Harshen Japan

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Harshen Japan
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Glottolog nucl1643[1]
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Harshen Japan ko Yaren Japan da turanci kuma Japanese (Yamoto) (日本語 Nihongo, (ɲihoŋɡo) ([ɲihoŋŋo]) shi ne yare ko harshen da mutanen gabashin Asiya ke amfani da shi, wadanda adadinsu sunkai kusan mutane miliyan 128, an fi amfani da harshen a Kasar Japan a yanzu, a inda harshen shi ne harshen da ake amfani da shi a Kasar. Harshen na daya daga cikin harsunan da ake kira da Japonic (ko kuma Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, kuma yana da dangantaka da wasu yaruka kamar, Korean. An dai danganta harshen da harsuna kamar, Ainu, Austroasiatic, da Altaic. Harfofin Rubutun Harshen Haruffan Sin (kanji) Kana (hiraganakatakana) Japanese Braille. Harshen Japan bashi da wata alaka da harshen Sin wato Chinese language,[2] Amma dai yana amfani da haruffan kalmomin Harshen Sin, ko Nihongo wato (kanji 漢字) a cikin rubutun ta, kuma mafi yawan kalmomin harshen suna daga harshen Sin din ne. Tareda kanji harufan rubutun harshen Japan. Harshen na amfani da silabul biyu na Mora (linguistics) A rubuce, Nihongo hiragana (ひらがな ko 平仮名) da kuma Nihongo katakana (カタカナ or 片仮名). Harshen na amfani da rubutun Latin a wasu wurare da kuma Lambobin na harshen wato Japanese numerals sun fi yawa ne daga Lambobin larabci wato Arabic numerals tare da na harshen Sin chinese numerals.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabanin Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani dadadden harshen da harshen Ryukyuan or dialects ana ganin ya zo kasar Japan ta hannun mazauna wadanda suka zo daga continental Asia ko kusa da tsibirin Pacific wani lokaci a farkon mid-2nd century BC (the Yayoi period), Wanda yamaye asalin harshen mutanen Jōmon,[3] tare da da dadadden harshen Ainu. Wanda labari kadan ne aka samo a kan Yanjapan din Lokacin. Saboda rubutu kamar "Kanji" wanda ya shige cikin "Hiragana" da "Katakana" daga baya[2] a Lokacin baizo nan ba daga China, babu cikakken shaida, da wani abu dazai nuna japanese ta kafu ne daga masa hadaddiyar tsohuwar Old Japanese.

Tsohon Harshen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Page from the Man'yōshū
A page from the Man'yōshū, dadaadden anthology akan classical Japanese poetry

Tsohon Japanese shi ne kawai abin da aka tabbatar daga cikin harshen Japanese. Da yaduwar Buddhism, sai aka shigo da rubutun China zuwa Japan. Farkon rubututtukan da aka samu a Japan an yi su ne ta Classical Chinese, amma an dauke su ne a matsayin Japanese daga yana yin kanbun. Wasu cikin rubutun Chinese sun nuna tagomashin Japanese grammar, kamar yadda Jerin kalmomin suke (for example, placing the verb after the object). In these hybrid texts, Chinese characters are also occasionally used phonetically to represent Japanese particles. Rubutu na fari Kojiki, ansamo sa ne tun a Karni 8th, kuma dukkanin rubutun a Chinese characters yake. Karshen Old Japanese yahadu ne tareda Nara period a 794. Old Japanese na amfani da Man'yōgana yanayin rubutun, dake amfani da kanji domin phonetic da semantic values. Based on the Man'yōgana system, Old Japanese can be reconstructed as having 88 distinct syllables. Texts written with Man'yōgana use two different kanji for each of the syllables now pronounced (lang|ja|き ki, ひ hi, み mi, け ke, へ he, め me, こ ko, そ so, と to, の no, も mo, よ yo and ろ ro).[4] ( Kojiki Nada kalmomi 88, amma daga baya 87. Babban cin dake tsakanin mo1 and mo2 ya bata bayan samun composition dinsq.) Wadannan jerin syllables sun dawo zuwa 67 a farkon Middle Japanese, dukda wasu ansanya sune ta Chinese influence.

Dan samun karin syllables an hypothesized cewar Old Japanese's vowel system yafi yawa akan Japanese din zamani – dake kunshe da kusan eight vowels. A cewar Shinkichi Hashimoto, the extra syllables in Man'yōgana yaZone ta samun babban cin acikin vowels of the syllables in question.[5] wadannan ban bancin ne suka nuna Old Japanese nada eight-vowel system,[6] in contrast to the five vowels of later Japanese. The vowel system would have to have shrunk some time between these texts and the invention of the kana (hiragana and katakana) in the early 9th century. According to this view, the eight-vowel system of ancient Japanese would resemble that of the Uralic and Altaic language families.[7] However, it is not fully certain that the alternation between syllables necessarily reflects a difference in the vowels rather than the consonants – at the moment, the only undisputed fact is that they are different syllables. A newer reconstruction of ancient Japanese shows strikingly similarities with Southeast-Asian languages, especially with Austronesian languages.[8]

Tsohuwar Japanese baida (IPA|/h/), amma akwai (IPA|/ɸ/) (Wanda aka taskance a fu, (IPA|/ɸɯ/)), Wanda aka Samar dashi daga *(IPA|/p/). Man'yōgana also has a symbol for (IPA|/je/), da yahade da (IPA|/e/) kafin karshen lokutan.

Saboda fossilizations na Old Japanese grammatical elements an cigaba da Samun su a sauran harsunan – the genitive particle tsu (superseded by modern no) akwai su a Kalma kamar matsuge ("eyelash", lit. "hair of the eye"); sabuwar Kalmar mieru ("to be visible") da kikoeru ("to be audible") sun cigaba da abinda aka sansa da mediopassive suffix -yu(ru) (kikoyukikoyuru (the attributive form, which slowly replaced the plain form starting in the late Heian period) > kikoeru (as all shimo-nidan verbs in modern Japanese did)); and the genitive particle ga remains in intentionally archaic speech.

Farkon Samuwar Harshen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Two pages from Genji Monogatari emaki scroll
Two pages from a 12th-century emaki scroll of The Tale of Genji from the 11th century

Farkon Lokaci matsakaici na Japanese shine Japanawan Lokacin Heian, na daga 794 zuwa 1185. Farkon Middle Japanese ya gamu da significant amount of Chinese influence on the language's phonology – length distinctions become phonemic for both consonants and vowels, and series of both labialised (e.g. kwa) and palatalised (kya) consonants are added, Intervocalic (IPA|/ɸ/) tahade da (IPA|/w/) daga Karni na 11th. Karshen farkon Middle Japanese yagamu da beginning of a shift where the attributive form (Japanese rentaikei) da kadan kasan ya canja zuwa (shūshikei) na verb classes din dake da biyu ma banbanta.

Bayan Samuwar Harshen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A karshen matsakaicin zamanin Japanese yafaru ne daga 1185 zuwa 1600, kuma anraba sane zuwa sashe biyu, Wanda aka kiyasta da daidai Lokacin Kamakura da kuma Lokacin Muromachi, kamar yadda sukazo. Na karshen da aka samu na irin Middle Japanese sune na first to be described by non-native sources, in this case the Jesuit da Franciscan missionaries; and thus there is better documentation of Late Middle Japanese phonology than for previous forms (for instance, the Arte da Lingoa de Iapam). Among other sound changes, the sequence (IPA|/au/) merges to (IPA|/ɔː/), in contrast with (IPA|/oː/); (IPA|/p/) ansake shigar dasu daga Chinese; da (IPA|/we/) yahade da (IPA|/je/). Some forms rather more familiar to Modern Japanese speakers begin to appear – the continuative ending -te begins to reduce onto the verb (e.g. yonde for earlier yomite), the -k- in the final syllable of adjectives drops out (shiroi for earlier shiroki); akwai wasu a modern standard Japanese dasuka cigaba da rike asalin su (e.g. hayaku > hayau > hayɔɔ, inda modern Japanese just has hayaku, dukda Wanda ake amfani dashi amadadinsa a kiyayeshi a cikin gaisuwan garin o-hayō gozaimasu "good morning"; this ending is also seen in o-medetō "congratulations", from medetaku).

Karshen Middle Japanese nadauke da loanwords na farko daga wasu harsunan turai – now-common words borrowed into Japanese a wannan Lokacin yahada da pan ("bread") and tabako ("tobacco", now "cigarette"), duk daga Portuguese.

Farkon Harshen na Zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon harshen zamani na Japanese, Nada banbanci tsakanin Modern Japanese, shine dialect akai amfani dashi bayan Meiji Restoration. Saboda harsunan nada matukar kamanni, farkon Modern Japanese anfi danganta shi da Modern Japanese.farkon Modern Japanese da kadan kadan ya canja zuwa Modern Japanese Lokacin Karni 19th. Kawai bayan 1945, jim kadan bayan Yakin Duniya II, sai Modern Japanese yazamanto standard language, inda aka fara amfani dashi a kasar.[9] A wannan Lokacin da muke ciki Japanese da amfani da Katakana da kuma Hiragana har wayau suna amfani da traditional Chinese characters da akekira da "Han" wanda ya canja zuwa "Kanji" wanda shine irin rubutun da ake amfani dashi Dan express ideas a harsunan Japanese da Chinese.[10]

Harshen na Zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harshen Japan na zamani ana ganin yafara ne tareda Lokcin Edo, Wanda yadauki tsawon shekaru tun daga 1603 har zuwa 1868. Tun Old Japanese, the de facto standard Japanese shine Kansai dialect, musamman ma Kyoto. A yayin Lokacin Edo, Edo (itace Tokyo ayanzu) yazama wani babban birni a Japan, sannan kuma Edo-area dialect yazama standard Japanese. Tun karshen Japan's self-imposed isolation a 1853, samun shigowar loanwords daga Harsunan yarukan turai yakaru matuka. Lokacin tun daga 1945 ansamu mafi yawan kalmomin da aka aro daga wasu harsunan, kamar su Jamusanci, Portuguese da Turanci.[11] Yawancin English loan words musamman dangantaka da fasaha, Misali pasokon (kintsen dake nufin "personal computer"), intānetto ("internet"), da kamera ("camera"). Saboda yawan da English loanwords keda shi, modern Japanese has developed a distinction between (IPA|/tɕi/) da (IPA|/ti/), da (IPA|/dʑi/) da kuma (IPA|/di/), wanda ana karshen kowannen su ake samunsa acikin loanwords.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "{{{name}}}". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Deal, William E. (2005). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Infobase Publishing. p. 242. ISBN 0816074852. "Japanese has no genetic affiliation with Chinese, but neither does it have any clear affiliation with any other language." 
  3. Wade, Nicholas (4 May 2011). "Finding on Dialects Casts New Light on the Origins of the Japanese People". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  4. Shinkichi Hashimoto (February 3, 1918)「国語仮名遣研究史上の一発見―石塚龍麿の仮名遣奥山路について」『帝国文学』26–11(1949)『文字及び仮名遣の研究(橋本進吉博士著作集 第3冊)』(岩波書店)。
  5. 大野 晋 (1953)『上代仮名遣の研究』(岩波書店) p.126
  6. 大野 晋 (1982)『仮名遣いと上代語』(岩波書店) p.65
  7. 有坂 秀世 (1931)「国語にあらはれる一種の母音交替について」『音声の研究』第4輯(1957年の『国語音韻史の研究 増補新版』(三省堂)
  8. Alexander, Vovin,. "Proto-Japanese beyond the accent system". Current Issues in Linguistic Theory (in English). 
  9. Coulmas, Florian (1989). Language Adaptation. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p. 107. ISBN 0-521-36255-5. 
  10. SCHUESSLER, KARLGREN (2009). Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese : A Companion to Grammata Serica Recensa. Honolulu: Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824832643. 
  11. Miura, Akira, English in Japanese, Weatherhill, 1998.