Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria (Lozi: Mosi-oa-Tunya, "Hayakin da Ya Yi Tsawa"; Tonga: Shungu Namutitima, "Ruwan Tafasa") ruwa ne da ke kan Kogin Zambezi a kudancin Afirka, wanda ke ba da mazauni ga nau'ikan tsirrai da dabbobi na musamman. Tana kan iyakar tsakanin Zambiya da Zimbabwe kuma ana ɗaukarta ɗaya daga cikin manyan maɓuɓɓugan ruwa na duniya saboda fadinta na 1,708 m (5,604 ft).

Asalin suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

David Livingstone yana duban faduwa, cikin tagulla, daga gabar Zambiya

David Livingstone, ɗan mishan (Mission) ɗan asalin Scotland kuma mai bincike, an yi imanin cewa shi ne Bature na farko da ya kalli faduwar ranar 16 ga Nuwamba 1855, daga abin da a yanzu ake kira tsibirin Livingstone, ɗayan ƙasashe biyu da ke tsakiyar kogin, nan da nan ya haura daga faduwa kusa da gabar Zambiya.[1] Livingstone ya ambaci ganinsa don girmamawa ga Sarauniya Victoria, amma sunan yaren Sotho, Mosi-oa-Tunya— "Hayakin da ke Tsawa" - yana cigaba da amfani da shi gaba ɗaya. Lissafin al'adun duniya ya amince da sunayen biyu a hukumance.[2] Hakanan Livingstone ya kawo tsoho mai suna, Seongo ko Chongwe, wanda ke nufin "Wurin Bakan gizo", sakamakon feshin da ake yi akai-akai.[3]

Sunan gandun dajin da ke kusa da Zambia Mosi-oa-Tunya, yayin da gandun dajin da garin da ke gabar Zimbabwe duk suna mai suna Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria.

Cataratas Victoria, Zambia-Zimbabue, 2018-07-27, DD 16-20 PAN.jpg
Duba iska
Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria da aka gani daga Zimbabwe a watan Agusta.

Duk da yake ba shine mafi girma ba ko kuma mafi fadada ruwan dusar kankara a duniya, amma Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria ana sanya ta a matsayin mafi girma, ya danganta da fadin da ya kai na mita 1,708 (5,604 ft)[4] da tsayin mita 108 (354 ft),[5] wanda hakan ya haifar da mafi girma a duniya takardar fadowa daga ruwa. Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria kusan ta ninka tsayin Niagara Falls sau biyu a Arewacin Amurka kuma ta ninka nisa biyu.[6]

Ga tazara mai nisa daga faduwar, Zambezi yana gudana a kan takardar basalt, a cikin kwari mara zurfin, wanda ke da iyaka da tsaunuka masu ƙanƙan da nesa. Ga tazara mai nisa daga faduwar, Zambezi yana damun kan takardar basalt, a cikin kwari mara zurfin, wanda ke da iyaka da tsaunuka masu cin mutuncin da nesa.

Gadar Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria hangen nesa

An kirkiro faduwar ne yayin da cikakken fadin kogin ya fadi kasa guda daya a tsaye zuwa wani rami mai zurfin mita 1,708 (5,604 ft) mai fadi, wanda aka sassaka shi da ruwansa tare da yankin da ke karaya a cikin tsaunin basalt. Zurfin ramin, wanda ake kira Ruwa na Farko, ya bambanta daga mita 80 (260 ft) a ƙarshen yamma zuwa mita 108 (354 ft) a tsakiya. Hanyar hanyar kawai zuwa Ruwa ta Farko shine tazara mai faɗin mita 110 (360 ft) kusan kashi biyu bisa uku na hanyar faɗin faduwar daga ƙarshen yamma. Dukkanin kogin ya kwarara zuwa cikin kwazazzabai na Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria daga wannan bakin kogin.[7]

Akwai tsibirai guda biyu a gefen guguwar ruwa wadanda suke da girman da zasu raba labulen ruwa koda kuwa a cike take: Tsibirin Boaruka (ko Tsibirin Cataract) kusa da bankin yamma, da tsibirin Livingstone kusa da tsakiyar - wurin da Livingstone ya fara duba faduwa. A ƙasa da cikakkiyar ambaliyar ruwa, ƙarin tsibirai sun raba labulen ruwa zuwa rafuka masu daidaita a layi ɗaya. Ana kiran manyan kogunan ne, domin daga Zimbabwe (yamma) zuwa Zambiya (gabas): Katafar Iblis[7] (wanda wasu ke kira Ruwa Mai Tsalle), Babban Falls, Ruwan Bakan Gizo (mafi girma) da Gabas ta Gabas.

Kogin Zambezi, wanda yake daga gangaren ruwa, yana samun lokacin damina daga ƙarshen Nuwamba zuwa farkon Afrilu, da lokacin rani a sauran shekara. Lokacin ambaliyar kogin shekara-shekara shine watan Fabrairu zuwa Mayu tare da wani tsaiko a watan Afrilu,[8] Feshin ruwan daga faduwar ruwa yakan tashi zuwa sama da mita 400 (1,300 ft), wani lokacin ma har ya ninka biyu, kuma ana iya gani daga sama zuwa kilomita 50 ( 30 mi) nesa. A cikakkiyar wata, ana iya ganin "bakan gizo" a cikin feshi maimakon bakan gizo da ya saba. A lokacin damina, ba shi yiwuwa a ga ƙafafun faduwa da galibin fuskarsa, kuma yawo tare da dutsen da ke gabansa yana cikin ruwan sama koyaushe kuma a rufe cikin hazo. Kusa da gefen dutsen, ana fesa harbe-harbe sama kamar roƙon ruwan sama, musamman a Gadar Knife-Edge ta Zambiya.[9]

Yayinda lokacin rani ya fara aiki, tsibirai a kan dutsen suna kara fadi da yawa, kuma a watan Satumba zuwa Janairu har zuwa rabin dutsen da ke fuskantar faduwar zai iya bushewa kuma ana iya ganin kasan Ruwa na Farko tare da mafi yawansa. tsawon. A wannan lokacin yana yiwuwa (duk da cewa ba lallai bane ya kasance mai aminci) tafiya a ƙetaren wasu kogin a gaci. Hakanan yana yiwuwa a taka zuwa ƙasan Ruwa na Farko a gefen Zimbabwe. Mafi ƙarancin kwarara, wanda ke faruwa a watan Nuwamba, ya kai kusan goma na adadin Afrilu; wannan bambancin kwararar ya fi na sauran manyan faduwa, kuma yana haifar da saurin kwararar ruwa na Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria ya zama ƙasa da yadda ake tsammani gwargwadon iyakar yawo.[9] A cikin shekara ta 2019 ƙarancin ruwan sama ya saukar da ruwan zuwa ƙaramin sirara da sirara kawai. Canjin yanayin duniya da canjin yanayin da aka canza ana ba da shawarar sun haifar da hakan.[10] Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria na fuskantar fari mafi muni a cikin karni.[11]

Kwazazzabai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon kwazazzabo, daga gefen Zambiya

Dukkanin kogin Zambezi ya tsallake ta hanyar Ruwa na Farko ta hanyar 110-wide-110 (ƙafa 360) don nisan kusan mita 150 (490 ft), sannan ya shiga jerin zigzagging na kwazazzabai da aka tsara ta hanyar da kogin ya isa su. Ruwan da ke shiga Ruwa na Biyu yana yin kaifin dama kuma ya sassaƙa tafki mai zurfin wurin da ake kira Tukunyar Tafasa. An isa ta hanyar wata babbar hanyar ƙafa daga gefen Zambiya, kusan mil 150 ne (ƙafa 500). Yanayin sa mai santsi ne a ƙaramin ruwa, amma a babban ruwa alama ce ta manyan, jinkirin juyawa da hargitsi mai tafasa mai nauyi.[9] Abubuwa da dabbobin da suka mamaye faduwar, gami da hippopotamus na lokaci-lokaci, kada, ko ɗan adam, ana samun su da yawa suna yawo a nan ko kuma sun wanki a ƙarshen arewa maso gabas na Ruwa na biyu. Anan ne aka gano gawarwakin Misis Moss da Mr Orchard, wadanda yan kada suka yanka, a cikin 1910 bayan da wani dodo ya kife da wasu kwale-kwale biyu a Long Island.[12]

Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria daga gefen Zimbabwe

Babban kwazazzabai sune

  • Kwazazzabo na farko: wanda kogin ya fada a cikin Victoria Falls
  • Kwazazzabo na biyu: Mita 250 (kafa 820) kudu da faduwa, tsawon kilomita 2.15 (tsayin 1.34), wanda gadar Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria ta shimfida
  • Kwazazzabo na uku: Mita 600 (ƙafa 2,000) kudu, nisan kilomita 1.95 (1.21 mi), mai ƙunshe da tashar wutar lantarki ta Victoria Falls
  • Kwazazzabo na huɗu: kilomita 1.15 (0.71 mi) kudu, tsawon kilomita 2.25 (mil 1.40)
  • Kwazazzabo na biyar: kilomita 2.25 (1.40 mi) kudu, tsawon kilomita 3.2 (2.0 mi) tsawo
  • Kwazazzabo na Songwe: Kilomita 5.3 (3.3 mi) kudu, kilomita 3.3 (2.1 mi) dogon suna bayan karamin Kogin Songwe da ke zuwa daga arewa maso gabas, kuma mafi zurfin da ya kai mita 140 (460 ft), matakin kogin da ke cikinsu ya bambanta ta zuwa mita 20 (66 ft) tsakanin damuna da lokacin bushe.[9]

Formation[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alamar Victoria Park ta Kasa

Babban Kogin Zambezi asalinsa ya malale kudu zuwa Botswana ta yanzu don shiga Kogin Limpopo.[13][14] Haɓakawar ƙasa gaba ɗaya tsakanin Zimbabwe da hamadar Kalahari kimanin shekaru miliyan 2 da suka gabata sun toshe wannan hanyar magudanan ruwa, kuma wani babban tafkin paleo da aka sani da Tafkin Makgadikgadi ya kafa tsakanin Kalahari da Batoka Basaltic Plateau na Zimbabwe da Zambiya. Wannan tabkin asalin asalinsa ba shi da mafita. A karkashin yanayin yanayi mai tsananin danshi game da shekaru dubu 20 na BP, daga karshe ya malalo ya fara malalawa zuwa gabas, yana yanke kwazazzabon Batoka ta hanyar daddawa yayin da yake tafiya.[15][16][17]

Tarihin ilimin ƙasa na kwanan nan na Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria ana iya ganin shi a cikin gaba ɗaya na Ruwa na Batoka, tare da kwazazzabai guda shida da matsayi takwas da suka gabata na faduwar. Kwazazzabai na gabas zuwa yamma suna nuna iko na tsari tare da daidaitawa tare da mahaɗan yankuna masu ɓarna, ko kuma lahani tare da mita 50 (ƙafa 160) na ƙaura ta tsaye kamar yadda lamarin yake na kwazazzabai na biyu da na biyar. Rushewar kai tare da waɗannan layukan tsarin rauni zai kafa sabon layi da watsi da layin da ya gabata. Hadin gwiwar da ke arewa maso kudu yana kula da sassan da ke kwararar kudu. Daya daga cikin wadannan shine "Boiling Pot", wanda ya hada Kwazazzabo na farko da Kwazazzabo na biyu.[18]:147,149[9]

Wataƙila faduwar ruwa ta riga ta fara yanke babbar kwazazzabo na gaba, a tsoma gefe ɗaya a cikin "Shafin Iblis", tsakanin gabar kogin yamma da Tsibirin Cataract. Lebe a halin yanzu yana mafi ƙasƙanci a nan kuma yana ɗauke da mafi girman ɗaukar ruwa a matakin matakin ambaliyar.[18] 149

Hoton Tauraron Dan Adam wanda ke nuna fadin Zambezi yana fadawa cikin kunkuntar ramin da kuma jerin gorgesan zigzagging na gaba (saman hoton arewa).

Ana kiran jerin kayan kwalliyar da ke kan gishiri a gefen Kogin Zambezi Victoria Falls Formation, wanda ya kunshi tsakuwa, dutsen sandar Pipe, yashi na Kalahari, da yashi na aeolian da alluvium. Gyalen tafki na 15-45 ya kewaye kogin kimanin kilomita 5-6 daga babban tashar, kuma jerin filaye na kogi sun bayyana tsakanin gyale da tashar.[18] 144-145

A tarihin ilimin ƙasa game da tafkin Zambezi yana cikin labarin sunan.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kirkiro babban yankin plateau na Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria, wanda kogin Zambezi yake gudana akan shi, a lokacin Jurassic Era, kimanin shekaru miliyan 200 da suka gabata.

Tarihin mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon zamanin Stone Acheulean kayan adon dutse da kayan aikin Oldowan an tono su a wuraren tarihi da ke kusa da faduwar, da kayan aikin Sangoan da kayan Lupemban waɗanda suka dace da zamanin Tsakiyar Dutse.[19] An tono tukwanen ƙarfe na farko a wani yanki a kusa da Masuma Dam a farkon 1960s.[20] Hakanan an samo hujja don narkewar baƙin ƙarfe a wani shiri wanda aka yi kwanan wata zuwa ƙarshen karni na 1 AD.[21]

Mutanen Kudancin Tonga da aka fi sani da Batoka / Tokalea sun kira faduwar Shungu na mutitima. Matabele, masu zuwa daga baya, sunayi musu suna a Manz 'aThunqayo, kuma Batswana da Makololo (waɗanda mutanen Lozi ke amfani da yarensu) suna kiran su Mosi-o-Tunya. Duk waɗannan sunaye suna nufin "hayaƙin da ke tsawa".

Taswirar da Nicolas de Fer ya zana a cikin 1715 yana nuna faɗuwar alama a sarari daidai. Hakanan yana nuna layi mai layi wanda yake nuna hanyoyin kasuwanci wanda David Livingstone ya bi shekaru 140 daga baya.[22] Taswira daga c. 1750 wanda Jacques Nicolas Bellin ya zana don Abbé Antoine François Prevost d'Exiles ya nuna faduwar a matsayin "cataractes" kuma ya lura da sasantawa a arewacin Zambezi da cewa yana da abokantaka da Portuguese a lokacin.[23]

A watan Nuwamba 1855, David Livingstone shi ne Bature na farko da ya ga faduwar, lokacin da ya yi tafiya daga saman Zambezi zuwa bakin kogin tsakanin 1852 da 1856. Ruwan ya kasance sanannu ne ga ƙabilun yankin, kuma mai yiwuwa mafarautan Voortrekker sun san su. , kamar yadda Larabawa a ƙarƙashin suna daidai da "ƙarshen duniya". Turawa suna da shakku kan rahotanninsu, wataƙila suna tunanin cewa rashin duwatsu da kwari a kan tudun ƙasa ya sa faduwa ta yi wuya.[24][25]

An fadawa Livingstone labarin faduwar kafin ya iso garesu daga can sama sannan aka haye shi zuwa wani karamin tsibiri wanda yanzu yake dauke da suna Livingstone Island a Zambiya. Livingstone ya kasance da sha'awar Ngonye Falls a gaba, amma ya sami sabon faɗuwar da ya fi kyau, kuma ya ba su sunan Ingilishi don girmamawa ga Sarauniya Victoria. Ya yi rubutu game da faduwar jirgin, "Ba wanda zai iya tunanin kyan gani daga duk wani abu da aka gani a Ingila. Ba a taba ganin irinsa ba daga idanun Turai; amma wuraren da suke da kyau dole mala'iku sun dube su yayin guduwa."[9]

A 1860, Livingstone ya dawo yankin kuma yayi cikakken bincike game da faduwar tare da John Kirk. Sauran baƙi na farko na Turai sun haɗa da mai binciken Fotigal Serpa Pinto, mai binciken Czech Emil Holub, wanda ya yi shirin farko na faɗuwa da abubuwan da ke kewaye da shi a 1875 (wanda aka buga a 1880),[26] da kuma ɗan wasan Burtaniya Thomas Baines, wanda ya zartar da wasu zane-zanen farko na. faduwa. Har zuwa lokacin da aka buɗe yankin ta hanyar jirgin ƙasa a cikin 1905, kodayake, ba kasafai wasu Turawa suka ziyarci raƙuman ruwa ba. Wasu marubutan sun yi imanin cewa babban firist ɗin Fotigal Gonçalo da Silveira shi ne Bature na farko da ya fara hangen faduwar gaba a ƙarni na sha shida.[27][28]

Tarihi tun daga 1900[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria 'Kwazazzabo na biyu (tare da gada) da Ruwa na Uku (dama). Dutsen tsaunuka yana cikin Zambiya, tsaunukan waje na Zimbabwe. Dutsen tsaunuka an hada shi da Batoka Formation basalt yana gudana. Hutu a gangare tare da ciyayi sune yankuna amygdaliodal basalt da ke raba 6 masu zuwa da manyan lawa suna gudana tare da mahaɗar tsaye tsaye.[18][3]:391

Gadar Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria ta fara yawon bude ido[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Turai na yankin Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria ya faro ne a wajajen 1900 don biyan bukatar Cecil Rhodes 'Kamfanin Burtaniya na Afirka ta Kudu don haƙƙin ma'adinai da mulkin mallaka a arewacin Zambezi, da kuma yin amfani da wasu albarkatun ƙasa kamar su gandun daji na katako a arewa maso gabashin faduwa, da hauren giwa da fatun dabbobi. Kafin shekarar 1905, an tsallaka kogin sama da faduwa a Tsohuwar Jirgin ruwa, ta kwale kwale ko kuma wani gantali da aka ɗauke ta da igiyar ƙarfe.[12] Ganin hangen nesan Rhodes na layin dogo daga Cape-Cairo ya sanya shirye shiryen gadar farko ta ƙetaren Zambezi. Ya nace cewa za a gina ta inda feshin daga faduwa zai fada kan jiragen kasa masu wucewa, don haka aka zabi wurin da ke 'Kwazazzabo na Biyu. Duba babban labarin Victoria Falls Bridge don cikakkun bayanai.[9] Daga 1905 titin jirgin ya ba da damar yin zirga-zirga daga Cape zuwa kudu da kuma daga 1909, har zuwa Kwango ta Beljiram a arewa. A cikin 1904 aka buɗe Victoria Falls Hotel don saukar da baƙi masu zuwa kan sabuwar hanyar jirgin ƙasa. Rashin faduwar ya zama sanadin jan hankali yayin mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya na Arewacin Rhodesia (Zambiya) da Kudancin Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), tare da garin Victoria Falls ya zama babban cibiyar yawon bude ido.

Yayin yunkurin 'yanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1964, Arewacin Rhodesia ta zama ƙasa mai cin gashin kanta ta Zambiya. A shekara mai zuwa, Rhodesia ta ba da sanarwar samun 'yanci kai tsaye. Zambiya, Ingila ko yawancin jihohi ba su amince da hakan ba wanda hakan ya haifar da sanya takunkumi na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Dangane da rikicin da ya kunno kai, a shekarar 1966 Zambiya ta takaita ko dakatar da ketare iyaka; ba ta sake bude iyakar ba gaba daya sai a 1980. Yaƙin Guerrilla ya tashi a gefen kudancin Zambezi daga 1972: Yakin Bush na Rhodesian. Lambobin baƙi sun fara raguwa, musamman a gefen Rhodesian. Yakin ya shafi Zambiya ta hanyar kutsawar sojoji, lamarin da ya sa na karshen suka sanya matakan tsaro gami da jibge sojoji don takaita hanyoyin shiga kwazazzabai da wasu bangarorin faduwar jirgin.

Yancin Zimbabwe da duniya ta yarda da yancin kai a shekara ta 1980 ya kawo zaman lafiya kwatankwacin haka, kuma a cikin shekarun 1980s sun ga sabbin matakan yawon buɗe ido da cigaban yankin a matsayin cibiyar wasannin motsa jiki. Ayyukan da suka sami farin jini a yankin sun haɗa da raƙuman ruwa a cikin kwazazzabai, tsalle daga gadar, kamun kifi, dokin doki, kayak, da jiragen sama a kan faduwa.[29]

Yawon shakatawa a cikin 'yan shekarun nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Halittar da aka kirkira ta "Devilakin Iblis", inda masu yawon buɗe ido masu ninkaya duk da haɗarin faɗawa gefen gefen

A ƙarshen 1990s kusan mutane 400,000 ke ziyartar faduwar kowace shekara, kuma ana tsammanin wannan ya haura miliyan a cikin shekaru goma masu zuwa. Ba kamar wuraren shakatawa ba, Faɗuwar ruwan Victoria tana da baƙon Zimbabwe da Zambiya fiye da masu yawon buɗe ido na duniya; ana samun damar jan hankali ta hanyar bas da jirgin kasa, kuma saboda haka kwatancen bashi da tsada don isa.

Duk kasashen biyu sun ba wa masu yawon bude ido damar yin tafiye-tafiye na rana a kan iyakar don duba faduwar daga ra'ayoyin biyu. Ana buƙatar baƙi da ke da biza ta izinin shiga guda-ɗaya su sayi biza duk lokacin da suka tsallaka kan iyaka; za a iya samun biza a duk kan iyakokin biyu. Farashi ya bambanta daga US $ 50- $ 80 (daga Janairu 2017). Dokokin Visa suna canzawa akai-akai; An shawarci baƙi da su bincika ƙa'idodin da ake amfani da su a halin yanzu a cikin ƙasashen biyu kafin su ƙetare iyakar ta kowace hanya. Bugu da kari, masu yawon bude ido na kasashen waje na iya siyan biza KAZA ta dalar Amurka $50 wanda zai ba wa baƙi damar yin tafiya tsakanin Zambiya da Zimbabwe har na tsawon kwanaki 30 muddin suka cigaba da kasancewa cikin ƙasashen da aka rufe.

Wani sanannen fasali shine "Armchair" wanda aka kirkireshi (wanda yanzu wani lokaci ake kiransa "Kogin Iblis"), kusa da gefen faduwar ta gefen Zimbabwe, daura da ƙarshen yammacin tsibirin Livingstone. Lokacin da kwararar kogin ta kasance a wani mataki, galibi tsakanin Satumba zuwa Disamba, sai katangar dutsen ta samar da tsari tare da ƙarancin na yanzu, wanda zai baiwa masu ninkaya masu yawon buɗe ido su fantsama cikin aminci dangi a gaban wurin da ruwan ke kwarara kan faduwar.[30] Lokaci-lokaci ana samun rahoton mutuwa yayin da mutane suka zame kan shingen dutse.[31]

Two white rhinos at Mosi-oa-Tunya national park in May 2005. They are not indigenous, but were imported from South Africa.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Livingstone Tourism Association, Victoria Falls, Zambia". livingstonetourism.com. Livingstone, Zambia. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  2. "World Waterfalls & Water Filters for Filtration of Clean Water". Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 11 March 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Wellington, John H. (1955). Southern Africa: A Geographical Study. Volume 1. Cambridge: University Press. p. 392.
  4. Southern Africa Places (2009).
  5. [[[:Template:Wdl]] "Victoria Falls"] Check |url= value (help). World Digital Library. 1890–1925. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  6. Waterfalls & Water Filters for Filtration of Clean Water |access-date=11 March 2007 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070714073724/http://www.world-waterfalls.com/index.php |archive-date=14 July 2007 |url-status=bot: unknown }}
  7. 7.0 7.1 Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. pp. 402–403. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.
  8. World Commission on Dams website: Archived 1 ga Yuli, 2007 at the Wayback Machine "Case Study – Kariba Dam-Zambezi River Basin" Annex 13 & 14 Victoria Falls Mean Monthly Flows.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Spectrum Guide to Zambia. Nairobi: Camerapix Publishers International. 1996. ISBN 978-1-86872-012-5 – via Struik Publishers.
  10. "Victoria Falls slows to a trickle, fuelling fears of climate change". ABC News (in Turanci). 7 December 2019.
  11. "Victoria Falls dries to a trickle after worst drought in a century". The Guardian. 7 December 2019.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Hunt, B. L. (1959). "Kalomo to Livingstone in 1907". The Northern Rhodesia Journal. IV (1): 16. Mr Moss and Mrs Orchard and the eight Lozi paddlers managed to swim to the island, one of the paddlers saving the Orchards' year-old baby
  13. Moore, A.E., Cotterill, F. P. D., Broderick, T., & Plowes, D. (2009). "Landscape evolution in Zimbabwe from the Permian to present, with implications for kimberlite prospecting" (PDF). South African Journal of Geology. Geological Society of South Africa. 112: 82. doi:10.2113/gssajg.112.1.65.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. Spaliviero, M., De Dapper, M., Maló, S. (2014). "Flood analysis of the Limpopo River basin through past evolution reconstruction and a geomorphological approach". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 14 (8): 2027–2039. Bibcode:2014NHESS..14.2027S. doi:10.5194/nhess-14-2027-2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  15. "Makgadikgadi Salt Pans". earthobservatory.nasa.gov (in Turanci). 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  16. "Geological history - Botswana Travel Guide". www.botswana-travel-guide.com. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  17. Moore, Andy (2016). Viljoen, Richard; Anhaeusser, Carl; Viljoen, Morris (eds.). The Victoria Falls and gorges, in Africa's Top Geological Sites. Cape Town: Struik Nature. pp. 16–20. ISBN 9781775844488.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Moore, Andy; Cotterill, Fenton (2010). "15". In Migon, Piotr (ed.). Vicotria Falls: Mosi-oa-Tunya - The Smoke That Thunders, in Geomorphological Landscapes of the World. Springer. p. 147,149. ISBN 9789048130542.
  19. Clark, J. D. (1950). "Archaeology". The Stone Age cultures of Northern Rhodesia, with particular Reference to the Cultural and Climatic Succession in the Upper Zambezi Valley and its Tributaries. Cape Town: South African Archaeological Society. pp. 31–131.
  20. Robinson, K. R. (1966). "The Iron Age site in Kapula Vlei, near the Masuma Dam, Wankie Game Reserve, Rhodesia". Arnoldia, Rhodesia (239): 1–7.
  21. Vogel, J. O. (1975). "Kabondo Kumbo and the Early Iron Age in Victoria Falls region". _Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa. 10 (1): 49–75.
  22. "The History and Discovery of Victoria Falls" (in Turanci). Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  23. "The History and Discovery of Victoria Falls - Zambia Tourism". www.zambiatourism.com. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  24. The Northern Rhodesia Journal online: "Native Name of Victoria Falls", Vol I No 4 pp. 80–82 (1951).
  25. Agter die Magalies: "Agter Die Magalies" B.K. de Beer, pp. 43–44 (1975) Postma Publications.
  26. The international service of Czech Radio online: "Statue of explorer Emil Holub unveiled in Livingstone, Zambia" accessed 28 February 2007.
  27. Eric Anderson Walker.
  28. Lawrence George Green.
  29. United Nations Environment Programme: Protected Areas and World Heritage World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
  30. "Devils Pool Victoria Falls and Livingstone Island Tour". www.victoriafalls-guide.net. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  31. "Tour guide in Vic Falls plunge". New Zimbabwe. 28 September 2009. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012.