Ƴancin Lafiya

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgƳancin Lafiya
economic, social and cultural rights (en) Fassara
Rally for the Right to Health in Pakistan (15425333409).jpg
Masu zanga-zangar neman 'Yancin Lafiya a Pakistan

'Yancin lafiya shine haƙƙin tattalin arziki, zamantakewar al'umma, da al'adu don mafi ƙarancin ƙimar kiwon lafiya wanda kowa ke da haƙƙi. An tsara ma'anar haƙƙin lafiya a cikin yarjejeniyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa waɗanda suka haɗa da Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam, Yarjejeniyar tattalin arziƙi, tattalin arziki da al'adu, da yarjejeniyar kan Hakkokin Nakasassu. Akwai muhawara kan fassara da aiki da haƙƙin kiwon lafiya saboda la'akari kamar yadda aka ayyana lafiya, waɗanne ƙananan haƙƙoƙi ke ƙunshe cikin haƙƙin lafiya, da kuma waɗanne cibiyoyi ke da alhakin tabbatar da haƙƙin kiwon lafiya.

Ma'anona[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin Mulki na Kungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya (1946)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabatarwar tsarin mulki na hukumar lafiya ta duniya ta 1946 (WHO) ta ayyana kiwon lafiya a matsayin "yanayi na cikakkiyar lafiyar jiki, ta tunani da zamantakewarmu ba kawai rashin cuta ko rashin lafiya ba." Kundin tsarin mulki ya ayyana 'yancin kiwon lafiya a matsayin "jin dadin mafi girman matsayin kiwon lafiya," kuma ya fitar da wasu ka'idoji na wannan' yancin a matsayin ci gaban yaro mai lafiya; daidaita yaddar ilimin likitanci da fa'idodin sa; da matakan zamantakewar da gwamnati ta bayar don tabbatar da isasshen lafiya.

Frank P. Grad ya yaba wa Kundin tsarin mulki na (WHO) a matsayin "mai da'awar cikakken yankin na lafiyar jama'a na duniya a wannan zamani," kafa hakkin lafiya a matsayin "muhimmiyar, 'yancin dan Adam da ba za'a iya sokewa ba" wanda gwamnatoci ba za su iya zubar da ciki ba, kuma ya zama wajibi su kiyaye da goyi bayan. Tsarin Mulki na (WHO), musamman, ya nuna farkon ƙaddamar da haƙƙin lafiya a cikin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa.

Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam (1948)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu fafutuka a Romania sun kirkiro "25" ta amfani da lema, wanda yake nuni ga Mataki na 25 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam na Duniya

Mataki na 25 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Yarjejeniyar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta 1948 ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ce "Kowa na da yancin yin rayuwa irin ta rayuwa da ta dace da lafiyar sa da ta dangin sa, da suka hada da abinci, suttura, gidaje da kula da lafiya da ayyukan zamantakewar da ake bukata. "Sanarwar ta Duniya tana yin ƙarin masauki don tsaro idan larura ta jiki ko tawaya, kuma ta ambaci kulawa ta musamman ga waɗanda suke cikin uwa ko yara.

An bayyana Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam a matsayin sanarwa ta farko ta kasa da kasa game da yancin ɗan Adam, duka 'yanci da haƙƙoƙin ɗaya. Babban Kwamishinan ajalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) na Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam Navanethem Pillay ya rubuta cewa Sanarwar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Duniya "ta gabatar da hangen nesa da ke bukatar daukar dukkan hakkokin bil'adama - na farar hula, siyasa, tattalin arziki, zamantakewa, ko al'adu a matsayin wanda ba za a iya raba shi ba kuma kwayoyin halitta gaba daya, ba za a iya rabuwa da juna ba." Hakanan, Gruskin yayi: jayayya cewa yanayin haƙƙin da aka bayyana a cikin sanarwar ta Duniya ya kafa" alhaki wanda ya wuce samar da muhimman ayyukan kiwon lafiya don magance masu ƙayyade lafiyar kamar, samar da isasshen ilimi, gidaje, abinci, da yanayin aiki mai kyau, "yana cigaba da bayyana cewa waɗannan tanade-tanaden" haƙƙin ɗan Adam ne da kansu kuma suna da muhimmanci ga lafiyar jiki."

Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan Kawar da Duk nau'ikan Nuna Bambancin launin fata (1965)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiwon lafiya ya yi magana a takaice a Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) kan Kawar da Duk nau'ikan nuna wariyar launin fata ko jinsi, wanda aka amince da shi a 1965 kuma ya fara aiki a 1969. Yarjejeniyar ta yi kira ga kasashe da "Haramtawa da kuma kawar da wariyar launin fata ta kowane fanni da kuma tabbatar da 'yancin kowa, ba tare da nuna bambancin launin fata, launin fata, ko asalin ƙasa ko kabila ba, zuwa daidaito a gaban doka," da kuma nassoshi a ƙarƙashin wannan tanadi "'Yancin lafiyar jama'a, kiwon lafiya, tsaro da zamantakewar jama'a".

Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu (1966)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jihohin da ke cikin Yarjejeniyar kan Hakkokin Yaro. 

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) ta kara bayyana hakkin lafiya a cikin labari na 12 na Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'yancin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu, wacce ta ce:

Janar Magana A'a 14 (2000)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 2000, kwamitin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) kan 'Yancin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da Al'adu ya ba da babban Sharhi mai lamba 14, wanda ke magana kan "batutuwan da suka taso game da aiwatar da yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan tattalin Arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu" game da mataki na 12 da " 'yancin samun mafi girman matsayin kiwon lafiya." Janar Sharhi yana ba da ƙarin bayyane, yaren aiki kan 'yanci da haƙƙoƙin da aka haɗa ƙarƙashin haƙƙin lafiyar.

Janar Sharhi yayi bayani kai tsaye cewa "'yancin lafiyar ba za a fahimta a matsayin ' yancin samun lafiya." Madadin haka, an bayyana haƙƙin kiwon lafiya a matsayin saƙo na duka 'yanci da haƙƙoƙin da suka dace da yanayin rayuwar mutum da zamantakewar sa da kuma wadatattun abubuwan Jiha, duka biyun na iya hana haƙƙin zama lafiya saboda dalilai fiye da tasiri ko kulawar Jihar. Mataki na 12 na aiki ga Jiha tare da fahimtar cewa kowane mutum yana da haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin lafiya mafi kyau, kuma ya ba da (aƙalla wani ɓangare) '' yanci daga 'da' haƙƙoƙin zuwa 'waɗanda ke tare da wannan haƙƙin; duk da haka, baya cajin Jiha da tabbatar da cewa dukkan mutane, a zahiri, suna da cikakkiyar ƙoshin lafiya, kuma ba dukkan mutane sun sami cikakken amincewa da haƙƙoƙi da damar da aka lissafa a cikin haƙƙin lafiyar ba.

Alaka da Sauran Hakkoki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamar Sanarwar ta Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam, Babban Magana yana bayyana yanayin dangantakar yancin ɗan Adam, yana mai cewa, "haƙƙin lafiya yana da alaƙa ta kut-da-kut da dogaro da fahimtar wasu haƙƙoƙin ɗan Adam," don haka ya nuna mahimmancin cigaba a cikin sauran hakkoki kamar na haƙƙin abinci, aiki, gidaje, rayuwa, rashin nuna wariya, mutuncin ɗan Adam, da samun muhimmancin, tsakanin waɗansu, don amincewa da haƙƙin kiwon lafiya. Hakazalika, Janar Sharhi ya yarda cewa "haƙƙin kiwon lafiya ya ƙunshi abubuwa da yawa na zamantakewar tattalin arziki waɗanda ke inganta yanayin da mutane za su iya rayuwa cikin ƙoshin lafiya, kuma ya faɗaɗa wajan masu ƙayyade lafiyar." Dangane da wannan, Babban Bayanin ya nuna cewa takamaiman matakai don fahimtar haƙƙin lafiyar da aka lissafa a cikin Mataki na 12 ba cikakke ba ne kuma cikakkun misalai ne a cikin yanayi.[1][1][2][3][4]

Haɗin haɗin da ba za a iya rabuwa tsakanin lafiya da 'yancin ɗan adam ba

Jonathan Mann ya kasance Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Farfesa ne na Kiwon Lafiya da 'Yancin Dan Adam kuma Farfesa na Epidemiology da Lafiya ta Duniya a Harvard TH Chan Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a . An san shi da kasancewa babban majagaba kuma mai ba da shawara don inganta kiwon lafiya, da'a, da 'yancin ɗan adam, yana mai ƙarfafa ra'ayin cewa lafiyar da haƙƙin ɗan Adam sun haɗu sosai a cikin dangantaka mai ƙarfi.

A cewar Mann, kiwon lafiya da 'yancin dan Adam hanyoyi ne na hadin gwiwa don bayyana da inganta rayuwar dan Adam. A 1994, Jonathan Mann da abokan aikinsa suka fara " Lafiya da kuma 'Yancin Dan Adam na Jarida "don nuna muhimmancin wannan mahada da ba za a iya rarrabuwa tsakanin lafiya da' yancin ɗan Adam.

A cikin kundin farko na "Lafiya da 'Yancin Dan Adam na Jarida", Jonathan Mann da abokan aikinsa sun wallafa labarin canji don bincika yuwuwar haɗin gwiwa a cikin kiwon lafiya da' yancin ɗan Adam. A cikin wannan labarin, Mann, bayyana tsarin don haɗa yankuna biyu da suke da alaƙa. Wannan tsarin ya kasu kashi uku.

Alaka ta farko tsakanin kiwon lafiya da ‘yancin dan adam wata alaka ce ta siyasa. Mann da abokan aiki sun bayyana cewa manufofin kiwon lafiya, shirye-shirye, da ayyuka suna da tasiri a kan haƙƙin ɗan Adam, musamman idan aka yi la’akari da ikon ƙasa a fannin kiwon lafiyar jama’a.

Na gaba, labarin yana nuna alaƙar juya baya: cewa take haƙƙin ɗan adam na da tasirin kiwon lafiya. Hakanan yana yin kira ga ƙwarewar kiwon lafiya don taimakawa fahimtar yadda za a iya shafar lafiya da ƙoshin lafiya ta hanyar keta haƙƙin ɗan adam ta hanyar aunawa da kimantawa.

Kashi na uku na tsarin da ke danganta kiwon lafiya da 'yancin ɗan Adam yana gabatar da maƙasudin cewa kariya da haɓaka haƙƙoƙin ɗan Adam da kiwon lafiya suna da alaƙa ta asali a cikin dangantaka mai ƙarfi. Duk da yake wallafe-wallafe sun tallafawa alaƙar farko ta farko, ba a bincika wannan tunanin na uku kamar yadda yakamata ba.

Labarin ya goyi bayan wannan ra'ayin ta hanyar faɗin cewa wannan haɗin yanar gizon yana nuna cewa akwai sakamako mai fa'ida a cikin ayyukan masu zaman kansu na, amma kuma a cikin hulɗar cikin ayyukan, al'adar lafiyar jama'a da aiwatar da haƙƙin ɗan Adam. Akwai abin da ake zaton dogaro ne da ba za a iya watsi da shi ba. Mann da abokan aikinsa sun kara nuna cewa bincike, ilimi, gogewa, da bayar da shawarwari duk ana bukatar fahimtar wannan mahadar, don fahimta da cigaban rayuwar dan adam a duniya.

Daga qarshe, manufar Mann da takwararsa ita ce isar da cewa, yayin da kiwon lafiyar mutum ya fi mayar da hankali ga likitanci da sauran ayyukan samar da lafiya, musamman game da cututtukan jiki da nakasa, kiwon lafiyar jama'a ya fi inganta ne kan yadda mutane za su kasance lafiya. Dangane da wannan ma'anar mai sauƙin mamaki, manufar kiwon lafiyar jama'a ita ce haɓaka ingantacciyar lafiya da rigakafin matsalolin kiwon lafiya - cuta, nakasa, mutuwa da wuri. Wato, yanayin al'adar lafiyar mutum kamar yadda aka fahimta kuma aka sarrafa ta daga ayyukan kiwon lafiya shine "wata mahimmin sharadi ne na kiwon lafiya", amma ba shine cancanta daya tilo ba ko kuma musayar magana ce da "lafiya" ba. Watau, aiyukan kiwon lafiya basu wadatar ga lafiya ba, kamar yadda masu kula da lafiyar jama'a suka fahimce shi - akwai wasu dalilai na waje wadanda duk sun yi lahani kamar yadda ya bayyana da kyau da kuma mummunan tasiri ga lafiyar da lafiyar rayuwar ɗan adam na duniya baki daya.

Adalcin Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Har ila yau, babban bayanin ya ba da ƙarin bayani game da batun daidaiton kiwon lafiya, ra'ayin da ba a magance shi ba a yarjejeniyar kasashen Duniya na farko. Takardar ta lura, "Yarjejeniyar ta ayyana duk wani wariyar da ake nunawa ta hanyar samun lafiya da kuma abubuwan da ke tabbatar da lafiya, gami da hanyoyin da suka dace da abubuwan da suka sawo." Bugu da ƙari, an ba da alhakin kula da inganta wariyar launin fata da tasirinsa game da kiwon lafiya ga Jiha: "Jihohi suna da aiki na musamman na wadata waɗanda ba su da wadatattun hanyoyin inshorar kiwon lafiya da wuraren kiwon lafiya, da kuma hana duk wani bambanci a kan filayen da aka haramta a duniya wajen samar da kiwon lafiya da ayyukan kiwon lafiya. "Karin girmamawa ana sanyawa kan rashin nuna banbanci dangane da jinsi, shekaru, nakasa, ko kasancewa memba a cikin al'ummomin asali."

Nauyin Jihohi da Kungiyoyin Duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bangarorin da ke tafe na Babban Sharhin suna bayani dalla-dalla game da wajibcin kasashe da kungiyoyin kasa da kasa kan hakkin lafiya. An sanya wajibai al'ummomi zuwa gida uku: wajibai na girmamawa, wajibai na kiyayewa, da wajibai don cika haƙƙin kiwon lafiya. Misalan waɗannan (ta hanyar da ba ta ƙarewa ba) sun haɗa da hana nuna bambanci a cikin isa ko isar da kulawa; kauracewa iyakancewar zuwa hanyoyin hana daukar ciki ko tsarin iyali; taƙaita hana samun bayanai na lafiya; rage gurbatar yanayi; taƙaita tilastawa da ko lalatattun al'adun gargajiya; tabbatar da samun daidaito ga masu tantance lafiyar jama'a; da samar da jagororin da suka dace don amincewa da wuraren kiwon lafiya, ma'aikata, da kayan aiki. Wajibai na duniya sun haɗa da ba da izinin jindaɗin kiwon lafiya a wasu ƙasashe; hana keta haddin kiwon lafiya a wasu kasashe; hada kai wajen samar da kayan agaji na bala'i da na gaggawa; da kuma guje wa amfani da takunkumi kan kayan kiwon lafiya ko ma'aikata a matsayin aiki na tasirin siyasa ko tattalin arziki.

Yarjejeniyar kan Kawar da Duk Wani Nau'i na Nuna Wariya ga Mata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mataki na 12 na Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) kan Kawar da Duk wani nau'i na nuna wariya ga Mata ya bayyana kariyar mata daga nuna wariyar jinsi yayin karbar sabis na kiwon lafiya da kuma hakkin mata ga takamaiman tanadi na kiwon lafiya da ya shafi jinsi. Cikakken rubutun Mataki na 12 ya ce:

Yarjejeniyar kan Hakkokin Yaro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ambaci lafiya a lokuta da yawa a cikin Yarjejeniyar kan Hakkokin Yaro (1989). Mataki na uku ya yi kira ga bangarorin da su tabbatar da cewa cibiyoyi da wuraren kula da yara suna bin ka'idojin kiwon lafiya. Mataki na 17 ya amince da haƙƙin yara don samun damar bayanai wanda ya dace da lafiyar jikinsa da ta tunaninsa da kuma ƙoshin lafiyarsa. Mataki na 23 yayi takamaiman bayani game da haƙƙin yara nakasassu, wanda a ciki ya haɗa da ayyukan kiwon lafiya, gyara, kulawa na rigakafi. Mataki na 24 ya zayyana lafiyar yara dalla-dalla, kuma ya ce, "Bangarorin sun amince da 'yancin da yaron yake da shi na more rayuwar da za a samu ta fuskar kiwon lafiya da kuma wuraren kulawa da rashin lafiya da kuma kula da lafiya. Jihohi za su yi iya kokarinsu don tabbatar da cewa babu wani yaro da aka tauye masa damar samun irin wadannan ayyukan kiwon lafiya. Zuwa aiwatar da wannan tanadi, Yarjejeniyar ta kirkiri matakai masu zuwa:

Hakkin dan Adam na kula da Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiwan lafiya haƙƙin ɗan adam ne

Wata hanyar da za'a bi don fahimtar wani bangare na haƙƙin lafiyar shine "'yancin ɗan Adam na kula da lafiya." Hakanan, wannan ya ƙunshi haƙƙoƙin haƙuri da haƙƙin badawa a cikin isar da sabis na kiwon lafiya, ɗayan yana kama da buɗewa don cin zarafin jihohi. Hakkokin masu haƙuri a cikin isarwar kiwon lafiya sun haɗa da: haƙƙin sirri, bayanai, rayuwa, da kulawa mai inganci, da kuma 'yanci daga wariya, azabtarwa, da muguwar cuta, rashin mutuntaka, ko wulakanta mutum . Kungiyoyin da aka ware, kamar bakin haure da mutanen da suka rasa muhallansu, kabilanci da kabilu marasa rinjaye, mata, 'yan tsiraru masu jima'i, da wadanda ke dauke da kwayar cutar kanjamau, sun fi fuskantar matsalar take hakkin dan Adam a wuraren kiwon lafiya. Misali, ana iya ware kananan kabilu da kananan kabilu zuwa kananan hukumomi masu inganci, masu nakasa na iya kunshe da shan magani da karfi, ana iya hana masu amfani da kwayoyi magani na jaraba, ana iya tilasta mata shiga cikin gwaji na farji kuma a hana su zubar da rai, ana zargin 'yan luwadi da madigo ana iya tilasta maza shiga cikin gwajin dubura, kuma ana iya tilasta wa mata na wasu rukunin da ke gefe da kuma wadanda suka sauya mata haihuwa ta hanyar haihuwa .

Hakkokin mai bayarwa sun haɗa da: haƙƙin ƙa'idodin inganci na yanayin aiki, 'yancin yin tarayya cikin' yanci, da haƙƙin ƙin aiwatar da aikin bisa ɗabi'unsu. Ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya galibi suna fuskantar take hakkinsu. Misali, musamman a kasashen da rashin karfin doka, masu kiwon lafiya galibi ana tilasta su aiwatar da hanyoyin da ke karya dabi'un su, suna musanta kungiyoyin da aka ware daga mafi kyaun matakan kulawa, karya sirrin marasa lafiya, da boye laifuka kan bil Adama da azabtarwa. Bugu da ƙari, ana azabtar da masu ba da lamuran wannan matsin lamba. A halin yanzu, musamman a Amurka, muhawara da yawa suna kewaye da batun "sanawar mai bayarwa", wanda ke da haƙƙin masu samarwa su ƙaurace wa aiwatar da hanyoyin da ba su dace da ƙa'idodin ɗabi'unsu ba, kamar zubar da ciki.

Sake fasalin doka a matsayin hanyar magancewa da hana keta haƙƙin haƙuri da haƙƙin mai ba da kyauta yana ba da kyakkyawar hanya. Koyaya, a cikin ƙasashe na rikon kwarya (sabbin ƙasashen da aka yiwa garambawul), da sauran saituna tare da raunin doka, na iya iyakance. Kayan aiki da kayan aiki don lauyoyi, masu samarwa, da marasa lafiya masu sha'awar inganta haƙƙin ɗan adam a cikin kulawa da haƙuri an tsara su.

Tsarin Mulki na Kula da Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin kundin tsarin mulki yanzu sun amince da haƙƙin kiwon lafiya. [5] Wani lokaci, waɗannan haƙƙoƙin suna da adalci, ma'ana ana iya bin su a kotu. [6] Haƙiƙa, yanayin sauye-sauye na tsarin mulki a duk duniya ya kasance yana haifar da haƙƙin lafiya da sanya shi adalci. Amurka waje ne na waɗannan abubuwan, aƙalla a matakin tarayya. [7] Duk da haka, akwai yaƙin neman zaɓe a Amurka don neman goyan bayan amincewa da tsarin mulki na haƙƙin lafiya. Inda tsarin mulki ya amince da 'yancin da ake da shi na lafiya, martanin kotuna sun cakuɗe.

Philip Barlow ya rubuta cewa bai kamata a dauki kula da lafiya a matsayin 'yancin dan adam ba saboda wahalar bayyana abin da ya kunsa da kuma inda ya kamata a kafa' mafi karancin mizanin 'hakki a karkashin' yancin. Bugu da kari, Barlow ya yi ikirarin cewa hakkokin sun sanya wa wasu hakkin su don kare su ko kuma tabbatar da su, kuma ba a san wanda ke da hakkin kula da lafiyar al'umma ba. John Berkeley, a cikin yarjejeniya da Barlow, ya sake yin suka game da cewa haƙƙin lafiyar ba ya la’akari da nauyin da mutum ya hau kansa na kula da lafiyarsa.

Richard D Lamm yayi jayayya da ƙarfi game da sanya lafiyar dama. Yana ayyana dama a matsayin wacce za a kare ta kowane hali, da kuma wata manufa wacce tsarin shari'a ya bayyana tare da fassara ta. Ba wa hakkin kiwon lafiya dama zai bukaci gwamnatoci su kashe kaso mai tsoka na arzikinta don wadata ‘yan kasar da ita. Ya tabbatar da cewa tsarin kiwon lafiyar ya dogara ne akan kuskuren zaton marasa albarkatu. Yancin albarkatu na hana gwamnatoci wadata kowa da ƙoshin lafiya, musamman cikin dogon lokaci. To ƙarin samar da kiwon lafiya mai fa'ida ga duk mutanen da ke amfani da ƙananan albarkatu na iya haifar da durkushewar tattalin arziki. Lamm ya tabbatar da cewa samun dama ga kiwon lafiya amma wani ɗan ƙaramin ɓangare wajen samar da al'umma mai ƙoshin lafiya, da ƙirƙirar al'umma mai ƙoshin lafiya, yakamata a kashe albarkatu akan albarkatun jama'a.

Wani sukar da ake yi wa haƙƙin kiwon lafiya shi ne cewa ba zai yiwu ba. Imre JP Loefler, tsohon edita na Ciwon Asibitin Nairobi kuma mai ba da gudummawa ga Jaridar Likita ta Burtaniya, ya bayar da hujjar cewa, rashin kudi da kayan aiki na tabbatar da kula da lafiyar kowa ba za'a iya samunsa ba, kuma wannan matsi na kayan aiki ya sa ba gaskiya ba ne a tabbatar da wani hakki na tsawaita rayuwa har abada. Madadin haka, Loefler ya ba da shawarar cewa manufar inganta lafiyar jama'a ta fi dacewa ta hanyar manufofin tattalin arziki fiye da haƙƙin kiwon lafiya na yau da kullum.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Lafiya da 'yancin ɗan Adam mujallar
  • Kula da lafiya a matakin farko
  • Kula da lafiyar duniya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Beletsky L, Ezer T, Overall J, Byrne I, Cohen J (2013). "Advancing human rights in patient care: the law in seven transitional countries". Open Society Foundations. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  2. "Health and human rights: a resource guide". Open Society Foundations. Open Society Institute. 2013. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  3. Ezer T. (May 2013). "making laws work for patients". Open Society Foundations. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  4. J Amon. (2010). "Abusing patients: health providers' complicity in torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment". World Report 2010, Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 29 July 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  5. Katharine G. Young. "The Comparative Fortunes of the Right to Health: Two Tales of Justiciability in Colombia and South Africa." Harvard Human Rights Journal 26, no.1 (2013): 179–216.
  6. Rosevear, E., Hirschl, R., & Jung, C. (2019). Justiciable and Aspirational Economic and Social Rights in National Constitutions. In K. Young (Ed.), The Future of Economic and Social Rights (Globalization and Human Rights, pp. 37–65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/future-of-economic-and-social-rights/2C2C20AE05EC2C48FB2807739843D610 doi:10.1017/9781108284653.003
  7. Versteeg, Mila and Zackin, Emily, American Constitutional Exceptionalism Revisited (26 March 2014). 81 University of Chicago Law Review 1641 (2014); Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2014-28. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2416300

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Andrew Clapham, Mary Robinson (eds), Gano Hakkin Lafiya, Zurich: r :ffer & rub, 2009.
  • Bogumil Terminski, Zaɓaɓɓun Bibliography akan 'Yancin Dan Adam na Lafiya, Geneva: Jami'ar Geneva, 2013.
  • Judith Paula Asher, Hakkin Lafiya: Littafin kayan aiki don Ngos, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Madaba'oi, 2010. Ni