Elmina

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Elmina, wanda aka fi sani da Edina ta Fante na gida, birni ne kuma babban birnin gundumar Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem da ke gabar tekun kudu na Ghana a Yankin Tsakiya,[1] yana kan bakin teku a Tekun Atlantika, kilomita 12 ( 7+1⁄2 mil) yamma da Cape Coast. Elmina ita ce mazaunin Turai na farko a Yammacin Afirka kuma tana da yawan mutane 33,576.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin isowar Fotigal ɗin, ana kiran garin Anomansah ("madawwami" ko "abin sha mara ƙarewa") daga matsayinsa akan tsibirin tsakanin tekun Benya da teku.[3]

A cikin 1478 (lokacin Yaƙin Mutuwar Castilian), wani jirgin ruwa na Castilian na caravels 35 da jirgin ruwan Fotigal sun yi babban yaƙin sojan ruwa kusa da Elmina don sarrafa kasuwancin Guinea (zinariya, bayi, hauren giwa da barkono melegueta). Yaƙin ya ƙare tare da nasarar sojan ruwa na Fotigal, sannan kuma amincewar hukuma daga masarautar Katolika na ikon mallakar Fotigal akan yawancin yankuna na Yammacin Afirka da ke takaddama a cikin yarjejeniyar Alcáçovas, 1479.[4][5] Wannan shi ne yakin mulkin mallaka na farko tsakanin manyan kasashen Turai. Da yawa za su zo.

Garin ya girma a kusa da São Jorge da Mina Castle, wanda Diogo de Azambuja na Fotigal ya gina a 1482 a kan wani gari ko ƙauye mai suna Amankwakurom ko Amankwa. Ita ce hedikwatar Fotigal ta Yammacin Afirka don kasuwanci da cin dukiyar Afirka. Sha'awar Fotigal na asali shine zinari, tare da jigilar 8,000 zuwa Lisbon daga 1487 zuwa 1489, oza 22,500 daga 1494 zuwa 1496, da oza 26,000 a farkon karni na sha shida.[6]

Daga baya tashar jiragen ruwa ta faɗaɗa don haɗawa da dubun dubatar bayi da aka bi ta hanyar kasuwancin Elmina, dubu goma zuwa sha biyu daga 1500-35 kadai. A shekara ta 1479, Fotigal na safarar bayi daga nesa har zuwa Benin, wanda ya kai kashi 10 na cinikin da ake yi a Elmina, kuma an yi amfani da su wajen share filaye don yin noma.[6]


Wurin da Elmina ya sanya ya zama wani muhimmin wuri don sake samar da jiragen ruwa da ke zuwa kudu zuwa Cape of Good Hope akan hanyarsu ta zuwa Indiya. Bayan shekaru na kasuwancin Fotigal a gabar tekun Elmina, Yaren mutanen Holland sun sami labarin ayyukan ribar da ke faruwa ta hanyar Barent Eriksz na Medemblik, ɗaya daga cikin farkon 'yan kasuwa da masu kewaya Guinea. Ericksz ya koya game da ciniki a gabar tekun Elmina yayin da yake fursuna a Principe kuma daga baya ya zama babban abin amfani ga Dutch dangane da samar da bayanan yanki da ciniki.[7] Kamfanin Dutch West India Company ya kame Elmina a 1637; a cikin ƙarnuka masu zuwa galibi ana amfani da ita azaman cibiyar cinikin bayi. Turawan Burtaniya sun kai hari a garin a cikin 1782, amma ya kasance a hannun Dutch har zuwa 1872, lokacin da aka siyar da Tekun Gold na Dutch ga Burtaniya. Sarkin Ashanti, mai da'awar suzerain, ya ki amincewa da canja wurin, kuma ya fara yaƙin Anglo-Ashanti na uku na 1873-1874.[8]

Elmina kuma gida ne na Sansanin Coenraadsburg akan St. Jago Hill, wanda Fotigal ya gina a 1555 a ƙarƙashin sunan Forte de Santiago; an yi amfani da shi don kasuwanci. A cikin 1637 Dutch sun ci nasara da sake masa suna, bayan sun ƙwace babban gidan Elmina. A yau, babbar masana'antar tattalin arzikin Elmina ita ce kamun kifi, samar da gishiri da yawon shakatawa. Gidan Elmina yana da kusanci da Cape Coast Castle, wani sansanin tarihi mai mahimmanci sanannu ga rawar da ya taka a cikin cinikin bayi na transatlantic.

Tattalin Arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga 2003, Elmina, tare da masu saka hannun jari na ƙasashen waje, sun fara The Elmina Strategy 2015, babban aiki don inganta fannoni da yawa na garin, wanda ya ƙunshi magudanar ruwa da sarrafa sharar gida wanda ke taimakawa haɓaka lafiyar 'yan ƙasa, gyara masana'antar kamun kifi da tashar jiragen ruwa. na cikin Elmina, yawon shakatawa da bunƙasa tattalin arziƙi, ingantattun ayyukan kiwon lafiya, da ingantattun ayyukan ilimi.[9]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Climate data for Elmina
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
31.4
(88.5)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
30.6
(87.1)
28.7
(83.7)
27.4
(81.3)
26.9
(80.4)
27.9
(82.2)
29.5
(85.1)
30.8
(87.4)
30.9
(87.6)
29.9
(85.8)
Average low °C (°F) 22.7
(72.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.1
(73.6)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
22.7
(72.9)
22.8
(73.0)
23.0
(73.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25
(1.0)
36
(1.4)
84
(3.3)
103
(4.1)
203
(8.0)
325
(12.8)
102
(4.0)
42
(1.7)
55
(2.2)
116
(4.6)
84
(3.3)
30
(1.2)
201
(7.9)
Source: Climate-Data.org[10]

Yawon shakatawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Baya ga Castle na Elmina da Sansanin Coenraadsburg, manyan wuraren yawon shakatawa a Elmina sun haɗa da Makabartar Mutanen Holland da Gidan Tarihi na Elmina Java.

Elmina Castle (Mine na St. George Castle)
Sansanin Coenraadsburg cikin Elmina
Elmina (rundunar kamun kifi)

Bikin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Elmina gida ce ga Bikin Bakatue na shekara -shekara, bikin teku da al'adun kamun kifi na gida, wanda ake yi a ranar Talata na farko na Yuli kowace shekara.[11]

An fassara Bakatue yana nufin "buɗe rafin" ko "malalawar Lagoon". An yi bikin ne domin tunawa da kafuwar garin, Elmina da Turawa suka yi. Ana kuma yin biki don roƙon allahn, Nana Benya ta ci gaba da kare jihar da jama'ar ta.

Gallery[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Littafin tarihin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Church of Pentecost builds police station for Abrem Agona". Graphic Online (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-22.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named World Gazetteer
  3. Ampene, Kwame. "National Commission On Culture". www.ghanaculture.gov.gh. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  4. Historian Malyn Newitt: "However, in 1478 the Portuguese surprised thirty-five Castilian ships returning from Mina [Guinea] and seized them and all their gold.
  5. Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius: "In a war in which the Castilians were victorious on land and the Portuguese at sea, …" in Foundations of the Portuguese Empire 1415-1580, volume I, University of Minnesota Press, 1985, p. 152.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ivor Wilks (1997). "Wangara, Akan, and Portuguese in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries". In Bakewell, Peter (ed.). Mines of Silver and Gold in the Americas. Aldershot: Variorum, Ashgate Publishing Limited. pp. 4–5.
  7. Marees, Pieter.
  8.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Elmina". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 297.
  9. Elminaheritage.com Archived 22 ga Afirilu, 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. "Climate Elmina". Climate-Data.org. 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  11. Expeditions, Ghana. "Edina Bakatue Festival". Festival and events. Retrieved 19 April 2018.