Wali 84,800
31 Larteh 74,000
32 Siwu 71,900
33 Chumburung 69,000
34 Anyin 66,400
35 Nafaanra 61,000
36 Krache 58,000
37 Lelemi 48,900
38 Deg 42,900
39 Paasaal 36,000
40 Kabre, (harshe kabre) 35,642
41 Avatime 27,200
42 Kulango, Bondoukou 27,000
43 Sekpele 23,000
44 Delo 18,400
45 Jwira-Pepesa 18,000
46 Gua 17,600
47 Tampulma 16,000
48 Kulango, Bouna 15,500
49 Ligbi 15,000
50 Nawuri 14,000
51 Vagla 13,900
52 Tuwuli 11,400
53 Selee 11,300
54 Adele 11,000
55 Nkonya 11,000
56 Gikyode 10,400
57 Dwang 8,200
58 Akposo 7,500
59 Logba 7,500
60 Nkami 7,000
61 Hanga 6,800
62 Nyangbo 6,400
63 Chakali 6,000
64 Harshen Kurame na Ghana 6,000
65 Safaliba 5,000
66 Tafi 4,400
67 Fulfulde, Maasina 4,240
68 Adangbe/Dangbe 4,000
69 Konni 3,800
70 Adamorobe yaren kurame 3,500
71 Chala 3,000
72 Kamara 3,000
73 Kantosi 2,300
74 Kusuntu 2,100
75 Nchumbulu 1,800
76 Kplang 1,600
77 Dompo 970
78 Animere 700
79 Hausa ba bayyananne ba
80 Lama ba bayyananne ba
81 Nawdm ba bayyananne ba

Tsarin harshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yaren Ghana na cikin rassa masu zuwa a cikin dangin harsunan Nijar – Congo:

  • Harsunan Kwa (Akan, Bia, Guang in Tano; Ga da Adangme)
  • Harsunan Gbe (Ewe)
  • Harsunan Gur (Gurunsi, Dagbani, Mossi, Dagaare, and Frafra a cikin Oti–Volta)
  • Harsunan Senufo (Nafaanra)
  • Harsunan Kulango
  • Harsunan Mande (Wangara, Ligbi)

Tsoffin rabe-raben na iya maye gurbin su kamar Kwa, Gur, da Mande.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]