Ba wa Juna Tazara

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A ƙarnin da ya wuce, annoba iri - iri masu alaƙa da mashaƙo sun bijiro sun gallabi duniya. Waɗannan annoba suna da titstsige daga ƙwayoyin cututtuka da ke jikin dabbobi da tsuntsaye, akan samu wani lokaci suna shiga jikin ɗan adam suna haddasa masa ciwo. Daga nan kuma sai su cigaba da yaɗuwa daga mutum zuwa mutum.[1] Ana kiransu 'zoonotic' cikin harshen Ingilishi saboda cututtukan sun samo asali ne daga dabbobi.

Yin tazara da juna shi ne ɗaya daga manyan hanyoyin daƙile yaɗuwar irin waɗannan cututtuka musamman Kwabid-19. Ba wa juna tazara na nufin nisantar gwamutsuwa da juna ta yadda za a samu sasari tsakanin al'umma ba tare da cakuɗuwa ba.[2] Dakta Jeff Kwong, wanda yake ƙwararre ne a fannin nazarin cututtuka masu yaɗuwa na Jami'ar Toronto, ya bayyana ma'anar ba da tazara akan cewa dukkan abubuwan da mutane za su aikata domin daƙile yaɗuwar cututtuka tsakaninsu. Wannan kuwa ya haɗa har da zaman killace kai. Domin mu fahimci yadda ba wa juna tazara ke gudana, za mu yi la'akari da wani tsarin da ƙwararru a fannin cututtuka masu yaɗuwa suka samar. Bari mu ɗauki wannan tsari bisa la'akari da annobar Kwabid-19 ta shekara 2019/2020 da bayanan da aka samu daga kasar China inda cutar ta fara sannan za mu duba yadda tsarin yake a ƙasar Afrika ta Kudu. Wannan zai ba mu damar mu dubi irin tasirin da ba wa juna tazara ke da shi wajen daƙile yaɗuwar cutar Kwabid-19.[3] A ƙarshen wannan muƙala mun yi duba da yadda za a magance matsalolin da zaman tazara ka iya haifarwa.

Taswirar yadda tsarin yaɗuwar annobar yake[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafi yawancin cututtuka masu yaɗuwa suna bazuwa ne bisa doron matakai uku. Waɗannan matakan su ne kamar yadda aka kawo su cikin zanen da ke ƙasa.

Ƙwararru masu nazarin cututtuka masu yaɗuwa sun bayyana matakai uku kamar yadda aka nuna a zanen da ke sama. Zanen ya nuna adadin mutanen da aka tabbatar sun kamu da kuma yanayin yaɗuwar tasu.

  1. (a)    Mataki na farko:  Shi ne wanda aka nuna a tsarin farko na taswirar. Idan alal misali muka ɗauki yadda Kwabid-19 ke yaɗuwa, za mu ɗauke shi a matsayin mataki na farko. Anan ne akan samu masu ɗauke da cutar 'yan ƙalilan.
  2. (b)   Mataki na biyu:  Taswirar na nuna yadda cutar  ta kutsa kai cikin al'umma.[4] Anan ana nuna yadda cutar ta bunƙasa take shiga cikin al'umma. A wannan mataki, cutar na bunƙasa  da hanzari a kullum wanda yake da wahala a iya bin ƙididdigar ta. Hukumomi da dama sun hana zirga-zirga da tafiye-tafiye tsakanin garuruwa kamar yadda tsarin gudanrwar lafiya na duniya ya gindaya.[5] Tsarin gudanarwar Lafiya na Duniya shi ne wani daftari da Hukumar lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta samar domin kariya da magance haɗarin lafiya da ke yaɗuwa tsakanin ƙasashen duniya. Waɗannan matakan suna ƙunshe cikin tsarin Ba da Tazara (kamar yadda bayani zai gabata). An tsara su domin rage tozon wannan taswira wanda kuma zai rage yaɗuwar cututtukan. An yi nuni da wannan fikira cikin wannnan zane da ke ƙasa:
    Rage tozon taswira [6]
  3. (c)    Mataki na uku:  Mataki na uku na taswirar na nuna yadda aka samu nasarar shawo kan yaɗuwar cutar har ma ya kasance babu sabon mai kamuwa da ita.

A wannan waiwaye mun fahimci cewar wannan cutar ta Kwabid-19 na yaɗuwa da hanzari a tsakanin al'umma. Mafi yawa tana bazuwa daga cuɗanyar mutane. Yin tazara tsakanin mutane shi ne babban matakin da za a ɗauka wajen daƙile cigaba da yaɗuwar wannan cutar.

Ba da tazara ta sarari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ba da tazara ta sarari ta kasance ɗaya daga matakan kiyaye lafiya ta yadda mai ɗauke da ita mai yaɗuwa ba zai shafawa mai lafiya ba. Wannan kuwa ya ƙunshi babban mataki na kulle ƙasa da garuruwa domin taƙaita cakuɗuwar mutane a wuraren haɗuwar su. Irin wannan babban matakin yawanci mahukunta ne ƙaƙaba shi. Misalin irin wannan mataki shi ne irin wanda gwamnatin ƙasar Afrika ta Kudu ta saka shi daga tsakar daren 26 ga Maris, zuwa tsakar daren 16 ga Afrilu, 2020. Bayan wannan kuma aka tsawaita dokar da kwana 14. An yi amfani da sashi na 27(2) na Dokar Kiyaye Bala'o'i ne wajen aiwatar da wannan kullen.[7] Haka kuma an sanya taƙaita wasu ayyukan domin hana cakuɗuwar mutane. Daga cikin sauran abubuwan da aka yi, bisa la'akari da sashi na 11B sun haɗa da;

  • Mutane kowa ya zauna a gida babu fita sai da ƙwaƙwaran dalili ko kuwa waɗanda ke aiwatar da muhimman aiki.
  • An haramta duk wani taron jama'a sai dai jana'iza kaɗai (wadda bata wuce mutane 50 ba).
  • Hana tafiye - tafiye a tsakanin jihohi.
  • An haramta zirga-zirga tsakanin garuruwa da ƙananan hukumomi.
  • Hana kowanne irin kasuwanci sai na kayan masarufi.
  • An bar kantunan sayar da kayan masarufi su buɗe amma wajibi ne su ɗauki matakin ba da tazara mita ɗaya tsakanin kwastomomi. Sannan su bi dukkan matakan lafiya da aka tanada (Kamar samar da sinadarin wanke hannu) domin daƙile yaɗuwar cutar nan ta Kwabid-19.

Haka kuma wannan tanadi ya ƙunshi:

  • An haramta tafiye-tafiye cikin jiragen ruwa da na sama.
  • An haramta sayar da giya da sigari.
  • A taƙaita gudanar da sufuri.
  • Haka kuma tanadi ya ba wa hukumomin tarayya da na jihohi dama su killace mutane. Matakin killacewa ya haɗa da taƙaita zirga-zirgar mutanen da aka tabbatar sun kamu da Kwarona Bairus zuwa wani lokaci. Wannan tsari na killacewa yana taka rawa wajen keɓe waɗanda suka kamu da cutar daga lafiyayyu.

Afrika ta Kudu daki-daki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Duk waɗannan matakai da aka ambata a sama sun yi tasiri wajen hana yaɗuwar cutar Kwabid-19 kuma Afrika ta Kudu ta kasance kan gaba wajen ƙoƙarin daƙile ta. [x] Kasancewar Afrika ta Kudu ba ta hau taswirar yaɗuwar cutar ba, shi ya sa yanzu haka har ta haye matakai biyu tunda ba a taɓa samun ta bunƙasa yadda ta yi a wasu a ƙasashe ba. Maimakon haka yanzu ana iya ganin samun nasarar taƙaitar masu ɗauke da ita daga 42% zuwa 4% bayan an gudanar da dokar zama a gida.
  • Ƙasar ta ɗauki jami’an duba-gari masu yawa da suke bi gida-gida suna yi wa mutane gwaji.
  • A wani jawabi da ya gabatarwa ‘yan ƙasa ranar 9 ga Afrilu, 2020, Shugaba Cyril Ramaphosa ya danganta nasarar da aka samu da irin yadda jama’a suka bayar da haɗin kai a matakin kullen da aka ɗauka.
  • “Kun yi biyayya ga dokar kulle ta zama a gida, kuma kun yi aiki da shawarwarin ƙwararru. Kun rungumi duk irin tarnaƙi da wahalhalun da ke cikin dokar hana zirga-zirga sannan mun hana ku mafi yawan ‘yancin walwalar ku a ayyukan ku na yau da kullum.”
  • Duk da kasancewar ƙwararru sun yi gargaɗin cewar har yanzu akwai yiwuwar cigaba da yaɗuwar wannan cuta, amma kuma ƙoƙarin da gwamnati ta yi ya daƙile ta, har yanzu muna da lokacin cigaba da yaƙar ta.” Saboda haka, za a soma sassauta dokar zama a gida sannu a hankali a mataki - mataki.

Kammalawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cutar Kwabid-19 ta kasance mai hanzarin yaɗuwa a faɗin duniya tun bayan da aka farga da ɓullar ta a birnin Wuhan na ƙasar China a ƙarshen shekara ta 2019. Ƙwararrun likitocin ƙasar China sun bayyana matakai biyu da za a iya yaƙi da wannan annoba mai barazana ga kiwon lafiya: (1) Sarrafawa da Rigakafin cutar (2) Binciken masana kimiyya. Waɗannan ƙwararru na ƙasar China sun bada gudunmawa ƙwarai wajen gano cutar a farko-farkon bayyanar ta.[8] Sannan Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta kasance mai matuƙar muhimmanci a duniya dangane da yaƙi da annobar wacce ta ɓulla a cikin shekara ta 2020.

Ba wa juna tazara ya kasance wata babbar hanyar daƙile yaɗuwar annobar kamar yadda muka gani a Afrika ta Kudu a zahiri. Cibiyar nazarin cututtuka da magance su tana bayar da shawarwarin cewar, “yana da matuƙar muhimmanci a kasance ana tuntuɓar iyalai da abokai da ba kwa tare a gida ɗaya ta hanyar kiran waya, tattaunawa ta intanet da sauran kafafen Soshiyal Midiya. Kowa da irin yadda yake fuskantar ƙalubale, don haka yin nesa da wanda kake so abu ne mai wahala.”[9] Yawanci ana samun ƙalubalen ne saboda tsoro, damuwa da kuma fargaba da ta cika zuƙatan mutane sakamakon wannan annoba da ta zama ruwan dare mai gama duniya. Ƙwararru na bayar da shawarar a maida hankali ga hanyoyin da za a magance waɗannan matsaloli na fargaba da rashin kwanciyar hankali musamman da tsarin ba wa juna tazara zai haifar.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. World Health Organization. Global Influenza Programme. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response.
  2. CDC (2020-02-11). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (in en-us). 
  3. Pearce Katir. What is social distancing and how can it dliw the spread of COVID-19? 13 March 2020. The Hub. Johns Hopkins University. Accessed on 12 April 2020
  4. Wiles S. The three phases of Covid-19 and how we can make it manageable. TheSpinoff. Ranar ziyara 10 ga  Afrilu, 2020.
  5. See: https://www.who.int/ihr/publications/9789241580496/en
  6. ranar An dauko hoto daga. 11 ga Afrilu, 2020
  7. "Disaster Management Act 57 of 2002 | South African Government". www.gov.za. 
  8. Wang Jian-Wei, Cao Bin and Wang Chen. Science in the fight against the novel coronavirus disease. China Medical Journal: 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) collection. April 2020
  9. Centers for Disease Control. Keep your distance to slow the spread. Accessed on 16 April 2020.