Charlemagne

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Charlemagne
Carolingian Roman emperor (en) Fassara

25 Disamba 800 - 28 ga Janairu, 814
← no value - Louis the Pious (en) Fassara
king of Franks (en) Fassara

9 Oktoba 768 - 28 ga Janairu, 814
Pepin the Short (en) Fassara, Carloman I (en) Fassara - Louis the Pious (en) Fassara
King of Lombards (en) Fassara

28 ga Janairu, 814
Desiderius (en) Fassara - Bernard of Italy (en) Fassara
duke of Bavaria (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Francia (en) Fassara, Liège (en) Fassara da Aachen (en) Fassara, 740s
ƙasa Francia (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Aachen (en) Fassara, 28 ga Janairu, 814
Makwanci Aachen Cathedral (en) Fassara
Palatine Chapel (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (cuta)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Pepin the Short
Mahaifiya Bertrada of Laon
Abokiyar zama Himiltrude (en) Fassara
Desiderata of the Lombards (en) Fassara  (770, 770 (Gregorian) -  771)
Hildegard of Vinzgouw (en) Fassara  (771, 772 (Gregorian) -  783)
Fastrada (en) Fassara  (783, 784 (Gregorian) -
Luitgard (en) Fassara  (794, 794 (Gregorian) -
Ma'aurata Regina (en) Fassara
Himiltrude (en) Fassara
Madelgard (en) Fassara
Gersuinda (en) Fassara
Ethelind (en) Fassara
Yara
Ahali Gisela, Abbess of Chelles (en) Fassara, Adelais (en) Fassara, Chrothais (en) Fassara, Carloman I (en) Fassara da Pepin (en) Fassara
Yare Carolingian dynasty (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Harshen Latin
Greek (en) Fassara
Frankish (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a sarki da sarki
Tsayi 1.84 m
Feast
January 18 (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Cocin katolika
Kiristanci
Charlemagne

Charlemagne (/ˈʃɑːrləmən,_SHAR- lə-mayn, MAYN SHAR: French: [ʃaʁləmaɲ]) ko Charles the Great (Latin; German; 2 Afrilu 747 [lower-alpha 1] -28 Janairu 814), memba ne na daular Carolingian, shine Sarkin Franks daga 768, Sarkin Lombards daga 774, kuma Sarkin farko na Romawa daga 800. Charlemagne ya yi nasarar hada kan mafi yawan yammacin Turai da tsakiyar Turai kuma shi ne sarki na farko da aka amince da shi da ya yi mulki daga yammacin Turai bayan faduwar daular Roma ta Yamma a wajen karni uku a baya. [1] Ƙasar da aka faɗaɗa ta Faransanci wanda Charlemagne ya kafa ita ce daular Carolingian. Antipope Paschal III ne ya naɗa shi—wani aikin da daga baya ya ɗauke shi a matsayin marar amfani—kuma yanzu wasu suna ɗaukansa a matsayin wanda aka yi masa tsiya (wanda yake mataki ne kan tafarkin tsarkaka) a cikin Cocin Katolika.

Charlemagne shine ɗan fari na Pepin the Short da Bertrada na Laon. An haife shi kafin aurensu na farilla .. [2] Ya zama sarkin Franks a shekara ta 768 bayan mutuwar mahaifinsa, kuma tun farko ya kasance tare da ɗan'uwansa Carloman I har zuwa mutuwar na ƙarshe a 771. A matsayinsa na mai mulki shi kaɗai, ya ci gaba da manufofin mahaifinsa game da kariyar sarautar Paparoma kuma ya zama mai kare shi kaɗai, ya kawar da Lombards daga mulki a arewacin Italiya tare da jagorantar kutsawa cikin musulmin Spain. Ya kuma yi yaƙi da Saxons zuwa gabas, Kiristanci su (a kan hukuncin kisa) wanda ya haifar da abubuwan da suka faru kamar Kisan Kisan da aka yi na Verden. Ya kai tsayin daka a cikin 800 lokacin da Paparoma Leo III ya nada shi Sarkin sarakuna na Romawa a ranar Kirsimeti a Old St. Peter's Basilica a Roma.

Charlemagne an kira shi "Uban Turai" (Pater Europae), yayin da ya haɗu da mafi yawan Yammacin Turai a karon farko tun zamanin daular Romawa, da kuma haɗakar da sassan Turai da ba a taɓa kasancewa ba. Mulkin Faransanci ko na Romawa. Mulkinsa ya haifar da Renaissance na Carolingian, lokacin ƙwaƙƙwaran ayyukan al'adu da tunani a cikin Cocin Yammacin Turai. Cocin Orthodox na Gabas sun kalli Charlemagne da kyau, saboda goyon bayansa na filioque da kuma fifikon Paparoma a matsayin sarki akan mace ta farko ta Daular Byzantine, Irene ta Athens. Wadannan da sauran rigingimu sun haifar da rabuwar Roma da Konstantinoful a cikin Babban Schism na 1054. [3] [lower-alpha 2]

Charlemagne ya mutu a shekara ta 814 bayan ya kamu da cutar huhu mai yaduwa. [4] An binne shi a babban cocin Aachen Cathedral a babban birnin masarautarsa na Aachen. Ya yi aure aƙalla sau huɗu, kuma yana da 'ya'ya maza uku na halal waɗanda suka rayu har zuwa girma. Sai kawai ƙarami daga cikinsu, Louis the Pious, ya tsira ya gaje shi. Charlemagne shi ne kakannin kai tsaye na yawancin gidajen sarauta na Turai, ciki har da daular Capetian, [lower-alpha 3] daular Ottonia, [lower-alpha 4] Gidan Luxembourg, [lower-alpha 5] Gidan Ivrea [lower-alpha 6] da kuma House of Habsburg. [lower-alpha 7]

Sunaye da laƙabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

The Bust of Charlemagne, wani kyakkyawan hoto da kuma reliquary da aka ce yana dauke da hular kwanyar Charlemagne, yana a Aachen Cathedral Treasury, kuma ana iya ɗaukarsa a matsayin mafi shahararren hoton mai mulki.

Sunan English: ( Turanci: /ˈʃɑːrləmeɪn, ˌ ʃɑːrləˈmeɪn/SHAR-lə SHAR mayn,- ⁠MAYN), [11] wanda aka fi sani da sarki a Turanci, ya fito ne daga Faransanci Charles-le-magne, ma'ana "Charles the Great". [lower-alpha 8] A cikin Jamusanci na zamani, Karl der Große yana da ma'ana iri ɗaya. Sunan da aka ba shi shine Charles (Latin Carolus, Tsohon Babban Jamus Karlus, Romance Karlo). [12] An ba shi suna bayan kakansa, Charles Martel, zaɓi wanda da gangan ya yi masa alama a matsayin magajin gaskiya na Martel. [1]

Laƙabin magnus (mai girma) mai yiwuwa an haɗa shi da shi a cikin rayuwarsa, amma wannan ba tabbas ba ne. The zamanin Latin Royal Frankish Annals akai-akai kiransa Carolus magnus rex, "Charles the great king". [2] A matsayin sunan barkwanci, tabbas an tabbatar da shi a cikin ayyukan Poeta Saxo a kusa da 900 kuma ya zama daidaitattun a duk ƙasashen tsohuwar daularsa a kusa da 1000. [13]

Nasarorin da Charles ya samu sun ba da sabon ma'ana ga sunansa. A cikin harsuna da yawa na Turai, ainihin kalmar "sarki" ta samo asali ne daga sunansa; mis, Polish, Ukrainian, Czech,, Slovak, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Russian: король, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian Cyrillic, Turkish: kral. .Wannan ci gaban ya yi daidai da sunan Kaisar a cikin ainihin Daular Roma, wanda ya zama kaiser da tsar (ko czar ), da sauransu.

Bayanan siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Francia, early 8th century

A ƙarni na 6, ƙabilar Jamus ta yamma na Franks sun zama Kiristanci, saboda babban ma'auni ga juyin Katolika na Clovis I. [14] Francia, wanda Merovingians ke mulki, ita ce mafi iko a cikin masarautun da suka gaji daular Roma ta Yamma. [15] Bayan Yaƙin Tertry, Merovingians sun ƙi zuwa cikin rashin ƙarfi, wanda saboda haka aka yi musu lakabi da rois fainéants ("sarakuna-ba-komai"). [16] Kusan dukkan ikon gwamnati babban hafsansu ne, magajin fadar. [lower-alpha 9]

A cikin 687, Pepin na Herstal, magajin fadar Austrasia, ya kawo karshen takaddama tsakanin sarakuna daban-daban da magajin su tare da nasararsa a Tertry. [17] Ya zama gwamna tilo na dukan masarautar Faransa. Pepin jikan ne ga wasu muhimman mutane biyu na Masarautar Australiya: Saint Arnulf na Metz da Pepin na Landen. [17] Pepin na Herstal daga ƙarshe ɗansa Charles ne ya gaje shi, wanda daga baya aka sani da Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer).



A cikin 687, Pepin na Herstal, magajin fadar Austrasia, ya kawo karshen takaddama tsakanin sarakuna daban-daban da magajin su tare da nasararsa a Tertry. ☃☃ Ya zama gwamna tilo na dukan masarautar Faransa. Pepin jikan ne ga wasu muhimman mutane biyu na Masarautar Australiya: Saint Arnulf na Metz da Pepin na Landen. ☃☃ Pepin na Herstal daga ƙarshe ɗansa Charles ne ya gaje shi, wanda daga baya aka sani da Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer).[14]




Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Alternative birth years for Charlemagne include 742 and 748. There is scholarly debate over this topic, summarised in Nelson 2019, pp. 28–29. See further Karl Ferdinand Werner, Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–57 (online Archived 17 Nuwamba, 2013 at the Wayback Machine);
    Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37–60 (online Archived 17 Nuwamba, 2013 at the Wayback Machine)
  2. Also see: The Great Schism – St. George Orthodox Cathedral or The Great Schism – Assumption Greek Orthodox Church
  3. Through Beatrice of Vermandois, great-great granddaughter of Pepin of Italy and grandmother of Hugh Capet.[5][6]
  4. Through Hedwiga, great-great granddaughter of Louis the Pious and mother of Henry the Fowler.[7]
  5. Through Albert II, Count of Namur, great-grandson of Louis IV of France and great-great grandfather of Henry the Blind.[8][9]
  6. Berengar II of Italy was a great-great-great grandson of Louis the Pious.[10]
  7. Radbot of Klettgau, the founder of the House of Habsburg, married Ida of Lorraine, who descended from Charlemagne through both of her parents; from Cunigunda of France on her father's side and through the Capetians on her mother's side.
  8. In Template:Lang-frk, Karil or Karal, whence Karl in German and Karel in Dutch.
  9. See:"France :: The hegemony of Neustria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Becher 2005.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Barbero 2004.
  3. Gregory 2005.
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafeln 10, 11
  6. Andrew W. Lewis, 'Dynastic Structures and Capetian Throne-Right: the Views of Giles of Paris', Traditio, Vol. 33 (1977), pp. 246-47 n.94
  7. Donald C. Jackman (2010), Ius Hereditarium Encountered III: Ezzo's Chess Match. Editions Enlaplage. pp. 9–12.
  8. Tanner, Heather (2004). Families, Friends and Allies: Boulogne and Politics in Northern France and England. Brill. pp. 263–265. ISBN 9789047402558.
  9. Tanner, Heather J. (1992). Chibnall, Marjorie (ed.). "The Expansion of the Power and Influence of the Counts of Boulogne under Eustace II". Anglo-Norman Studies - XIV.Proceeding of the Battle Conference 1991. The Boydell Press: 251–286.
  10. Bouchard, Constance (2010). Those of My Blood: Creating Noble Families in Medieval Francia. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 129–131. ISBN 9780812201406.
  11. Empty citation (help)
  12. Nelson 2019.
  13. Fried 2016.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Waldman & Mason 2006.
  15. Collins 1999.
  16. Fouracre 2005.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Frassetto 2003.