Zazzaɓi

Daga Wikipedia
A tsallaka zuwa: Shawagi, nema
Zazzaɓi
ZazzaɓiPlasmodium daga yawun macen sauro moving across a mosquito cell.
Plasmodium daga yawun macen sauro moving across a mosquito cell.
Rabe-rabe da ma'adanai da waje
ICD/CIM-10 B50-B54 B50-B54
ICD/CIM-9 084 084
OMIM 248310
DiseasesDB 7728
MedlinePlus 000621

Zazzaɓi Cutar da sauro ke yaɗawa tsakanin mutane da sauran dabbobi daga ƙwayoyin cuta protozoans (wata ƙwayar cutar microorganism) ta yanayin Plasmodium .[1] Alamomin zazzaɓi sun haɗa da janti, gajiya, amai da ciwon kai. Idan ya yi tsanani yana haddasa fata ta zama ruwan ɗorawa, sanƙamewar jiki, suma ko mutuwa.[2] Waɗan nan alamomi na bayyana kwanaki goma zuwa sha biyar bayan cizon sauro. Ga waɗanda ba su sami magani sosai ba cutar na iya dawowa bayan wasu watanni.[1] Ga waɗanda suka rayu bayan sun kamu, sake kamuwa na iya haifar da alamomi marasa tsanani. Wannan juriya ta taƙaitaccen lokaci na ɓacewa a cikin watanni zuwa shekaru idan ba'a sami sake kamuwa da zazzaɓi ba.[2]

Yawanci, cutar na yaɗuwa daga cizon tamatar sauro mai ɗauke da cutar wato sauro Anopheles. Wannan cizon shi ya kan shigar da ƙwayar cutar daga yawun sauron zuwa cikin jini na mutum.[1] Sai kuma ƙwayar cutar ta tafi zuwa hanta inda za ta balaga kuma ta hayayyafa. Mutane na iya harbuwa kuma su yaɗa jinsi biyar na Plasmodium.[2] Sanadi na yawaicin mutuwa sababinta daga P. falciparum tare da P. vivax, P. ovale, da P. malariae waɗanda ke haifar da yanayin zazzaɓi sassauƙa.[1][2] Jinsin P. knowlesi bai cika haifar da cutuka ga mutane ba.[1] Ana maganin zazzaɓi ta hanyar nazarin jini da madubin likita da amfani da hotunan jini, ko kuma da fasaha mai gano ƙwayar cuta antigen wato gwaje-gwajen gaggawa domin magani.[2] Hanyar gwaji mai amfani da jerin alamomi ta polymerase domin gano DNA na ƙwayar cutar ana samar da ita, amma ba'a cika amfani da ita ba a sassan da cutar zazzaɓi ta zama game-gari sabo da tsadarsa da kuma wahala.[3]

Za'a iya rage haɗarin kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar hana cizon sauro ta amafni da gidan sauro da magani mai korar sauro, ko ta yin amfani da matakai na hana yaɗuwar sauro kamar feshin maganin sauro da kuma hana kwanciyar ruwa.[2] Akwai magunguna masu yawa domin kare zazzaɓi daga matafiya zuwa shiyyoyin da cutar ta zama ruwan-dare. Shan magani akai-akai sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine na da matuƙar kyau ga yara da kuma bayan wata uku na farko na samun ciki a shiyyoyi da aka fi samun zazzaɓi. Duk da bukatar da ake da ita, babu wata ingantacciyar allura da ake da ita, duk da cewa ƙoƙarin samar da wata na ci gaba.[1] Maganin zazzaɓi da ka bayar da shawara a kansa haɗi ne da maganin zazzaɓi wanda ya haɗa da artemisinin.[1][2] Magani na biyu na iya zama mefloquine, lumefantrine, ko sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.[4] Za'a iya amfani da Quinine tare da doxycycline idan ba'a sami artemisinin ba.[4] Ana bayar da shawara cewa a wuraren da cutar ta zama ruwan-dare, idan zai yiwu, a tabbatar da zazzaɓin cizon sauron kafin a fara bayar da magani sabo da damuwar da ake da ita ta wajen ƙaruwar bijirewa magani da cutar ke yi. Bijirewa na ƙaruwa ga yawaicin magungunan zazzaɓin cizon sauro; misali, bijirewa chloroquine P. falciparum ya yaɗu a yankuna masu zazzaɓin cizon sauro, kuma bijirewa artemisinin ya zama matsala a wasu sassa na Kudancin Asia.[1]

Cutar ta fi yaɗuwa a wurare masu zafin yanayi da kuma ɓangarori da kusa da wurin zafi waɗan da ke kusa da inda layin equator ya keta.[2] Wannan ya haɗa da mafi yawan kusa da Saharar Afirka, Asia, da Latin America. Ƙungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya ta ƙiyasta cewa a 2012, an sami matsalar zazzaɓin cizon sauro miliyan 207. A wannan shekarar, an ƙiyasta cewa cutar ta hallaka a ƙalla tsakanin mutane miliyan 473,000 da mutane 789,000, mafi yawansu yara a nahiyar Afirka.[1] Yawaici a kan alaƙanta cutar zazzaɓin cizon sauro da talauci kuma ya na shafar haɓakar tattalin arziki.[5][6] A nahiyar Afirka an ƙiyasta cewa ya jawo asarar Dalar Amurka biliyan 12 a shekara sabo da ƙaruwar tsadar kiwon lafiya, rashin samun damar yin aiki da kuma illoli ga yawon buɗe-idanu.[7]

Abubuwan da aka duba[gyarawa | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Malaria Fact sheet N°94". WHO. March 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Caraballo, Hector (May 2014). "Emergency Department Management Of Mosquito-Borne Illness: Malaria, Dengue, And West Nile Virus". Emergency Medicine Practice 16 (5). 
  3. Nadjm B, Behrens RH (2012). "Malaria: An update for physicians". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 26 (2): 243–59. PMID 22632637. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2012.03.010. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Organization, World Health (2010). Guidelines for the treatment of malaria (2nd ed. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. ix. ISBN 9789241547925. 
  5. Gollin D, Zimmermann C (August 2007). Malaria: Disease Impacts and Long-Run Income Differences (PDF). Institute for the Study of Labor. 
  6. Worrall E, Basu S, Hanson K (2005). "Is malaria a disease of poverty? A review of the literature". Tropical Health and Medicine 10 (10): 1047–59. PMID 16185240. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01476.x.  open access publication - free to read
  7. Greenwood BM, Bojang K, Whitty CJ, Targett GA (2005). "Malaria". Lancet 365 (9469): 1487–98. PMID 15850634. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66420-3.