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Allomorph

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Allomorph
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na form (en) Fassara, linguistic unit (en) Fassara da phonetic form (en) Fassara
Suna a harshen gida morph
Karatun ta morphology (en) Fassara
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cikin ilimin harshe, allomorph wani nau'i ne na nau'i-nau'i na morpheme, ko kuma ma'anar da ta bambanta da sauti da rubutun ba tare da canza ma'anar ba. [1] allomorph tana bayyana cikar bambancin sauti don takamaiman morpheme. Allomorphs daban-daban da morpheme zai iya zama ana sarrafa su ta hanyar ƙa'idojin morphophonemic. Waɗannan 'idojin phonological sun ƙayyade wane nau'in phonetic, ko takamaiman furcin, wani morpheme zai ɗauka bisa ga mahallin phonological ko morphological inda suka bayyana.

Turanci yana da nau'o'i da yawa waɗanda suka bambanta a cikin sauti amma ba a cikin ma'ana ba, kamar su nau'o-nau'i na baya, nau'o" masu yawa, da nau'ikan marasa kyau.

Allomorphs na baya

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Misali, wani nau'i na Turanci da ya gabata shine -ed, wanda ke faruwa a cikin allomorphs da yawa dangane da yanayin sautin ta hanyar dai-daita muryar ɓangaren da ya gabata ko sakawa schwa bayan tsayawar alveolar:

  • [-əd] yadda [-əd] ko [-ɪd] a cikin aikatau wanda tushe ya ƙare tare da alveolar stops [t] ko [d], kamar 'hunted' [hʌntɪd] ko 'banded' [bændɪd]
  • kamar [-t] a cikin aikatau wanda tushe ya ƙare tare da alamomi marasa murya ban da [t], kamar 'kamar' [fɪʃt]
  • kamar yadda [-d] a cikin aikatau wanda tushe ya ƙare tare da sautin murya ban da [d], kamar 'buzzed' [bʌzd]

Ƙuntatawa "ba tare da" ƙuntatawa da ke sama sun dace da allomorphy. Idan an ba da umarnin yanayin allomorphy daga mafi ƙuntatawa (a wannan yanayin, bayan tsayawar alveolar) zuwa mafi ƙuntata, yanayin daidaitawa na farko yawanci yana da fifiko. Don haka kuma ana iya sake rubuta yanayin da ke sama kamar haka

  • [-əd] yadda [-əd] ko [-ɪd] lokacin da tushe ya ƙare tare da alveolar ya tsaya [t] ko [d]
  • kamar yadda [-t] lokacin da tushe ya ƙare tare da sautin murya
  • kamar yadda [-d] a wasu wurare

[-əd][-t] allomorph ba ya bayyana bayan ƙarshen /t/ kodayake ƙarshen ba shi da murya, wanda aka bayyana ta hanyar [-əd] bayyana a cikin wannan mahalli, tare da gaskiyar cewa an ba da umarnin mahalli. /-əd/, [-d] allomorph ba ya bayyana bayan ƙarshen [d] saboda sashi na baya don /-əd / allomorph yana da fifiko. /-d/ allomorph ba ya bayyana bayan sautin murya na ƙarshe saboda sashi na baya don [-t] ya zo da farko.

Irregular past tense forms, such as "broke" or "was/were," can be seen as still more specific cases since they are confined to certain lexical items, such as the verb "break," which take priority over the general cases listed above.

Allomorphs masu yawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

-suna samun nau'in jam'i don sunaye na yau da kullun a cikin Turanci ta hanyar ƙara -s ko -es zuwa ƙarshen sunan. Koyaya, jam'i morpheme a zahiri yana da nau'o'i daban-daban guda uku: [-s], [-z], da [-əz]. Takamaiman furcin da aka ɗauka a jam'i morpheme an ƙayyade shi ta hanyar ƙa'idojin morphological masu zuwa:

  • Ka ɗauka cewa ainihin nau'in jam'i, /-z/, shine [-z] ("bags" /bægz/)
  • Morpheme /-z/ ya zama [-əz] ta hanyar saka [ə] kafin [-z] lokacin da sunan ya ƙare a cikin sibilant ("buses" /bʌsəz/)
  • Canja morpheme /-z/ zuwa murya mara murya [-s] lokacin da sunan ya ƙare a cikin sauti mara murya ("caps" /kæps/)

Allomorphs marasa kyau

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

a cikin- Turanci, prefix mara kyau in- yana da allomorphs guda uku: [ɪn-], [ɪŋ-], da [ɪm-]. Hanyar phonetic cewa mummunan morpheme /ɪn-/ amfani da shi an ƙayyade shi ta hanyar ƙa'idojin morphological masu zuwa: [2]

  • mummunan morpheme /ɪn-/ ya zama [ɪn-] lokacin da ya riga ya wuce wani Alveolar consonant ("intolerant"/ɪn'tɔlərənt/)
  • morpheme /ɪn-/ ya zama [ɪŋ-] kafin ma'anar ma'anar ("marasa ma'ana" /ɪŋ'__wol____wol____wol__)
  • morpheme /ɪn-/ ya zama [ɪm-] kafin ma'anar bilabial ("maras kyau" /ɪm'pr пролеər/)

A cikin yarukan Sami

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harsunan Sami suna da tsarin juzu'i na musanya matsi da matsi. Wasalan wasali da baƙaƙen da aka yarda a cikin saƙon da ba a matsawa ba sun bambanta da waɗanda aka ba da izini a cikin maɗaukakin maɗaukaki. Saboda haka, kowane kari da ƙarewar juzu'i yana da nau'i biyu, kuma nau'in da ake amfani da shi ya dogara da yanayin damuwa na kalmar da aka makala. Misali, Sami na Arewa yana da ƙarin kalmar fi'ili - hit/-ahttit</link> wanda - hit</link> ana zaban lokacin da zai zama harafi na uku (kuma fi’ili na baya yana da harbo biyu), da ahttit</link> aka zaba lokacin da zai zama na uku da na hudu (kuma kalmar da ta gabace ta tana da harbo uku):

  • goar·rut yana da kalmomi biyu don haka idan aka haɗa shi, sakamakon shine goa·ru·hit .
  • na·nos·mit yana da kalmomi uku don haka idan aka haɗa shi, sakamakon shine na·nos-mah·ttit .

kuma shafi alamu na juyawa a cikin yarukan Sami, waɗanda aka raba su zuwa ma'auni da kalolin masu ma'ana.

Allomorphy na tsutsa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Allomorphy na iya kasancewa a cikin tushe ko Tushen, kamar yadda yake a cikin Sanskrit na gargajiya:

Vāk (murya)
Mai banbanci Yawancin mutane
Nominative /vaːk/ /vaːt͡ʃ-as/
Halitta /vaːt͡ʃ-as/ /vaːt͡ʃ-aːm/
Kayan aiki /vaːt͡ʃ-aː/ /vaːɡ-bʱis/
Gidauniyar /vaːt͡ʃ-i/ /vaːk-ʂi/

Akwai allomorphs guda uku na kara, /vaːk/</link> , /vaːt͡ʃ/</link> , da /vaːɡ/</link> , waɗanda ke da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idodi.

Hanyar tushe /vaːk/, wanda aka samo a cikin nau'i-nau'i da yawa, shine nau'in ma'anar morpheme. Pre-Indic palatalization na velars ya haifar da bambancin nau'in /vaːt͡ʃ/, wanda aka fara amfani da shi. Har yanzu ana iya ganin yanayin a cikin nau'in mutum ɗaya, wanda /t͡ʃ/ ke biye da sautin gaba /i/.

Koyaya, haɗawar /e/ na gaba.</link> kuma /o/</link> cikin /a/</link> ya sanya canjin ba a iya faɗi a kan filaye na sauti a cikin yanayin yanayin halitta (duka ɗaya da jam'i) da kuma jam'i na ƙididdiga da na kayan aiki guda ɗaya. Don haka, allomorphy ba ya da alaƙa kai tsaye da hanyoyin sauti.

Har ila yau, daidaita sautin sauti yana lissafin /vaːɡ/</link> a cikin jam'i na kayan aiki, wanda /ɡ/</link> assimilate a cikin murya zuwa mai zuwa /bʱ/</link> .

An fara amfani da kalmar don bayyana bambancin tsarin sinadarai. An fara amfani da shi ga harshe (a rubuce) a cikin 1948, ta Fatih Şat da Sibel Merve a cikin Harshe XXIV. [3]

  • Null allomorph
  • Madadin (ilimin harshe)
  • Allophone
  • maye gurbi
  • Dokar Grassmann
  • kari
  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :02
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. Oxford English Dictionary Online: Entry 50006103. Accessed: 2006-09-05