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'Yancin aikin Jarida a Eritrea

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'Yancin aikin Jarida a Eritrea
Bayanai
Ƙasa Eritrea
Wuri na Eritrea

Ko da yake kundin tsarin mulkin kasar Eritiriya ya ba da tabbacin ‘yancin fadin albarkacin baki da yada labarai, amma an sanya Eritrea a matsayin daya daga cikin kasashen da suka fi muni ta fuskar ‘yancin ‘yan jarida.[1] A shekarar 2004, 'Yan jaridu a Eritrea a karkashin gwamnatin Isaias Afwerki sun kasance cikin kulawa sosai. [2]

(Matsayin doka)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Eritriya ta zartar da wasu dokoki don takaita 'yancin 'yan jarida a kasarta. A shekara ta 1996, an kafa wata doka ta hana watsa shirye-shiryen watsa labarai da 'yan jarida, wadanda a yanzu suna bukatar lasisi don samun damar yin aiki. A shekarar 2001, an dakatar da duk kafofin watsa labarai masu zaman kansu, [3] barin kafofin watsa labarai na gwamnati a matsayin madadin kawai. Bugu da ƙari, a cikin iyakoki, "dole ne a gabatar da littattafan watsa labarai don amincewar gwamnati kafin a fito da su" a cewar Freedom House.[4]

Tun daga 2001, an kama 'yan jarida da dama ba tare da wani tuhuma ba a cewar kwamitin kare 'yan jarida (CPJ), ciki har da 'yan jarida 17 da aka daure a Eritriya tun daga ranar 1 ga watan Disamba 2015. Daga cikin dauri na baya-bayan nan, a shekarar 2011 an kama wasu 'yan jarida hudu [5] da ke aiki a gidan rediyo da talabijin na gwamnati (Dimtsi Hafash) tare da daure su. Babu wani bayani kan yanayin wadanda aka daure; da yawa ana jin sun mutu tun daga lokacin, duk da cewa a kowane hali babu tabbaci. A cikin 2014, lauyoyi sun yi ƙoƙari su matsa wa kotunan Sweden don bincika laifukan cin zarafin bil adama, azabtarwa, da kuma sace mutane, saboda daure dan jaridar Sweden-Eritrea Dawit Isaak a cewar kwamitin kare jarida. Hukumomin Eritrea sun ki ba da hadin kai kuma an rufe karar. Yayin da ake samun rahotannin cewa Isaak ya mutu a tsare a shekarar 2011, ba a tabbatar da hakan ba, wasu rahotanni kuma na cewa mai yiwuwa yana raye a shekarar 2015.

Matsayin siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shugaban kasar Eritrea Isaias Afwerki a shekarar 2002

Yawancin 'yan jarida sun tsere daga Eritrea saboda tursasawa da dauri ba bisa ka'ida ba. Bugu da ƙari, ƴan jaridan da suka ci gaba da biyayya da kuma shiga cikin ayyukan tantance kansu. Duk da haka, a shekarar 2013, ƙungiyar masu adawa ta fara ƙirƙira da yaɗa wata jarida ta ƙasa, Echoes of Forto, a Asmara. Tawagar da ke ciki da wajen kasar ce ta rubuta jaridar. Kungiyar da ke da sabanin ra'ayi ta bayyana takardar a matsayin aikin gwaji, kuma tana fatan fadada ta.

Rediyo Erena, wanda masu fafutuka na Eritrea da kuma Reporters Without Borders daga Paris ke gudanarwa, an kaddamar da su a shekara ta 2009. Ana iya shiga ta hanyar intanet, tauraron dan adam, da dandalin “kira-da-saurara”. Duk da cewa kasar Eritriya tana daya daga cikin kasashe mafi karancin kutse a intanet a duniya, kusan kashi 1 cikin dari, har yanzu gwamnati na kokarin toshe gidajen yanar gizo da dama da 'yan gudun hijirar Eritriya ke gudanarwa. An yi imanin cewa hukumomi na sa ido kan hanyoyin sadarwa ta imel kuma wasu masu amfani da su suna zargin cewa masu ba da labari na gwamnati suna bin diddigin ayyukan masu amfani a wuraren shan intanet.

Tun daga shekara ta 2004, ba a yarda da 'yan jarida na kasashen waje a Eritrea sai dai idan sun kasance a shirye su ba da rahoto mai kyau game da kasar da siyasarta.

'Yan jarida da dama sun shiga kasar a boye kuma a lokuta da dama shugaban Eritiriya ya amince da yin hira da gidajen talabijin kamar Al-Jazeera ko Sweden TV. Sai dai a shekara ta 2013, gwamnatin Eritiriya ta hana tashar Aljazeera na tsawon makwanni biyu, saboda yadda ta yi ta yada zanga-zangar da aka yi a gaban ofisoshin jakadancin kasar a garuruwa daban-daban kamar London, Rome, da Stockholm.

Abubuwa na sirri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Biyo bayan dokokin da aka zartar na tace kafafen yada labarai da jaridu, an tsare ‘yan jarida da dama tun shekara ta 2001.

Dawit Habtemichael[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dawit malami ne kuma ɗan jarida wanda aka daure a gidan yari ba tare da wani tuhuma ba a shekarar 2001. [6] Tsoffin abokan aikinsa a jaridar Echo sun dauke shi a matsayin mai hazaka, mai tsauri da kwazon aiki. Ya kafa wata jarida mai zaman kanta, Meqaleh, inda ya rubuta labarai masu mahimmanci a cikin littafinsa na yau da kullum. Ba da daɗewa ba ‘yan sanda suka tsare shi a makarantar da yake aiki. A cewar kungiyar Reporters Without Borders, Dawit ya mutu a gidan yari a shekarar 2010 tare da editan mujallar Matios Habteab. [7]

Dawit Isaak[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dawit Isaak ɗan jaridar Sweden ne kuma marubuci ɗan ƙasar Sweden wanda gwamnatin Eritiriya ta ɗaure a gidan yari a shekara ta 2001 ba tare da shari'a ba. Aikinsa na farko a Eritriya shi ne wakilin jaridar Setit na farko a kasar.

An kama shi ne a gidansa da ke birnin Asmara. A cikin Afrilu 2002, CPJ ta ba da rahoton cewa dole ne a kwantar da Dawit a asibiti saboda azabtarwa. A watan Nuwamba 2005 aka sake shi daga gidan yari, amma bayan kwana biyu aka sake daure shi. An sha yada jita-jitar mutuwar tasa, amma ba a san ko yana raye ko ya rasu ba.[8]

Fessayah "Joshua" Yohannes[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mawaki ne, mai wasan circus kuma marubucin labari. A cewar Aaron Berhane, an san Yohannes a matsayin mutum mai son zuciya, abokantaka da rikon amana. Tare da wasu editocin Eritrea, an kama Yohannes a ranar 23 ga watan Satumba, 2001, a gidansa. Akwai bayanan da ke cewa ya rasu a shekarar 2006 ko 2007, saboda matsalolin lafiya.

Idris Abu'Are[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Idris Abu'Are ya kasance hamshakin mai ra'ayin mazan jiya wanda yake karantawa jama'a da karatuttukan karawa juna sani kan tarihin 'yancin kai na Eritriya. Bayan shekarar 1991, Abu'Are ya yi aiki a Ma'aikatar Harkokin Waje kuma yana ba da gudummawa akai-akai ga jaridar Eritrea al-Haditha ta gwamnati.

Idris ya yi suka sosai a ma’aikatar, kuma daga baya ya yi aiki da jaridar Tsigenay kuma ya buga tarin gajerun labarai a shekarar 1992. Koyaya, gwamnati ta sanya shi baƙar fata saboda ra'ayinsa kuma an kama shi a cikin Oktoba 2001. Yana da aure yana da 'ya daya kuma ya ci gaba da zama a gidan yari.

Yirgalem Fisseha Mebrahtu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ranar 9 ga watan Fabrairu, 2009, an kama Yirgalem Fisseha Mebrahtu tare da wasu mutane kusan 30 a ginin gidan rediyon; Ita kadai ce mace a cikin wadanda aka kama.[9] [10] An zarge ta da cewa tana da alaka da kafafen yada labaran kasashen waje; wasu tuhume-tuhumen da ake zargin sun hada da yunkurin kashe shugaban kasa da kuma bata ‘yan siyasa.[11] Ta shafe shekaru biyu na farko a gidan yari a gidan yarin Mai Swra, inda ita ma aka azabtar da ita.[12][13]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "2018 World Press Freedom Index" . rsf.org . Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  2. "Joint letter to the president of Eritrea - Committee to Protect Journalists" . cpj.org . Archived from the original on 2013-07-07. Retrieved 2017-11-16.Empty citation (help)
  3. "Attacks on the Press 2001: Eritrea - Committee to Protect Journalists" . cpj.org . Retrieved 2017-11-16.
  4. "Eritrea" . freedomhouse.org . Retrieved 2017-11-16.
  5. "CPJ confirms that four more journalists are in prison- Committee to Protect Journalists" . cpj.org . Retrieved 2017-11-16.
  6. "Dawit Habtemichael - Tag Results" . cpj.org . Retrieved 2017-11-16.
  7. "PEN Eritrea: 'If We Don't Give Them a Voice, No One Will'". PEN South Africa. 2015-08-20. Retrieved 2017-11-17."PEN Eritrea: 'If We Don't Give Them a Voice, No One Will' " . PEN South Africa . 2015-08-20. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  8. "Sources: Swedish journalist died in Eritrean prisons" (in Norwegian). vg.no. Associated Press. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
  9. Schriever, Julia. "München: Die Freiheit, zu sagen, was ist" . Süddeutsche.de (in German). Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  10. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Report Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate by the Department of State in Accordance with Sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended . U.S. Government Printing Office. 2010.
  11. "Yirgalem Fisseha Mebrahtu" . Fritz Bauer Forum (in German). Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  12. "Yirgalem Fisseha Mebrahtu | Deutscher Kulturrat" (in German). Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  13. "Noch immer am Leben" . www.falter.at . Retrieved 2022-11-11.