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Lassa fever

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Lassa fever
Description (en) Fassara
Iri arenavirus hemorrhagic fever (en) Fassara, hospital-acquired infection (en) Fassara, viral hemorrhagic fever (en) Fassara, viral infectious disease (en) Fassara
cuta
Specialty (en) Fassara infectious diseases (en) Fassara
Sanadi Lassa virus (en) Fassara
Symptoms and signs (en) Fassara zazzaɓi, poisoning (en) Fassara, ciwon kai, myalgia (en) Fassara, Rashin karfi, nausea (en) Fassara, amai, gudawa, Ciwon ciki, vertigo (en) Fassara, hyperaemia (en) Fassara, Kumburi, Conjunctivitis, sore throat (en) Fassara, internal bleeding (en) Fassara, rash (en) Fassara, stomatitis (en) Fassara, tari, chest pain (en) Fassara, hypovolemic shock (en) Fassara, Ciwon hanta, encephalopathy (en) Fassara, Ciwon huhu, pleurisy (en) Fassara, pulmonary edema (en) Fassara, myocarditis (en) Fassara, disseminated intravascular coagulation (en) Fassara, Gazawar zuciya, alopecia (en) Fassara, kurãme, ascites (en) Fassara
bleeding (en) Fassara
Disease transmission process (en) Fassara contact transmission (en) Fassara
haemocontact transmission of pathogen (en) Fassara
Physical examination (en) Fassara physical examination (en) Fassara
viral culture (en) Fassara
Suna saboda Lassa (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-10-CM A96.2
ICD-9-CM 078.89
ICD-9 078.8
DiseasesDB 7272
MeSH D007835
Disease Ontology ID DOID:9537

Zazzabin Lassa, wanda kuma ake kira Lassa Hemorrhagic Fever ( LHF), wani nau'in zazzabi ne na jini wanda kwayar cutar Lassa ke haifarwa. [1] Yawancin wadanda suka kamu da da cutar kwayar cutar ba su da alamun bayyanar . [1] Lokacin da bayyanar cututtuka suka faru yawanci sun haɗa da zazzabi, rauni, ciwon kai, amai, da ciwon tsoka. [1] Galibi ana iya samun zub da jini daga baki ko na hanji. [1] Haɗarin mutuwa da zarar kamuwa da cuta ya kai kusan kashi ɗaya cikin ɗari kuma yawanci yana faruwa a cikin makonni biyu na farkon bayyanar cututtuka. [1] Daga cikin ciki waɗanda suka tsira, kusan kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu suna da asarar ji, wanda ya inganta a cikin watanni uku a cikin kusan rabin waɗannan lokuta.

Yawanci da farko cutar tana yaɗuwa ga mutane ta hanyar saduwa da fitsari ko najasa na linzamin kwamfuta mai yawan gaske . Yadawa na iya faruwa ta hanyar hulɗa kai tsaye kai tasaye tsakanin mutane. [1] Ganewa dangane da alamomi yana da wahala. [1] Tabbatarwa shine ta gwajin dakin gwaje-gwaje don gano kwayar cutar RNA, kwayoyin rigakafin cutar, ko ita kanta kwayar cutar a cikin al'adar tantanin halitta . [1] Sauran yanayi da za su iya bayyana irin wannan sun hada da Ebola, zazzabin cizon sauro, zazzabin typhoid, da zazzabin rawaya . [1] Kwayar cutar Lassa memba ce ta dangin Arenaviridae na ƙwayoyin cuta . [1]

Babu maganin alurar riga kafi . [2] Rigakafin yana buƙatar ware waɗanda suka kamu da cutar da rage hulɗa da berayen. Sauran sauran yunƙurin shawo kan yaduwar cututtuka sun haɗa da samun kyanwa don farautar kwari, da kuma adana abinci a cikin kwantena da aka rufe. [1] Ana yin magani don magance rashin ruwa da inganta alamun. [1] An ba da shawarar magungunan rigakafin cutar ribavirin, [1] amma shaidar da ke tabbatar da amfani da ita ba ta da ƙarfi. [3]

Bayanin cutar tun daga shekarun shekarar 1950. An fara bayyana cutar ne a shekarar ta 1969 daga wani mutum da ya kamu da cutar a garin Lassa da ke jihar Borno a Najeriya . [1] [4] Zazzabin Lassa fever ya zama ruwan dare gama gari a yammacin Afirka ciki har da kasashen Najeriya da Laberiya da Saliyo da Guinea da kuma Ghana . [1] [5] Akwai kimanin mutane 300,000 zuwa 500,000 wadanda ke haifar da mutuwar mutane 5,000 a shekara. [5] [6]  

Alamomi da alamomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Farawar bayyanar cututtuka yawanci kwanaki 7 zuwa 21 ne bayan fallasa. A cikin kashi 80% na waɗanda suka kamu da cutar kaɗan ko babu alamun bayyanar. [7] [8] Waɗannan ƙananan bayyanar cututtuka na iya haɗawa da zazzabi, gajiya, rauni, da ciwon Ciwon kai. [7] A cikin kashi 20 cikin 100 na mutane mafi tsanani bayyanar cututtuka irin su gumi na jini, matsalolin numfashi, amai, ciwon kirji, ko ƙananan jini mai haɗari na iya faruwa. [7] Rigingimu na dogon lokaci na iya haɗawa da asarar ji . [7] A cikin wadanda ke da ciki, zubar da ciki na iya faruwa a cikin kashi 95% na mata masu haihuwa. [7] Zazzabin Lassa na iya zama da wahala a iya bambanta a asibiti da sauran sauran zazzaɓin jini na ƙwayoyin cuta, kamar cutar cutar Ebola . Haɗuwa da pharyngitis, jin zafi a bayan kashin baya, kasancewar furotin da yawa a cikin fitsari da zazzabi na iya nuna zazzabin Lassa fever tare da ƙayyadaddun mahimmanci. [9]

A lokuta da mutuwa ta faru, wannan yawanci yana faruwa a cikin kwanaki 14 da farawa. Kusan kashi 1% na duk cututtukan Lassa na haifar da mutuwa. [7] Kimanin kashi 15% -20% na wadanda suka bukaci asibiti saboda zazzabin Lassa na mutuwa. [7] Hadarin mutuwa ya fi girma a cikin masu ciki. [7] "Ciwon jariri mai kumbura" na iya faruwa a cikin jarirai, jarirai da yara masu raɗaɗi, kumburin ciki da zubar jini. [10]

Dalili[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwayoyin cuta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Micrograph na watsawa na lantarki (TEM) na adadin ƙwayoyin cuta na Lassa da ke kusa da wasu tarkace ta cell.

Kwayar cutar Lassa memba ce ta Arenaviridae, dangin mara hankali, ƙwayoyin cuta na RNA guda ɗaya. [11] Musamman tsohuwar ƙwayar cuta ce ta duniya, wacce aka lulluɓe, mai ɗaci ɗaya, da RNA mai sassa biyu. Wannan kwayar cutar tana da babba da karami kara mu bangaren kwayoyin halitta, wadanda aka gano zuriyarsu har zuwa yau: Josiah (Sierra Leone), GA391 (Nigeria), LP (Nigeria) da kuma nau'in AV. [12]

Yaɗa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mastomys natalensis, tafki na halitta na cutar zazzabin Lassa

Kwayar cutar Lassa tana yaduwa zuwa ga mutane daga wasu dabbobi, musamman ma'aunin linzamin kwamfuta na Natal multimammate ko bera na yankin Afirka, wanda kuma ake kira Natal multimammate rat ( Mastomys natalensis ). [13] Wannan shi ne mai yiwuwa linzamin kwamfuta da aka aka fi sani da shi a yankin Equatorial Afirka, wanda ya zama ruwan dare a cikin gidajen mutane kuma ana ci a amatsayin abinci a wasu wurare. [13]

Mouse mai yawan mammate na iya haifar da ɗimbin zuriya cikin sauri, yana mai da hankali kan mamaye matsugunan ɗan adam, yana ƙara haɗarin haɗuwa da ɗan adam, kuma ana samunsa a cikin yamma, tsakiya da da gabashin nahiyar Afirka. [14]

Da zarar linzamin kwamfuta ya zama mai ɗaukar hoto, zai fitar da kwayar cutar a duk tsawon rayuwarsa ta hanyar najasa da fitsari wanda zai samar da damammaki na fallasa. [14] Wataƙila ana kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar tuntuɓar najasa ko fitsarin fitsarin dabbobi masu shiga shagunan hatsi a wuraren zama. Babu baby wani binciken da ya tabbatar da kasancewar a cikin nono, amma babban matakin viremia yana nuna yana iya yiwuwa. [10]

Mutanen da ke cikin haɗarin kamuwa da cutar su ne waɗanda ke zaune a yankunan karkara inda aka gano mastomy, kuma inda tsafta ba ta zama ruwan dare ba. Kamuwa da cuta yawanci yana faruwa ta hanyar kai tsaye ko kai tsaye bayyanar da najasar dabba ta hanyoyin numfashi ko na ciki. An yi imanin shakar ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta (aerosol) shine mafi mahimmancin hanyar fallasa. Yana yiwuwa a iya samun kamuwa da cuta ta hanyar karyewar fata ko ƙwayoyin mucosa waɗanda ke fallasa kai tsaye ga kayan kamuwa da cuta. An kafa watsawa daga mutum zuwa mutum mutum, yana gabatar da haɗarin cuta ga ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya. Kwayar cutar tana cikin fitsari tsakanin makonni uku zuwa tara bayan kamuwa da ita, kuma ana iya yada ta a cikin maniyyi har tsawon watanni uku bayan kamuwa da ita. [13]

Bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ma'aikatan dakin gwaje-gwaje na Laberiya a cikin kayan kariya na sirri suna shirin gwada samfurin zazzabin Lassa.

Ana yin gwaje-gwajen gwaje-gwaje iri-iri, inda zai yiwu, don tantance cutar da tantance yanayinta da rikice-rikice. Ana iya ɓata kwarin gwiwar gano cutar idan ba a sami gwajin gwaji ba. Ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da ke tattare da shi shine yawan cututtukan zazzabi da ake samu a Afirka, kamar zazzabin cizon sauro ko typhoid wanda zai iya haifar da irin wannan alamomi, musamman ga alamun zazzabin Lassa da ba na musamman ba. [11] A lokuta da ciwon ciki, a kasashen da Lassa ya zama ruwan dare, sau da yawa ana gane zazzabin Lassa a matsayin appendicitis da intussusception wanda ke jinkirta jiyya da ribavirin antiviral . [15] A yammacin Afirka, inda Lassa ya fi yawa, yana da wuya a gano cutar saboda rashin kayan aikin gwaji. [16]

FDA har yanzu ba ta amince da ingantaccen gwajin gwajin Lassa ba, amma akwai gwaje-gwajen da suka iya ba da tabbataccen tabbaci na kasancewar cutar LASV. [11] Waɗannan gwaje-gwajen sun haɗa da al'adun cell, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, da immunofluorescence essays. Koyaya, kasidun immunofluorescence suna ba da tabbataccen tabbaci na kamuwa da cutar Lassa. [11] Gwajin ELISA don maganin antigen da Immunoglobulin M suna ba da 88% hankali da takamaiman 90% don kasancewar kamuwa da cuta. Sauran binciken dakin gwaje-gwaje a zazzabin Lassa sun hada da lymphocytopenia (ƙananan adadin fararen jini), thrombocytopenia (ƙananan platelets), da haɓakar matakan aspartate transaminase a cikin jini. Hakanan ana iya samun kwayar cutar zazzabin Lassa a cikin ruwan cerebrospinal . [17]

Rigakafi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan ilmantar da al'umma don zazzabin Lassa

Sarrafa yawan rodent ɗin Mastomys ba shi da amfani, don haka matakan suna mai da hankali kan kiyaye rowan gida da kayan abinci, ƙarfafa tsaftar mutum, adana hatsi da sauran kayan abinci a cikin kwantena masu hana rodent, da zubar da datti nesa da gida don taimakawa ci gaba da tsabta. gidaje. [18] Ana ba da shawarar safar hannu, abin rufe fuska, rigar dakin gwaje-gwaje, da tabarau yayin saduwa da mai cutar, don guje wa haɗuwa da jini da ruwan jiki. [19] Sashen kula da lafiyar jama'a ne ke kula da waɗannan batutuwa a ƙasashe da yawa. A cikin ƙasashe masu ƙarancin ci gaba, waɗannan nau'ikan ƙungiyoyin na iya zama ba su da hanyoyin da suka dace don shawo kan barkewar cutar yadda ya kamata.

Alurar riga kafi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babu wani maganin rigakafi ga mutane kamar na shekarar 2019. Masu bincike a Cibiyar Nazarin Kiwon Lafiyar Sojan Amurka na Cibiyar Cututtukan Cututtukan sun sami ɗan takarar rigakafin alurar riga kafi a cikin shekarar 2002. [20] Sun ɓullo da ingantaccen rigakafin rigakafin cutar Lassa wanda ya dogara da vesicular stomatitis virus vectors da ke bayyana ƙwayar cutar Lassa glycoprotein. Bayan alluran intramuscular guda ɗaya, masu gwajin gwaji sun tsira daga ƙalubale na mutuwa, yayin da ba su nuna alamun asibiti ba. [21]

Magani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana yin magani don magance rashin ruwa da inganta alamun. Duk mutanen da ake zargi da kamuwa da cutar zazzabin Lassa a kai su wuraren keɓe da ruwan jikinsu da fitar da su yadda ya kamata.

Magunguna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ba da shawarar magungunan rigakafin cutar ribavirin, amma shaidar da ke tabbatar da amfani da ita ba ta da ƙarfi. [3] Wasu shaidun sun gano cewa yana iya dagula sakamako a wasu lokuta. [3] Ana iya buƙatar maye gurbin ruwa, ƙarin jini, da magunguna don ƙarancin hawan jini. Hakanan an yi amfani da maganin interferon na ciki.

Ciki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lokacin da zazzabin Lassa ke cutar da mata masu juna biyu a ƙarshen watanni uku na uku, haifar da haihuwa ya zama dole don uwa ta sami damar tsira. [22] Wannan saboda kwayar cutar tana da alaƙa ga mahaifa da sauran kyallen jikin jijiyoyin jini. Damar dayan tayin na da kashi daya cikin goma na rayuwa ko da wane irin mataki aka dauka; don haka, a ko da yaushe mayar da hankali ga ceton rayuwar uwa. Bayan haihuwa, yakamata mata su sami magani iri ɗaya da sauran masu fama da zazzabin Lassa.

Hasashen[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kimanin kashi shabiyar 15-20% na mutanen da ke kwance a asibiti masu fama da zazzabin Lassa za su mutu sakamakon rashin lafiya. An kiyasta adadin mace-macen gabaɗaya ya zama 1%, amma yayin annoba, mace-mace na iya haura sama da kashi 50%. Yawan mace-mace ya fi kashi 80% idan ya faru a mata masu juna biyu a cikin uku na uku; Mutuwar tayin kuma yana faruwa a kusan duk waɗannan lokuta. Zubar da ciki yana rage haɗarin mutuwa ga uwa. Wasu waɗanda suka tsira suna samun sakamako mai ɗorewa na cutar, [23] kuma suna iya haɗawa da ɓangarori ko gabaɗayan kurma.

Saboda jiyya tare da ribavirin, adadin masu mutuwa ya ragu. [24]

Epidemiology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rarraba zazzabin Lassa. Ƙasashen da ke ba da rahoton ci gaba da yaɗuwar cututtuka da bullar cutar cikin shuɗi. Ƙasashen da ke ba da rahoton ƴan lokuta, keɓewar ƙwayoyin cuta na lokaci-lokaci, ko shaidar serological na kamuwa da cuta a cikin kore. Kasashen da ba a san matsayinsu a launin toka ba.

Akwai kimanin mutane dubu dadi uku 300,000 zuwa 500,000 wadanda ke haifar da mutuwar mutane 5,000 a shekara. [5] [6] Ƙidaya ɗaya ta sanya adadin ya kai miliyan 3 a kowace shekara. [14]

Kiyasin zazzabin Lassa fever yana da sarkakiya saboda rashin samun saukin ganewar asali, iyakance kayan aikin sa ido kan lafiyar jama'a, da kuma tarin abubuwan da suka faru kusa da babban samfuri. [11]

Kwayar cutar tana shafar mata sau 1.2 fiye da maza. Yawan shekarun da suka fi kamuwa da cutar shine shekarun 21-da 30.

Geography[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankin Lassa da ke da hatsarin gaske yana kusa da gabas da yamma na yammacin Afirka. Tun daga shekarar 2018, bel ɗin Lassa ya haɗa da Guinea, Najeriya, Saliyo da Laberiya. [10] Ya zuwa shekarar 2003, kashi 10-16% na mutanen Saliyo da Laberiya da aka kwantar da su a asibiti sun kamu da cutar. [13] Adadin mace-macen wadanda aka kwantar da su a asibiti saboda cutar kusan kashi 15-20 ne. Bincike ya nuna haɗarin kamuwa da da cuta sau biyu ga waɗanda ke zaune kusa da wanda ke da alamun kamuwa da cuta a cikin shekarar da ta gabata.

Ba za a iya fayyace wuraren da ke da hatsarin gaske ta kowane sanannen tarihin rayuwa ko hutun muhalli sai dai ga bera da da yawa, musamman Guinea ( Yankin Kindia, Faranah da Nzérékoré ), Laberiya (mafi yawa a cikin Lofa, Bong, da Nimba County), Najeriya (a cikin kusan 10). na jihohi 36) da Saliyo (yawanci daga yankunan Kenema da Kailahun ). Ba shi da yawa a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Mali, Senegal da sauran ƙasashe na kusa, kuma ba a cika samunsa ba tukuna a Ghana da Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo. A shekarar 2014 ne aka tabbatar da cutar a kasar Benin, kuma a shekarar 2016

Ya zuwa shekarar 2013, yaduwar Lassa a wajen yammacin Afirka ya yi kadan. An bayyana kararraki 2 zuwa 30 a Turai, kamar yadda ake shigowa da su ta hanyar masu kamuwa da cutar. [14] An gano waɗannan lamuran da aka samu a wajen yammacin Afirka suna da babban haɗarin mutuwa saboda jinkirin gano cutar da jiyya saboda rashin sanin haɗarin da ke tattare da alamun. [14] Abubuwan da aka shigo da su ba su bayyana ba a cikin manyan annobai a wajen Afirka saboda rashin isar da ɗan adam ga ɗan adam a cikin saitunan asibiti. Banda ya faru a cikin shekarar 2003 lokacin da ma'aikacin lafiya ya kamu da cutar kafin mutumin ya nuna alamun bayyanar. [14]

Najeriya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

2018 fashewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An samu bullar cutar zazzabin Lassa a Najeriya a shekarar 2018 kuma ta bazu zuwa 18 daga cikin jihohin kasar; ita ce barkewar cutar Lassa mafi girma da aka samu. [25] A ranar 25 ga watan Fabrairun shekarar 2018, akwai mutane 1081 da ake zargi da kamuwa da cutar kuma 90 sun ba da rahoton mutuwar; 317 daga cikin wadanda suka kamu da cutar kuma 72 sun mutu a matsayin Lassa wanda ya karu zuwa 431 a cikin 2018.

2019 barkewar cutar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Adadin wadanda suka kamu da cutar a Najeriya a shekarar Ta 2019 ya kai 810 tare da mutuwar mutane 167, adadin wadanda suka kamu da cutar ya fi yawa (23.3%) har zuwa lokacin.

2020 annoba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An fara bullar cutar ne daga mako na biyu na watan Janairu. Ya zuwa sati mako na goma adadin wadanda suka kamu da cutar ya karu zuwa 855 kuma sun mutu zuwa 144, adadin wadanda suka mutu ya kai 16.8%.

2021 Barkewar Cutar

A ranar 8 ga watan shekarar Disamba, 2021, Cibiyar Kula da Cututtuka ta Najeriya (NCDC) ta sanar da mutuwar mutane biyu daga zazzabin Lassa.

2022 Barkewar Cutar

Annobar ta dauki wani sabon salo, daga ranar 3 zuwa 30 ga watan Janairun shekarar 2022, dakin gwaje-gwaje 211 ya tabbatar da kamuwa da cutar zazzabin Lassa da suka hada da mutuwar mutane 40 da suka hada da mutuwar mutane 19 cikin 14 daga cikin jihohin Najeriya 36 da kuma babban birnin tarayya a fadin kasar. . Gabaɗaya daga Janairu zuwa Maris, an ba da rahoton mutuwar mutane 132 tare da adadin masu mutuwa (CFR) na 19.1% wanda ya yi ƙasa da CFR a daidai wannan lokacin a cikin 2021 (21.0%).

Laberiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zazzabin Lassa na yaduwa a kasar Laberiya. Daga 1 ga watan Janairu shekarar 2017 zuwa 23 ga watan Janairu shekarar 2018, an sami rahoton mutane 91 da ake zargi da laifi daga gundumomi shida: Bong, Grand Bassa, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, da Nimba. 33 daga cikin waɗannan shari'o'in an tabbatar da su a dakin gwaje-gwaje, gami da mutuwar mutane 15 (yawan mace-macen da aka tabbatar = 45.4%).

A watan Fabrairun shekarar ta 2020, adadin mutane 24 da aka tabbatar sun kamu da cutar tare da mutuwar mutane tara daga gundumomin lafiya tara a cikin kananan hukumomi shida. Lardunan Grand Bossa da Bong ne ke da adadin guda ashirin 20 daga cikin wadanda aka tabbatar.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An gano cutar a Najeriya a shekarar ta 1969. [14] Sunan garin Lassa ne, inda aka gano shi. [14]

Wani fitaccen masani kan cutar, Aniru Conteh, ya mutu daga cutar. [26]

Bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Cutar Lassa fever na daya daga cikin wasu kwayoyin cuta da WHO ta bayyana a matsayin abin da zai iya haifar da annoba a nan gaba. Don haka sun jera shi don bincike na gaggawa da haɓaka don haɓaka sabbin gwaje-gwajen bincike, alluran rigakafi, da magunguna.

A cikin shekarar 2007, SIGA Technologies, yayi nazarin magani a cikin alade na Guinea tare da zazzabin Lassa. Ana ci gaba da aiki akan maganin alurar riga kafi, tare da hanyoyi da yawa suna nuna sakamako mai kyau a cikin gwajin dabbobi.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

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