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Yayyama harshe

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Yayyama harshe
'Yan asalin magana
47,600 (2000)
Japanese writing system (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 rys
Glottolog yaey1239[1]

Harshen Yaeyama (八重山物言/ヤイマムニ, Yaimamuni) yare ne na Kudancin Ryukyuan da ake magana a Tsibirin Yaeyama, tsibirin tsibirin da ke kudu a Japan, tare da jimillar yawan jama'a kusan 53,000. Tsibirin Yaeyama suna cikin Tsibirin Ryukyu na Kudancin, kudu maso yammacin Tsibirin Miyako da gabashin Taiwan. Yaeyama (Yaimamunii) yana da alaƙa da Miyako. Ba a san adadin masu magana da harshen Jafananci ba; sakamakon manufofin harshen Jafanci wanda ke nufin yaren a matsayin Yaren Yaeyama (八重山方言, Yaeyama hōgen), wanda aka nuna a cikin tsarin ilimi, mutanen da ke ƙasa da shekaru 60 ba sa amfani da yaren sai dai a cikin waƙoƙi da al'ada, kuma ƙarni na musamman suna amfani da Jafananci a matsayin yarensu na farko. Idan aka kwatanta da Kokugo, na Jafananci, ko yaren ƙasa Jafananci. Wasu yarukan Ryukyuan kamar Okinawan da Amami an kuma kira su yarukan Jafananci . lura da Yaeyama kamar yadda yake da ƙananan "ƙarfiyar harshe" tsakanin makwabta na yarukan Ryukyuan

Ana magana da Yaeyama a cikin Ishigaki, Taketomi, Kohama, Kuroshima, Hatoma, Aragusuku, Iriomote da Hateruma, tare da rikitarwa na fahimtar juna tsakanin yaruka sakamakon babban yankin tsibirin Yaeyama. Maganar Tsibirin Yonaguni, yayin da yake da alaƙa, yawanci ana ɗaukarsa yare ne daban. Yaren Taketomi iya zama harshen Ryukyuan na Arewa wanda ya zama gama gari ga yarukan Okinawan waɗanda daga baya suka haɗu da sauran yarukan Yaeyama.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harshen Ryukyuan rabu da Proto-Japonic lokacin da masu magana da shi suka yi ƙaura zuwa Tsibirin Ryukyu . Ryukyuan sun rabu [2] Proto-Japonic a cikin shekaru 2,000 da suka gabata, kodayake kimantawa suna ba da lokuta daban-daban daga 2 KZ zuwa 800 AZ. [1] [2]

An rarraba harsunan Yaeyaman a ƙarƙashin reshen Macro-Yaeyama na harsunan Southern Ryukyuan. S a cikin yarukan Ryukyuan na Kudancin, raba iyalan yaren Macro-Yaeyama da Miyako, sun haɗa da "canjin da ba daidai ba daga sautin aji B zuwa A a cikin 'yawanci' da kuma nau'i na musamman don 'gidan lambu'". Abubuwan kirkire-kirkire Macro-Yaeyama, haɗa harsunan Yaeyama da Dunan suna dauke da "grammaticalization na 'sanin' a matsayin mai taimakawa", kamanceceniya tsakanin siffofi na musamman da yawa kamar "bud", "farin ciki", "sabon", da "dirt", da kuma haɗin ma'anar "ɗan'uwa" don nufin ko dai "ɗan' yarinya". Yaren Yaeyaman sun bambanta Dunan ta hanyar sababbin abubuwa game da maye gurbin aikatau "sayarwa" tare da nau'in "saya", nau'i na musamman na "sanya rigar", da kuma canjin "*g>n" a cikin 'beard'.

Wasu daga cikin furcin da suka ɓace daga Jafananci a cikin karni na 8, a lokacin Nara na Japan, har yanzu ana iya samun su a cikin yarukan Yaeyama. Ɗaya daga cikin misalai shine sautin "p" na farko, wanda a cikin Jafananci ya zama "h", yayin da ya kasance "p" a Yaeyama, ban da "pu", wanda ya zama "fu" a Yaoyama.

Farko na Jafananci Jafananci na zamani Yaeyama
"Ciki" *don don Hara ya fito
"Bwato" *punay fune funi
"Dove" *Kwallon ƙafa hato Fatu

Duk da yake yaren Yaeyama ya fi "mai ra'ayin mazan jiya" a wasu fannoni, a ma'anar adana wasu furcin, a wasu fannonin ya fi sababbin abubuwa. Misali daya shine tsarin wasali. Tsohon Jafananci yana da wasula takwas (wasu watakila diphthongs); an rage wannan zuwa biyar a cikin Jafananci na zamani, amma a Yaeyaman, rage wasula ya ci gaba, zuwa wasula uku. Gabaɗaya, lokacin da Jafananci na zamani ke da "e", dangin Yaeyama zai sami "i" (an ga wannan a cikin "funi" a sama); kuma inda Jafananci ya zamani ke da ""o", dangin yaeyama zai kasance da "u" (kamar yadda aka gani a cikin "patu" a sama).

Farko na Jafananci Jafananci na zamani Yaeyama
"Abin da ya faru" *Yana da Dabbobin da aka yi amfani da su Sai dai
"Ya'yan itace" *tanay Tafiya ramin
"Fitarwa" *pansimay Hajji zaman lafiya

Koyaya, a cikin lokuta inda Proto-Japonic ke da *e, *əy, ko *o wanda ba kalma ce ta ƙarshe ba, Jafananci ba ta da mazan jiya fiye da Yaeyama a wannan batun, kamar yadda duka biyun sun sami sautin iri ɗaya a matakai daban-daban, kamar yadda aka nuna a ƙasa:

Farko na Jafananci Jafananci na zamani Yaeyama
"Ruwa" *Sakamako mizu Mizï
"Tare" *Kamarka ki
"Alkama" *monki Muguji mun

Kamar dukkan harsunan Southern Ryukyuan, Yaeyama yana nuna kalmar "b" da farko idan aka kwatanta da Jafananci "w". Wannan watakila an yi imanin cewa sabon abu ne daga "w" na baya. Wannan kuma ya haɗa da ƙididdigar Jafananci waɗanda suka taɓa samun "w" na farko amma an sauke su daga baya a cikin tarihin yaren, kamar "wodori" > "odori".

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yayyama harshe". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Empty citation (help)