Dogon COVID-19

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Dogon COVID, wanda kuma aka sani da ciwon bayan-COVID-19, abubuwan da suka biyo baya na COVID-19 ( PASC ), ko ciwo na COVID-19 ( CCS ),[1][2][3] yanayi ne da ke da dogon lokaci. sequelae bayyana ko ya ci gaba bayan da hankula warwarewa tsawon COVID-19 . Dogon COVID na iya shafar kusan kowane tsarin gaɓar jiki tare da abubuwan da suka haɗa da rikice-rikicen tsarin numfashi, tsarin juyayi da cututtukan neurocognitive, rikicewar lafiyar hankali, rikicewar rayuwa, cututtukan zuciya, cututtukan gastrointestinal, rashin ƙarfi, gajiya, ciwon musculoskeletal, da anemia.[4] Ana tattauna yawancin alamun bayyanar cututtuka, ciki har da gajiya, ciwon kai, rashin ƙarfi na numfashi, anosmia ( asarar wari ), parosmia (ƙarataccen wari), raunin tsoka, ƙananan zazzabi da rashin aiki na hankali.[5]

Ba a san ainihin yanayin bayyanar cututtuka da adadin mutanen da suka fuskanci alamun bayyanar cututtuka na dogon lokaci ba kuma sun bambanta bisa ga ma'anar da aka yi amfani da su, yawan mutanen da ake nazarin, da lokacin da aka yi amfani da su a cikin binciken. Wani bincike da Ofishin Kididdiga na Kasa na Burtaniya ya yi ya kiyasta cewa kusan kashi 14% na mutanen da suka gwada ingancin SARS-CoV-2 sun sami alamun guda ɗaya ko fiye na tsawon watanni 3.[6] Wani bincike daga Jami'ar Oxford na mutane 273,618 da suka tsira daga COVID-19, akasari daga Amurka, ya nuna cewa kusan kashi 37% sun sami alamun guda ɗaya ko fiye tsakanin watanni 3 zuwa 6 bayan ganewar asali.[7]

Yayin da ake gudanar da bincike kan fannoni daban-daban na dogon lokaci na COVID,[8][9] As of November 2021 , har yanzu ba a san ma'anar cutar ba, kamar yadda tsarinta yake. An shirya tsarin kiwon lafiya a wasu ƙasashe da hukumomi don magance wannan rukunin marasa lafiya ta hanyar ƙirƙirar asibitoci na musamman da ba da shawara.[10][11][12] Gabaɗaya, duk da haka, ana la'akari da shi ta tsohuwa a matsayin cuta ta idiopathic da kuma ganewar cutarwa .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Kalmomi da ma'anoni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dogon COVID kalma ce da aka halicci mara lafiya wanda aka bayar da rahoton cewa an fara amfani da shi a cikin Mayu 2020 azaman hashtag akan Twitter ta Elisa Perego, masanin ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi a Kwalejin Jami'ar London.[13][14]

Dogon COVID ba shi da ma'ana guda ɗaya, mai tsauri.[15] Yana da al'ada kuma ana sa ran mutanen da suka fuskanci mummunan bayyanar cututtuka ko rikitarwa kamar ciwon kulawa mai tsanani ko cututtuka na biyu zasu dauki lokaci mai tsawo don murmurewa fiye da mutanen da ba sa buƙatar asibiti (wanda ake kira m COVID[16] ) kuma ba su da irin wannan rikitarwa. Bambance-bambancen tsanani na iya yin wahala a tantance ko saitin alamomin mutum da ke gudana yana wakiltar na yau da kullun, dogon jin daɗi, ko tsawaita; dogon COVID'. Ɗaya daga cikin ƙa'idodin babban yatsan yatsa shine tsayin COVID yana wakiltar alamun da suka wanzu sama da watanni biyu, kodayake babu wani dalili na yarda cewa wannan zaɓin yanke ya keɓanta da kamuwa da cutar ta SARS-CoV-2.[15]

Ma'anar Burtaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cibiyar Kiwon Lafiya ta Biritaniya da Kyawun Kulawa (NICE) ta raba COVID-19 zuwa ma'anoni guda uku na asibiti:

  • m COVID-19 ga alamu da alamu a cikin makonni 4 na farko bayan kamuwa da cuta mai tsanani na numfashi mai tsanani coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shine na farko, kuma
  • dogon Covid don sababbin alamu ko ci gaba da alamun makonni 4 ko fiye bayan fara m COVID-19, wanda ya kasu kashi biyu:
    • ci gaba da alamun COVID-19 don sakamako daga makonni 4 zuwa 12 bayan farawa, da
    • ciwon bayan-COVID-19 don tasirin da ke dawwama makonni 12 ko fiye bayan farawa.

NICE ta kwatanta kalmar dogon COVID, wacce take amfani da ita "ban da ma'anar shari'ar asibiti", kamar yadda "an fi amfani da ita don bayyana alamu da alamun da ke ci gaba ko haɓaka bayan m COVID-19. Ya haɗa da alamun COVID-19 mai gudana (daga makonni 4 zuwa 12) da ciwon bayan-COVID-19 (makonni 12 ko fiye)."[17]

NICE ta bayyana ciwon bayan-COVID-19 a matsayin "alamomi da alamomin da ke tasowa yayin ko bayan kamuwa da cuta da ke daidai da COVID-19, suna ci gaba fiye da makonni 12 kuma ba a bayyana su ta hanyar wata hanyar tantancewa ba. Yawancin lokaci yana gabatar da gungu na alamun bayyanar cututtuka, sau da yawa suna haɗuwa, wanda zai iya canzawa kuma ya canza akan lokaci kuma zai iya rinjayar kowane tsarin a cikin jiki. Ana iya la'akari da ciwon bayan-COVID-19 kafin makonni 12 yayin da ake kuma tantance yiwuwar wata cuta ta daban."[17]

Ma'anar Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Fabrairu 2021, Daraktan Cibiyoyin Lafiya na Amurka (NIH) Francis Collins, ya nuna alamun Covid-19 ga mutanen da "ba sa murmurewa gaba daya cikin 'yan makonni", ana kiran su gaba ɗaya azaman Post-Acute Sequelae na SARS. -CoV-2 kamuwa da cuta (PASC). NIH ta lissafa dogayen alamun COVID na gajiya, gajeriyar numfashi, " hazo na kwakwalwa ", matsalar barci, zazzabi mai tsaka-tsaki, alamun gastrointestinal, damuwa, da damuwa. Alamun na iya dawwama na tsawon watanni kuma suna iya kamawa daga mai sauƙi zuwa rashin ƙarfi, tare da sabbin alamomin da ke tasowa da kyau bayan lokacin kamuwa da cuta. [18] Kalmar CDC Post-Covid Conditions ya cancanci dogon Covid azaman alamun makonni 4 ko fiye bayan kamuwa da cuta ta farko.[19]

Alamun[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani bita na kimiyya ya gano sama da 50 bayyanannun tasirin dogon lokaci - gami da na 'dogon COVID' - tare da ƙididdigar yawansu kuma an kiyasta cewa kashi 80% na waɗanda aka haɗa da marasa lafiya suna da aƙalla tasirin gabaɗaya sama da makonni 2.

Wani binciken kan layi na ƙasa da ƙasa tare da mahalarta 3,762 tare da rashin lafiya da ke daɗe fiye da kwanaki 28 ya gano cewa murmurewa yana ɗaukar fiye da makonni 35 na 91% daga cikinsu. A matsakaita, mahalarta sun sami alamun alamun 56 (daidaitacce ± 25.5) a cikin tsarin gabobin 9. Alamun sun bambanta a tsawon lokaci, kuma mafi yawan bayyanar cututtuka bayan watanni 6 sune gajiya, rashin jin dadi bayan motsa jiki da rashin fahimta . Komawar alamar ta faru a cikin 86% na mahalarta abubuwan da suka haifar da ƙoƙarin jiki ko tunani ko ta damuwa. An gano ƙungiyoyi uku na bayyanar cututtuka: alamun farko da suka yi girma a cikin makonni biyu zuwa uku na farko sannan kuma su ragu; barga bayyanar cututtuka; da alamun da ke karuwa sosai a cikin watanni biyu na farko sannan kuma suka daidaita.[20]

Alamomin da mutanen da ke da dogon COVID suka ruwaito sun haɗa da:[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]

Epidemiology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu rahotanni na rashin lafiya na dogon lokaci bayan kamuwa da cuta sun bayyana da wuri yayin cutar ta COVID-19,[26][29] ciki har da mutanen da ke da laushi (ba sa buƙatar asibiti [30] ) ko matsakaici (na buƙatar ƙarin oxygen [30]) na farko. kamuwa da cuta[31] da kuma wadanda aka kwantar da su a asibiti tare da kamuwa da cuta mai tsanani.[32][33] A cikin binciken shekaru 4 biyo bayan SARS a Hong Kong, 42.5% na waɗanda suka tsira sun ba da rahoton aƙalla cutar tabin hankali da za a iya ganowa wanda ya fito daga rikice-rikicen damuwa bayan tashin hankali, damuwa, da gajiya na yau da kullun.[34]

Tun daga shekarar 2021, ba a san ainihin abin da ya faru ba. Lamarin yana raguwa cikin lokaci, yayin da mutane da yawa ke murmurewa a hankali. Wasu binciken farko sun ba da shawarar cewa tsakanin kashi 20% zuwa 33% na mutanen da ke da COVID-19 sun sami alamun alamun da suka wuce tsawon wata guda.[35][36] Wani binciken wayar tarho a Amurka a farkon rabin shekarar 2020 ya nuna cewa kusan kashi 35% na mutanen da suka gwada inganci ga SARS-CoV-2 sun sami alamun alamun da suka wuce sama da makonni uku.[35] Tun daga watan Disamba 2020, Ofishin Kididdiga na Kasa a Burtaniya ya kiyasta cewa, na duk mutanen da ke da ingantacciyar gwaji don SARS-CoV-2, kusan kashi 21% sun sami alamun cutar sama da makonni biyar, kuma kusan kashi 10% sun sami alamun cutar fiye da makonni 12.[33][37][38]

Wasu nazarin sun ba da shawarar cewa wasu yara suna fuskantar alamun kamuwa da cutar SARS-CoV-2.[39][40][41]

Kodayake duk wanda ya kamu da cutar na iya samun dogon COVID, mutanen da suka kamu da rashin lafiya har suna buƙatar asibiti suna ɗaukar lokaci mai tsawo suna murmurewa. Yawancin (har zuwa 80%[42] ) na waɗanda aka kwantar da su a asibiti tare da ciwo mai tsanani suna fuskantar matsaloli na dogon lokaci ciki har da gajiya da ƙarancin numfashi ( dyspnea ).[43][44][45] Marasa lafiya da ke fama da kamuwa da cuta na farko, musamman waɗanda ke buƙatar iskar injina don taimakawa numfashi, suma suna iya fama da ciwon kulawa bayan murmurewa.[30] Wani bincike da aka yi kan majinyata da ke kwance a asibiti a Wuhan ya gano cewa mafi yawansu har yanzu suna da a kalla alamu guda daya bayan watanni shida. Marasa lafiya waɗanda suka fi fama da rashin lafiya har yanzu sun nuna rashin ƙarfi a cikin aikin huhu.[46] Daga cikin marasa lafiya 1733 da aka sallame su daga asibiti kuma aka bi su bayan kimanin watanni shida, alamun da aka fi sani da su sune gajiya ko raunin tsoka (63%), matsalolin barci (26%), da damuwa ko damuwa (23%).[47]

Wasu mutane suna fama da alamun cututtukan neurologic na dogon lokaci duk da cewa ba a taɓa yin su a asibiti don COVID-19 ba; An buga binciken farko na wannan yawan a cikin Maris 2021. Mafi akai-akai, waɗannan marasa lafiya marasa asibiti sun sami "fitattun 'hazo na kwakwalwa' da kuma gajiya da ke shafar fahimtarsu da ingancin rayuwarsu."[48][49]

A cikin Janairu 2021, wani bincike a Burtaniya ya ba da rahoton cewa kashi 30 cikin 100 na marasa lafiyar da aka dawo da su an dawo da su asibiti cikin kwanaki 140, kuma kashi 12% na jimlar sun mutu. Yawancin marasa lafiya sun kamu da ciwon sukari a karon farko, da kuma matsalolin zuciya, hanta da matsalolin koda. Yanayin gazawar insulin a lokacin ba a san shi ba.[50]

A cikin Maris 2021, Associationungiyar Likitocin Indonesiya, a cikin wani bincike na mutane 463, sun ba da shawarar cewa kashi 63.5% na masu amsa sun ba da rahoton alamun bayyanar da kansu bayan kamuwa da cutar ta SARS-CoV-2. Ba a ƙayyade ainihin alamun bayyanar cututtuka ba, duk da haka, bisa ga labarin, gajiya da tari sune mafi yawan bayyanar cututtuka da aka ruwaito, sannan kuma ciwon tsoka da ciwon kai.[51]

A cikin Mayu 2021, wani bita na tsarin duniya wanda masu bincike a Jami'ar Stanford suka jagoranta sun ba da rahoton cewa alamu iri-iri sun ci gaba a cikin sama da kashi 70% na marasa lafiya na COVID-19 watanni bayan murmurewa daga farkon cutar. Yawancin marasa lafiya a cikin wannan binciken sun kasance a baya asibiti. Mafi yawan alamun dadewa sun haɗa da ƙarancin numfashi, gajiya, da rashin barci. Gabaɗaya, binciken ya ba da rahoton alamun asibiti 84 ko alamu, gami da asarar ɗanɗano da wari, rikicewar fahimta kamar asarar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da wahalar mai da hankali, damuwa, da damuwa.[52]

A cikin watan Yuni 2021, wani dogon nazari a Bergen, Norway, ya gano kashi 52% (31/61) na ƙungiyar matasa masu zaman kansu, masu shekaru 16-30, sun ci gaba da fuskantar alamu a cikin watanni shida. Binciken ya kama kashi 82% (312) na bullar cutar ta farko: 247 keɓe gida kuma 65 suna asibiti.[53][54]

Akwai ƴan bayanai kan dogon COVID biyo bayan kamuwa da cutar (lala'i a cikin mutanen da ke da cikakken alurar riga kafi). [55] A cikin Yuli 2021, wani bincike tare da 1,497 ƙwararrun likitocin kiwon lafiya masu cikakken alurar riga kafi a cikin Isra'ila sun ba da rahoton cewa kashi 19% na waɗanda aka gwada (7 cikin 36 masu kamuwa da cutar) suma suna da alamun COVID-19 masu tsayi a cikin makonni 6 ko sama da haka, tare da bambancin Alpha da aka gano a cikin 85. % na tabbataccen lokuta.[56]

A watan Agustan 2021, wani binciken da aka yi a asibitoci 1,276 da suka tsira daga barkewar cutar a farkon shekarar 2020 a Wuhan ya ba da rahoton cewa, yayin da yawancin alamomin suka bace kan lokaci kuma kashi 88% na wadanda suka yi aiki a baya sun koma bakin aikinsu na asali, kashi 49% daga cikinsu suna da aƙalla mabiyi ɗaya na watanni 12. bayan an sallame su daga asibiti, kuma yanayin lafiyar kungiyar ya yi kasa da na yawan jama'a. Mata yana da mafi damar da gajiya, tsoka rauni, tashin hankali, ciki, ko sosai huhu yadawa idan aka kwatanta da maza. Har ila yau, binciken ya gano cewa wadanda suka tsira sun kasance cikin haɗari ga sakamakon tabin hankali kamar damuwa da damuwa.[54]

Wani bincike na Satumba 2021 da aka buga a cikin The Lancet ya gano cewa samun allurai biyu na rigakafin COVID-19 ya rage rashin daidaiton dogon COVID.[55]

Dalilai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A halin yanzu ba a san dalilin da yasa yawancin mutane ke murmurewa sosai a cikin makonni biyu zuwa uku kuma wasu suna fuskantar alamun alamun tsawon makonni ko watanni.[56] Kodayake ainihin hanyoyin da ke haifar da dogon COVID har yanzu ba a san su ba, an ba da shawarar dabaru da yawa.

Wani labarin bita na Maris 2021 ya ambaci waɗannan hanyoyin ilimin halittar jiki a matsayin manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da dogon COVID:[57]

  • guba kai tsaye a cikin ƙwayoyin cuta masu kamuwa da ƙwayoyin cuta, musamman huhu
  • ci gaba da kumburi saboda bayan kamuwa da cuta tsarin rigakafi dysregulation
  • Raunin jijiyoyin jini da ischemia da ke haifar da cutar ta haifar da hypercoagulability da thromboses
  • Rashin tsarin tsarin renin-angiotensin da ke da alaƙa da tasirin SARS-CoV-2 akan ƙwayar ACE2

A cikin Oktoba 2020, wani bita da Cibiyar Nazarin Lafiya ta Ƙasa ta Burtaniya ta yi hasashe cewa doguwar alamun COVID na iya kasancewa saboda cututtuka guda huɗu:[27][58]

  • lalacewa ta dindindin ga huhu da zuciya ,
  • ciwon bayan jin zafi ,
  • Rashin gajiya bayan kamuwa da cuta, wani lokaci ana ɗaukarsa iri ɗaya da Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), da
  • ci gaba da alamun COVID-19 .

Sauran yanayin da ka iya haifar da sababbin alamu da ci gaba sun haɗa da:

  • kwayar cutar tana kasancewa na tsawon lokaci fiye da yadda aka saba, saboda rashin amsawar rigakafi mara inganci;[56]
  • sake kamuwa da cuta (misali, tare da wani nau'in ƙwayar cuta);[56]
  • lalacewa ta hanyar kumburi da kuma karfin rigakafi mai karfi ga kamuwa da cuta;[56]
  • lalata jiki saboda rashin motsa jiki yayin rashin lafiya; [59] kuma
  • Damuwa bayan tashin hankali ko wasu[56] musamman a cikin mutanen da a baya suka fuskanci damuwa, damuwa, rashin barci, ko wasu matsalolin lafiyar hankali. [60][ Babu tushen tushen da ake buƙata ]

Kamanceceniya da sauran cututtuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dogon COVID yayi kama da ciwon bayan-Ebola da ciwon bayan kamuwa da cuta da ake gani a chikungunya da cututtukan da ke bayyana suna haifar da ME/CFS, kuma ilimin halittar jiki na dogon COVID na iya zama kama da waɗannan yanayi.[15] Wasu dogayen marasa lafiya na COVID a cikin Kanada an gano su da myalgic encephalomyelitis/na kullum gajiya ciwo, "mai raɗaɗi, cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta da yawa waɗanda aka yi imanin cewa wata cuta ce ta haifar da cutar a mafi yawan lokuta". Lucinda Bateman, kwararriya a ME/CFS a Salt Lake City a Amurka ta yi imanin cewa ciwon guda biyu iri ɗaya ne. Akwai buƙatar ƙarin bincike a cikin ME/CFS; Anthony Fauci, babban mai ba da shawara kan harkokin kiwon lafiya ga gwamnatin Amurka, ya ce COVID-19 "wani sanannen wakili ne na ilimin etiologic wanda ya kamata ya taimaka sosai a yanzu wajen samun damar fahimtar [ME/CFS]"[61]

Abubuwan haɗari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangane da binciken King's College London da aka fara bugawa a ranar 21 ga Oktoba 2020 abubuwan haɗari na dogon COVID na iya haɗawa da:[62][63][64]

  • Shekaru - musamman wadanda suka haura 50
  • Kiba[64]
  • Asma
  • Bayar da rahotanni sama da alamomi biyar (misali fiye da tari, gajiya, ciwon kai, gudawa, asarar jin wari) a cikin makon farko na kamuwa da cutar COVID-19; biyar shine matsakaicin lamba da aka ruwaito 

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Long Covid on YouTube (21 October 2020) – UK Government film about long COVID.
  • "PHOSP". Home. University of Leicester. The Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a consortium of leading researchers and clinicians from across the UK working together to understand and improve long-term health outcomes for patients who have been in hospital with confirmed or suspected COVID-19.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  2. Staff (13 November 2020). "Long-Term Effects of COVID-19". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
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  4. Al-Aly Z, Xie Y, Bowe B (June 2021). "High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19". Nature. 594 (7862): 259–64. Bibcode:2021Natur.594..259A. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03553-9. PMID 33887749 Check |pmid= value (help).
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  7. Taquet M, Derco Q, Luciano S, Geddes JR, Husain M, Harrison, et al. (28 September 2021). "Incidence, co-occurrence, and evolution of long-COVID features: A 6-month retrospective cohort study of 273,618 survivors of COVID-19". PLoS Medicine. 20 (9): 1–22. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003773.
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  19. CDC (11 February 2020). "Post-COVID Conditions". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  20. Davis HE, Assaf GS, McCorkell L, Wei H, Low RJ, Re'em Y, et al. (July 2021). "Characterizing long COVID in an international cohort: 7 months of symptoms and their impact". EClinicalMedicine. 38: 101019. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101019. PMC 8280690 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 34308300 Check |pmid= value (help).
  21. "COVID-19 (coronavirus): Long-term effects". Mayo Clinic. 18 August 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  22. "What are the long-term health risks following COVID-19?". NewsGP. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP). 24 June 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
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