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Cutar Asthma

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Cutar Asthma
Description (en) Fassara
Iri bronchospasm (en) Fassara
cuta
Specialty (en) Fassara pulmonology (en) Fassara
immunology (en) Fassara
Symptoms and signs (en) Fassara tari, chest pain (en) Fassara, inflammation (en) Fassara
wheeze (en) Fassara
Genetic association (en) Fassara ERBB4 (en) Fassara, RAP1GAP2 (en) Fassara, FBXL7 (en) Fassara, CDHR3 (en) Fassara, GSDMB (en) Fassara, IL33 (en) Fassara, RAD50 (en) Fassara, GSDMA (en) Fassara, IL13 (en) Fassara, IGSF3 (en) Fassara, HPSE2 (en) Fassara, PSAP (en) Fassara, ATG3 (en) Fassara, MKLN1 (en) Fassara, XPR1 (en) Fassara, ABI3BP (en) Fassara, KLHL5 (en) Fassara, COL22A1 (en) Fassara, HLA-DQA1 (en) Fassara, IRF1-AS1 (en) Fassara, ACO1 (en) Fassara, ZNF665 (en) Fassara, PRKG1 (en) Fassara, IL6R (en) Fassara, GAB1 (en) Fassara, PBX2 (en) Fassara, NOTCH4 (en) Fassara, TSBP1 (en) Fassara, IKZF4 (en) Fassara, PYHIN1 (en) Fassara, IL1RL1 (en) Fassara, SLC30A8 (en) Fassara, IL18R1 (en) Fassara, SMAD3 (en) Fassara, IL2RB (en) Fassara, SLC22A5 (en) Fassara, RORA (en) Fassara, PDE4D (en) Fassara da CTNNA3 (en) Fassara
Medical treatment (en) Fassara
Magani formoterol (en) Fassara, troleandomycin (en) Fassara, zafirlukast (en) Fassara, oxtriphylline (en) Fassara, rac-salbutamol (en) Fassara, halothane (en) Fassara, terbutaline (en) Fassara, aminophylline (en) Fassara, bitolterol (en) Fassara, (−)-ephedrine (en) Fassara, montelukast (en) Fassara, salmeterol (en) Fassara, zileuton (en) Fassara, pirbuterol (en) Fassara, theophylline (en) Fassara, ephedra (en) Fassara, (+)-pseudoephedrine (en) Fassara, cromoglicic acid (en) Fassara, metaproterenol (en) Fassara, betamethasone (en) Fassara, (RS)-clenbuterol (en) Fassara, acefylline (en) Fassara, zafirlukast (en) Fassara, dyphylline (en) Fassara, montelukast (en) Fassara, zileuton (en) Fassara, formoterol (en) Fassara, diphemanil (en) Fassara, metaproterenol (en) Fassara, bambuterol (en) Fassara, budesonide (en) Fassara da etofylline (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-10-CM J45.90, J45 da J45.909
ICD-9-CM 493 da 493.9
OMIM 600807
DiseasesDB 1006
MedlinePlus 000141
eMedicine 000141
MeSH D001249
Disease Ontology ID DOID:2841
Wannan Muƙalar guntuwa ce: tana buƙatar a inganta ta, kuna iya gyara ta.

Cutar Asma (Turanci: tuberculosis, asthma) wata cuta ce na kumburewar hanyoyin iska a hunhu.[1] Ana iya Kuma ganeta ta hanyar alamomi daban daban, sashhekar numfashi, da kuma shakewar hanyoyin iska - Bronchospasm.[2][3] Alamomin cutar sun hada da sauti yayin numfashi, tari, tsukewa ko takurewar kirji, da kuma karancin iska yayin numfashi.[4] Wadannan alamomi kan iya faruwa na wasu 'yan lokuta a rana, ko kuma na tsawon lokuta a makwo.[1] Dangane da mara lafiya, alamomin cutan ka iya tsananta da dare ko kuma yayin motsa jini.[1]

Anyi ittifaki cewa cutar asthma na wanzuwa ta hanyar gado ko kuma yanayin muhalli.[4] Hanyoyin kamuwa da cutan ta hanyar yanayin muhalli sun haɗa da yawan shakar gurbatacciyar iska, ko kuma allergens - wato rashin lafiyar ci ko taba wani abu.[1] Wasu daga cikin muhimman abubuwan da ke janyo wannan cuta sun hada da magunguna irinsu aspirin da kuma Beta Blockers. Ana iya gano asalin cutar ta hanyar nazarin alamominta, aunawa ta hanyar theraphy na tsawon lokaci, da kuma gwajin lafiyar hunhu.[5] Ana iya rarraba asthma dangane da yanayin yawaituwar alamominta, Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ko kuma kololuwar yanayin fitar da iska.[6] Ana kuma iya kasafta ta da atopic ko kuma non-atopic.

Har yanzu, babu wata sananniyar maganin asthma, amma za'a iya sarrafa ta.[7] Ana iya rage faruwar alamominta ta hanyar kaucewa abubuwan da suke assasa ta kamar, allergins da kuma abubuwan shaka wanda hunhun mai ita bai so, da kuma koreta ta hanyar shakar abun karin numfashi mai dauke da sinadaran corticosteroids. Ana iya amfani da Long-acting beta agonists(LABA) ko kuma sinadarn antileukotriene agents tare da abun shaka idan an kasa sarrafa alamomin.[8][9] Ana iya magance alamomin da suka munana acikin sauri ta hanyar shakar magunguna irinsu salbutamol da corticosteroids ta baki.[10] A yayin da alamomi suka munana sosai, ana iya amfani da intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium sulfate da kuma kwanciya a asibitin don magani.[11]

A shekara ta 2019, asthma ta kama akalla mutum miliyan 262, kuma ta janyo mutuwar mutum dubu 461,000.[12] Mafi akasarin mace-macen sun faru ne a kasashe masu tasowa.[1] Cutar asthma kan fara ne tun mutum yana yaro, sannan tsarin na kara gaba tun daga 1960s.[13] An fara gano cutar asthma ne tun daga zamanin Tsohuwar Misra.[14] Kalmar asthma ta samo asaline daga harshen Girka ἆσθμα, ''âsthma,'' wanda ke nufin sheshheka.[15]

Alamominta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alamomin cutar asthma sun hada da yawan shakewar numfashi, daukewar numfashi, cunkushewar kirji, da kuma tari.[16] Majina na iya fitowa dalilin yawan tari mai tsawo. Alamominta kanyi tsanani da daddare, ko kuma da sassafe ko kuma a dalilin motsa jiki ko sanyi.[17] Kadan daga cikin masu dauke da cutar asthma ne basu fuskantar wadannan alamomin, sai dai idan sun hadu da abubuwan da ke taso ciwon, a yayinda wasu kuwa nan da nan suke kamuwa da ita tare da alamomi masu tsanani.[18]

Sauran matsaloli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai ciwoce-ciwoce da dama da ke faruwa ga masu dauke da ciwon asthma, irinsu gastroesophageal reflux disease {GERD}, rhinosinusitis, da kuma daukewar numfashi a yayin bacci (apnea).[19] Har ila yau ana yawan samun matsalolin tunani,[20] da kuma matsalolin natsuwa wanda ke faruwa a tsakanin kashi 16 zuwa 52% da kuma matsalolin kunci a kashi 14–41%.[21] Har yanzu ba'a gama tantacewa ba ko dai asthma ce ke kawo matsaloli na kwakwalwa ko kuma matsaloli na kwakwalwa ne ke kawo cutar asthma.[22] Cutar asthma irin na zamanin nan, amma banda na zamunan baya suna da alaka da yawan janyo mutuwa, mutuwa ta hanyar cututtukan zuciya, da kuma mutuwa ta hanyar munanan ciwuka na hanyoyin numfashi.[23] Cutar asthma, musamman mummunar cutar asthma na da alaka da haifuwar munanan cututtukan toshewar pulmonary (COPD).[24][25][26] Wadanda ke dauke da cutar asthma musamman idan ba'a magance ta ba da kyau suna cikin hadarin kamuwa daga martani na radiocontrast agents.[27]

Lalacewar hakori na yawan faruwa ga masu dauke da cutar asthma.[28] Hakan na iya zama a dalilin illolin beta 2 agonists wajen rage yawan miyau.[29] Wannan matsala ka iya haifar da matsalar sauya fasalin hakori - dental erosion.[29]

Siloli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana kamuwa ne da cutar asthma ta hanyar muhalli sarkakkiyar kuma mara kyau da kuma kwayoyin halitta na gado.[30][31] Hakan yana tasiri akan tsananinta da kuma jin maganinta.[32] Anyi amanna da cewa karuwar samun masu cutar asthma yana da dangantaka da sauyin epigenetics (abubuwan gado wanda basu da alaka da kwayoyin haihuwa - DNA), da kuma sauyin muhalli na rayuwa.[33] Cutar asthma da ke kama mutum tun yana dan shekara 12 watakila na da alaka da gado, a yayinda kuma asthma da ke kama mutum bayan shekaru 12 na da alaka da muhalli.[34]

Muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai al'amurran muhalli da dama da aka danganta da cutar asthma, wanda suka hada da allergies, gurbacewar iska, da sauran sinadarai dake cikin muhalli.[35] Akwai abubuwan da aka sani wadanda ke janyo cutar asthma ga wanda suka cidanya da su kuma ana kiransu da Asthmagens. Daga cikin wadannan sinadarai na asthmagens akwai ammonia, latex, magungunan kwari, solder da burbushin walda, kura na karfe da katako, feshin fentin isocyanate a wajen gyaran ababen hawa, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, anhydrides, gam, abun rini, abubuwan aikin karfe, maiko, da kuma kwayoyin bakteriya (molds).[36][37] Shan sigari ga mai ciki ko kuma bayan haihuwa na da matukan hadarin kamuwa da cutar asthma.[38] Karancin ingancin iska a muhalli a dalilin hayakin ababen hawa kamar Gurbacewar iska a dalilin konewar man-fetur, ko kuma yawaitar matakin Ozone,[39] na da alaka da bunkasar cutar asthma da kuma tsananinta.[40] Kusan rabin cutar asthma a cikin kananan yara a America suna faruwa ne yankunan da ingancin iskansu bai kai matakin da EPA suka gindaya ba.[41] Karancin iska mai inganci yafi yawa a unguwannin talakawa.[42]

Cutar asthma na da alaka da cudanya da abubuwan da huhu bai so (allergens) na cikin gida.[43] Sanannu daga cikin abubuwan cikin gida da ke janyo cutar asthma sun hada da kwayoyin halittu dake cikin kura, Kyankyasai, gashin dabbobi, da mold.[44][45] Wasu daga cikin kwayoyin virus da ke kama hanyoyin numfashi kamar respiratory syncytial virus da rhinovirus kan iya janyo karuwar sanadiyyar kamuwa da cutar asthma a kananan yara, amma kuma wasu daga cikin cututtukan da ake iya kamuwa dasu kan rage hadarin kamuwa da cutar asthma.[46]

Azancin kula da tsafta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Azancin kula da tsafta wato hygiene hypothesis yana yunkurin bayani akan yadda cutar asthma ke kara yaduwa a duk fadin duniya a sakamako na kai tsaye wanda ba cikin tsari ba na rashin sani, a yayin yarinta, ga bakteriya da kuma virus.[47][48] An ayyana cewa, rage yawan backeriya da virus na da alaka da tsaftar muhalli da karancin yawan iyali a cikin al'umman wannan zamani.[49] Cudanya da endotoxin na backtriya yayin yarinta ka iya magance hadarin kamuwa da cutar asthma, amma kuma cudanya da ita yayin tsufa ka iya janyo bronchoconstriction.[50] Hujjar da ke karfafawa azacin kula da tsafa baya shine karancin kamuwa da cutar asthma a gonaki da kuma gidajen da ke da dabbobin gida.[49]

Amfani da magungunan antibiotics a farkon rayuwa na da hadarin kamuwa da cutar asthma.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  2. NHLBI Guideline 2007, pp. 11–12
  3. GINA 2011, p. 20,51
  4. 4.0 4.1 Drazen GM, Bel EH (2020). "81. Asthma". In Goldman L, Schafer AI (eds.). Goldman-Cecil Medicine. Vol. 1 (26th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier. pp. 527–535. ISBN 978-0-323-55087-1.
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  11. NHLBI Guideline 2007, pp. 373–75
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