Kogin Zambezi

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgKogin Zambezi
main stream (en) Fassara
Río Zambeze, Zambia-Zimbabue, 2018-07-27, DD 25.jpg
Bayanai
Mouth of the watercourse (en) Fassara Tekun Indiya
Lakes on river (en) Fassara Cahora Bassa Reservoir (en) Fassara da Kariba Dam (en) Fassara
Drainage basin (en) Fassara Zambezi Basin (en) Fassara
Basin country (en) Fassara Angola
Ƙasa Angola, Mozambik, Namibiya, Zambiya da Zimbabwe
Ginin dake kallo Old Drift Lodge (en) Fassara
Wuri
Zambezi river basin-en.svg
 11°22′13″S 24°18′30″E / 11.3702°S 24.3083°E / -11.3702; 24.3083

Kogin Zambezi (kuma ana rubuta shi da Zambeze da Zambesi) shine kogi mafi tsayi na huɗu a Afirka, kogi mafi tsayi mai zuwa gabas a Afirka kuma mafi girma da ke kwarara zuwa Tekun Indiya daga Afirka. Yankin tafkinsa ya kai murabba'in kilomita 1,390,000 (540,000 sq mi), kaɗan ya rage rabin na Kogin Nilu. Kogin mai tsawon kilomita 2,574 (1,599 mi) ya tashi a Zambiya kuma ya ratsa gabashin Angola, tare da iyakar arewa maso gabashin Namibia da arewacin Botswana, sannan kuma kan iyakar tsakanin Zambiya da Zimbabwe zuwa Mozambique, inda ya ratsa ta. tashar da za ta shiga cikin Tekun Indiya.[1][2]

Zambezi wanda yafi shahara shine Fadar ruwan Victoria. Sauran fitattun faduwar sun hada da Fadar ruwan Chavuma da ke kan iyaka tsakanin Zambiya da Angola, da Fadar ruwan Ngonye, kusa da Sioma a Yammacin Zambiya.[3]

Akwai manyan hanyoyi biyu na samar da wutar lantarki a kogin, Kariba Dam, wanda ke ba da damar Zambiya da Zimbabwe, da kuma Cahora Bassa Dam a Mozambique, wanda ke ba da damar ga Mozambique da Afirka ta Kudu. Akwai ƙarin ƙananan tashoshin wutar lantarki biyu tare da Kogin Zambezi a kasar Zambiya, ɗaya a Fadar ruwan Victoria ɗayan kuma kusa da Kalene Hill a Gundumar Ikelenge.[4]

Hanyar kogi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tushen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zambezi da koginsa.

Kogin ya tashi a cikin dambo mai duhu mai fari a cikin gandun dajin miombo mai nisan kilomita 50 (mil 3) a arewacin Mwinilunga da kilomita 20 (mil 12) kudu da Ikelenge a gundumar Ikelenge ta Lardin Arewa maso Yamma, Zambiya da kimanin mita 1,524 (5,000 ft ) sama da matakin teku.[5] Yankin da ke kusa da asalin abin tunawa ne na kasa, wurin ajiyar gandun daji da kuma Yankin Tsuntsaye Mai Mahimmanci.[6]

Gabas ta asalin, magudanar ruwan da ke tsakanin Kongo da Zambezi ya zama kyakkyawan bel na babban ƙasa, yana tafiya kusan gabas zuwa yamma kuma ya faɗi kwatsam zuwa arewa da kudu. Wannan ya yanke wannan kwatancen na Lualaba (babban reshe na babban Kwango) daga na Zambezi. A cikin maɓuɓɓugar tushen maɓuɓɓugar ruwan ba a bayyana take a sarari ba, amma tsarin kogin biyu bai haɗu ba.[7]

Yankin da Zambezi ya malale shi tsauni ne mai fadi mai tsayi 900-1200 m, wanda aka hada shi a cikin nesa da gadajen metamorphic kuma an haɗa shi da duwatsu masu banƙyama na Fadar ruwan Victoria. A Shupanga, a kan ƙananan Zambezi, siraran duwatsu masu launin ruwan toka da rawaya, tare da rukuni na lokaci-lokaci, suna fitowa akan gadon kogin a lokacin rani, kuma waɗannan sun ci gaba har bayan Tete, inda suke haɗuwa da ɗakunan ruwa mai yawa kwal. Hakanan ana samun kwal a gundumar da ke ƙasa da Fadar ruwan Victoria. Duwatsu masu dauke da zinare suna faruwa a wurare da yawa.[8]

Babban Zambezi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin yana gudana zuwa kudu maso yamma zuwa Angola na kimanin kilomita 240 (150 mi), sannan kuma ya haɗu da manya-manyan mashigai kamar su Luena da Chifumage da ke kwararowa daga tsaunuka zuwa arewa maso yamma.[7] Ya juya kudu kuma ya samar da ambaliyar ruwa, tare da bambancin nisa tsakanin rani da damina. Yana shiga daskararren gandun daji na Cryptosepalum, kodayake ta gefen yamma, filayen yammacin Zambezian suma suna faruwa. Inda ya sake shiga Zambiya yana da kusan mita 400 (1,300 ft) faɗi a lokacin damina kuma yana gudana cikin hanzari, tare da saurin gudu zuwa ƙarewar Chavuma, inda kogin ke bi ta wani dutse mai ƙyama. Kogin ya sauke kimanin mita 400 (1,300 ft) a daga daga asalinsa a mita 1,500 (4,900 ft) zuwa Fadar Chavuma a mita 1,100 (3,600 ft), a tazarar kusan kilomita 400 (250 mi). Daga wannan lokacin zuwa Victoria Falls, matakin basin yana da kyau sosai, yana sauka kawai ta wani mitoci 180 (590 ft) a tazarar kusan kilomita 800 (500 mi).[9]

Na farko daga cikin manyan rafuka wadanda suka shiga Zambezi ita ce Kogin Kabompo a lardin arewa maso yammacin lardin Zambiya. Babban fa'idar Kogin Kabompo shine ban ruwa. Savanna wanda kogin ya gudana ya ba da damar zuwa babban malalen ambaliyar ruwa, wanda aka cika shi da dabinon Borassus. Southan nisa kudu akwai haɗuwa da Kogin Lungwebungu. Wannan ita ce farkon Tsarin Ruwa na Barotse, sanannen fasalin babba na Zambezi, amma wannan ɓangaren na arewa ba ya ambaliya sosai kuma ya haɗa da tsibirai na ƙasa mafi tsayi a tsakiya.

Kimanin kilomita talatin a ƙasa da mahadar Lungwebungu ƙasar ta zama mai faɗi sosai, kuma yanayin filin Barotse na ambaliyar ruwa ya bayyana, tare da ambaliyar da ta kai faɗi 25 kilomita a lokacin damina. Fiye da nisan kilomita 200 a ƙarshen shekara ambaliyar ruwan tana mamaye yanayin ɗabi'a da rayuwar ɗan adam, al'umma da al'ada.

Kusan kilomita tamanin da ke ƙasa, Luanginga, wanda tare da raƙuman ruwa take malale babban yanki zuwa yamma, ya haɗu da Zambezi. 'Yan kilomitoci sama sama da gabas babban rafin yana haɗuwa a lokacin damina ta ambaliyar tsarin Luampa/Luena.[7]

Gajeriyar hanya mai nisa ta haduwa da Luanginga ita ce Lealui, ɗayan manyan biranen Lozi waɗanda ke da yawa a yankin Zambiya na Barotseland a lardin Yammaci. Shugaban Lozi yana kula da ɗayan mahadi biyu a Lealui; ɗayan yana a Limulunga, wanda yake kan dogaye kuma yana aiki a matsayin babban birni yayin damina. Matsayi na shekara-shekara daga Lealui zuwa Limulunga babban biki ne, wanda akeyi a matsayin ɗayan sanannun bukukuwan Zambiya, Kuomboka.

Bayan Lealui, kogin ya juya zuwa kudu maso kudu-gabas. Daga gabas yana ci gaba da karɓar ƙananan rafuka da yawa, amma a yamma ba tare da manyan kwastomomi na kilomita 240 ba. Kafin wannan, Ngonye Falls da rapids na gaba suna katse maɓallin kewayawa. Kudancin Fadar ruwan Ngonye, kogin yayi iyaka da Namibia ta Caprivi Strip.[7] Ayyukan tsiri daga babban jikin Namibia, kuma sakamakonsa ne daga lokacin mulkin mallaka: an kara shi ne zuwa yankin Kudu maso Yammacin Afirka na Jamus don bawa Jamus damar zuwa Zambezi.

A ƙasa da mahadar Kogin Cuando da Zambezi kogin ya kusan kusan gabas. A nan, kogin yana da fadi da zurfi, kuma yana gudana a hankali, amma yayin da yake kwarara gabas zuwa iyakar babban filin tsaunin tsakiyar Afirka sai ya isa wani rami wanda Fadar ruwan Victoria ta fada.

Tsakiyar Zambezi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fadar ruwan Victoria, ƙarshen Zambezi na sama da farkon tsakiyar Zambezi

Bikin Fadar ruwan Victoria ana ɗaukarsa iyaka tsakanin babba da tsakiyar Zambezi. A ƙasa da su kogin ya cigaba da malalawa saboda gabas na kimanin kilomita 200 (mi 120), yana yankan katangar bankwana na mita 20 zuwa 60 (66 zuwa 200 ft) baya ga tsaunuka 200 zuwa mita 250 (660 zuwa 820 ft) mai tsayi. Kogin yana gudana cikin hanzari ta cikin Ruwa na Batoka, raƙuman ruwa suna katsewa na yanzu. An bayyana shi[10] a matsayin ɗayan ɗayan tafiye tafiye na farin ruwa a duniya, babban ƙalubale ga masu tuƙin kaya da raƙuman ruwa iri ɗaya. A bayan kwazazzaben akwai jerin gwanon gudu wanda ya kare kilomita 240 (150 mi) a kasa Victoria Falls. A wannan nisan, kogin ya faɗi da mita 250 (820 ft).

A wannan gaba, kogin ya shiga Tafkin Kariba, wanda aka kirkira a 1959 biyo bayan kammala Dam din Kariba. Tabkin na daya daga cikin manya manyan tabkuna da ake yi a duniya, kuma wuraren samar da wutar lantarki a madatsar ruwan na samar da wutar lantarki ga yawancin Zambiya da Zimbabwe.

Luangwa da Kafue sune manya-manyan rairayin hagu na Zambezi. Kafue ya haɗu da babban kogi a cikin wani rafin mai zurfin nutsuwa kimanin mita 180 (ƙafa 590). Daga wannan lokacin an duba lanƙwar arewa ta Zambezi kuma rafin ya cigaba saboda gabas. A haɗuwa da Luangwa (15°37'S) ya shiga Mozambique.[11]

Tsakiyar Zambezi ya ƙare inda kogin ya shiga Tafkin Cahora Bassa (shima an rubuta shi Cabora Bassa). A da wurin da ake saurin afkuwar hatsari da ake kira Kebrabassa, an kirkiro tafkin ne a shekarar 1974 ta hanyar gina Madatsar ruwa ta Cahora Bassa.

Kananan Zambezi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasan kilomita 4750 na Zambezi daga Cahora Bassa zuwa Tekun Indiya ana iya zirga-zirga, kodayake kogin ba shi da zurfi a wurare da yawa a lokacin rani. Wannan rashin zurfin zurfin yana tasowa yayin da kogin ya shiga cikin kwari mai fadi kuma ya bazu a wani babban yanki. Kawai a wani lokaci, Lupata Ruwa, kilomita 320 daga bakinsa, an tsare kogin tsakanin manyan tsaunuka. Anan yana da kusan faɗi 200 m. Wani wuri kuma daga 5 zuwa 8 kilomita faɗi, yana gudana a hankali cikin rafuka da yawa. Gadon kogin yashi ne, kuma bankunan sun yi ƙasa kuma sun yi ja-gora. A wurare, duk da haka, kuma musamman a lokacin damina, rafukan sun haɗu zuwa ɗaya kogi mai faɗi da sauri.

Kusan kilomita 160 daga teku Zambezi ya karɓi malalar Tafkin Malawi ta cikin Kogin Shire. Lokacin da ya kusanci Tekun Indiya, sai kogin ya rabe zuwa cikin wani yanki.[7] Kowane ɗayan manyan masu rarraba huɗun, Kongone, Luabo da Timbwe, sandar yashi ta toshe su. Wani reshe mafi kusa da arewa, wanda ake kira da bakin Chinde, yana da ƙarami mai zurfi a ƙaramin ruwa na 2m a ƙofar kuma 4m kara ciki, kuma shine reshe da ake amfani dashi don kewayawa. 100 kilomita gabar arewa akwai wani kogi da ake kira Quelimane, bayan garin a bakinsa. Wannan rafin, wanda ke yin siliki, yana karɓar ambaliyar Zambezi a lokacin damina.[12]

Yankin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin tafkin Zambezi ya kai kusan rabin fadinsa kamar yadda yake gabanin gina madatsun ruwa na Kariba da Cahora Bassa suna sarrafa bambancin yanayi na yawan kwararar kogin.

Kafin a gina madatsun ruwan na Zambezi suna da tasiri sosai a kan yanayin halittar yankin daga yau tunda ya kawo ruwan sha mai gina jiki zuwa tekun Indiya na gabar teku. Kananan Zambezi sun sami ƙaramar ambaliyar ruwa a farkon lokacin rani yayin da ruwan sama a cikin rafin Gwembe da arewa maso gabashin Zimbabwe suka bi ta ciki yayin da ruwan sama a cikin manyan Zambezi, Kafue, da tafkin Malawi, da kuma Luangwa zuwa wani ƙarami, an hana shi ta fadama da magudanan ruwa. Fitar da wadannan tsarin ya ba da gudummawa ga ambaliyar ruwa da ta fi girma a watan Maris ko Afrilu, tare da matsakaicin matsakaici a kowane wata na Afrilu na mita 6,700 cubic (240,000 cu ft) a kowane dakika a Delta. Rikodin ya ninka sau uku girma, mita dubu 22,500 (790,000 cu ft) a kowane dakika ana yin rikodin a shekarar 1958. Sabanin haka, fitar da aka yi a karshen lokacin rani ya kai kimanin cubic mita 500 (18,000 cu ft) a sakan daya.

A cikin shekarun 1960 da 1970s ginin madatsun ruwa ya canza wannan salon kwata-kwata. A can kasan ma'anar mafi karancin wata-mafi-yawa ya kasance mita mai siffar sukari 500 (18,000 cu ft) zuwa mita 6,000 na cubic mita (210,000 cu ft) a sakan daya; yanzu yakai mita dubu 3 (35,000 cu ft) zuwa mita dubu uku da dari tara (140,000 cu ft) a sakan daya. Ambaliyar-matsakaici musamman, irin wanda yanayin yanayin Zambezi ya dace da shi, yakan faru sau da yawa kuma yana da ɗan gajeren lokaci. Kamar yadda tasirin Itezhi-Tezhi Dam yake a cikin Kaffun Flats, wannan yana da sakamako masu zuwa:

  • kifi, tsuntsaye da sauran hanyoyin ciyar da namun daji da tsarin kiwo ya lalace
  • ƙasa da ciyawa bayan ambaliyar ruwa don kiwo da shanu
  • al'adun gargajiya da tsarin kamun kifi sun tabarbare.[13]

Lafiyar Qasa na Yankin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayani mai ma'ana game da kogin Zambezi daga sararin samaniya.[14]
Hoton launi-launi na NASA na saman Zambezi da Barotse (Balozi) yayin ambaliyar ruwa a 2003.

Yankin Zambezi yana da filaye da yawa, da kuma dausayi na dindin, savannas, da gandun daji na fadama. Tare da magudanan ruwa na Buzi, Pungwe, da Save koguna, kogin Zambezi ya kasance asusun Asusun Kula da dabbobin duniya na Zambezian da ke bakin ruwa savanna ecoregion a Mozambique. Savannas da ambaliyar ta yi ambaliya suna kusa da gabar Tekun Indiya. Mangroves yana gefen bakin tekun Delta.

Kodayake madatsun ruwa sun hana wasu daga cikin ambaliyar ruwa ta shekara-shekara ta ƙananan Zambezi kuma sun sa yankin da ambaliyar ta ragu sosai ba su cire ambaliyar kwata-kwata ba. Ba za su iya sarrafa ambaliyar ruwa mai yawa ba, kawai sun sanya ambaliyar matsakaiciyar ƙasa da ƙasa. Lokacin da ruwan sama mai karfi a ƙasan Zambezi ya haɗu tare da kyakkyawan kwararar ruwa, ambaliyar ruwa har yanzu tana faruwa kuma yankuna masu dauƙi har yanzu wuri ne mai mahimmanci. Ko yaya, haka kuma ƙarancin gandun dajin na ƙara yin mummunan lahani ga dabbobin daji ya samo asali ne daga farautar dabbobi marasa ƙarfi kamar buffalo da buckbu a lokacin Yakin Basasa na Mozambique kuma yanzu rikicin ya ƙare da alama wuraren da za a yi ambaliyar za su fi yawan jama'a, kuma gaba An kuma tattauna batun lalatawa. Yankin da aka kiyaye shi kawai shine filin wasan Marromeu kusa da garin Beira.

Koday ake yankin ya ga raguwar yawan manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa, har yanzu yana gida ga wasu ciki har da reedbuck da ƙaura mai zuwa. Naman dabbobi da aka samo a nan sun hada da zaki (Panthera leo), damisa (Panthera pardus), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), hyena mai hangowa (Crocuta crocuta) da jackal mai taguwar gefe (Canis adustus). Wuraren ambaliyar sun zama matattarar tsuntsayen masu ƙaura da suka hada da pintails, garganey, African openbill (Anastomus lamelligerus), stork-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis), wattled crane (Bugeranus carunculatus), da kuma babban farin feshin (Pelecanus onocrotalus).[15]

Dabbobi masu rarrafe sun hada da kada (Crocodylus niloticus), kadangaren saka idanu na Nile (Varanus niloticus) da kuma dutsen Python na Afirka (Python sebae), da macijin tsutsar ciki na Pungwe (Leptotyphlops pungwensis) da wasu macizan guda uku wadanda kusan suke da jini; macijin ruwa mai ambaliyar ruwa (Lycodonomorphus whytei obscuriventris), dodon kerkuku maciji (Lycophidion nanus) da maciji mai dausayi (Proatheris).[15]

Akwai da yawa daga malam buɗe ido.

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Arewacin tafkin Zambezi yana nufin ruwan sama na shekara-shekara na 1100 zuwa 1400mm wanda ke sauka zuwa kudu, ya kai kusan rabin wannan adadi a kudu maso yamma. Ruwan sama yana sauka a lokacin damina mai tsawon watanni 4 zuwa 6 lokacin da Yankin Haɓaka tsakanin Yankin ke motsawa daga ƙasan arewa daga tsakanin Oktoba zuwa Maris. Yawan kumburin ruwa yana da yawa (1600 mm-2300 mm) kuma an rasa ruwa da yawa ta wannan hanyar a cikin gulbi da koguna, musamman a kudu maso yamma na kwarin.[16]

Dabbobin daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Giwaye suna haye kogin-
Hippopotamus a cikin Kogin Zambezi

Kogin yana tallafawa ɗimbin ɗumbin dabbobi. Dorinan-ruwa (Hippopotamuses) suna da yawa tare da yawancin sassan kwanciyar hankali na kogin, da kuma kadarorin Nilu. Ana samun kadangaru masu sa ido a wurare da yawa. Tsuntsaye suna da yawa, tare da nau'ikan da suka hada da heron, pelican, egret, ƙananan flamingo da gaggafa kifin Afirka da ke da yawa. Itacen kogin kuma yana tallafawa manyan dabbobi da yawa, kamar bauna, jakunan daji, rakumin dawa, giwaye.

Zambezi kuma yana tallafawa nau'ikan kifaye da yawa, wasu daga cikinsu suna da rafin kogi. Muhimmin nau'ikan sun hada da cichlids wadanda ake kifi da yawa don abinci, da kifayen kifi, tigerfish, kifi mai launin rawaya da sauran manyan halittu. Wani lokacin ana kiran sa da shark da sunan Zambezi shark bayan kogi, amma ana samun sa a duk duniya.

Igiyoyin ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban Zambezi: 507,200 km2, ya sauke 1044 m3/s a ​​Fadar ruwan Victoria, wanda ya ƙunshi:


Ruwan Arewacin, 222,570 km2, 850 m3/s a ​​Lukulu:

  • Kogin Chifumage: Yankin tsakiyar Angola
  • Kogin Luena: Yankin tsakiyar Angola
  • Kogin Kabompo: 72,200 km2, NW tsaunukan NW na Zambiya
  • Kogin Lungwebungu: 47,400 km2, yankin tsakiyar Angola

Yankin tsakiyar filayen, 284,630 km2, 196 m3/s (Fadar ruwan Victoria – Lukulu):

  • Kogin Luanginga: 34,600 km2, yankin tsakiyar Angola
  • Kogin Luampa/Luena River, Zambiya: 20,500 km2, gabashin gabashin Zambezi
  • Cuando/Linyanti/Kogin Chobe: 133,200 km2, Angolan S plateau & Caprivi

Tsakiyar Zambezi wanda aka ƙididdige 1,050,000 km2, 2442 m3/s, wanda aka auna a Cahora Bassa Ruwa

Duba tsakiyar Zambezi


(Yankin tsakiyar ta kanta: 542,800 km2, fitarwa 1398 m3/s (C. Bassa – Fadar ruwan Victoria)

Gwembe Kamawa, 156,600 km2, 232 m3/s (Kariba Gorge – Fadar ruwan Vic):

  • Kogin Gwayi: 54,610 km2, NW Zimbabwe
  • Kogin Sengwa: 25,000 km2, Arewacin tsakiyar Zimbabwe
  • Kogin Sanyati: 43,500 km2, Arewacin tsakiyar Zimbabwe

Kariba Ruwa zuwa C. Bassa mai kamawa, 386200 km2, 1166 m3/s (C. Bassa – Kariba Ruwa):

  • Kogin Kafue: 154,200 km2, 285 m3 / s, Yammacin tsakiyar Zambiya & Copperbelt
  • Kogin Luangwa: 151,400 km2, 547 m3 / s, Luangwa Rift Valley & plateau NW da shi
  • Kogin Panhane: 23,897 km2, yankin tsakiyar Arewacin Zimbabwe

Kananan Zambezi ya cika yawa, 1,378,000 km2, 3424 m3/s, wanda aka auna a Marromeu

(Kananan sashe da kanta: 328,000 km2, 982 m3 / s (Marromeu-C. Bassa))

  • Kogin Luia: 28,000 km2, Moravia-Angonia plateau, N na Zambezi
  • Kogin Luenha/Kogin Mazoe: 54,144 km2, 152 m3/s, Tsaunin Manica, NE Zimbabwe
  • Kogin Shire, 154,000 km2, 539 m3/s, Tafkin Malawi

Delta na Zambezi, 12,000 km2

Adadin kogin Zambezi: 1,390,000 km2, 3424 m3/s aka sallamar da ita zuwa yankin Delta

Bayanai: Beilfuss & Dos Santos (2001) Ba a haɗa Kogin Okavango cikin waɗannan adadi saboda kawai lokaci-lokaci yana malalowa ta kowane fanni zuwa cikin Zambezi.

Saboda rabon ruwan sama, yankuna na arewa suna bayar da ruwa mai yawa fiye da na kudu, misali: yankunan arewacin tsaunuka na sama na Zambezi suna bada kashi 25%, Kafue 8%, Luangwa da Shire Rivers 16% kowane, jimlar 65% na ruwan Zambezi. Babban tafkin Cuando da ke kudu maso yamma a gefe guda yana ba da gudummawa kusan 2 m3/s saboda yawancinsu sun ɓace ta hanyar ɓarna a cikin tsarin fadamar. Shekarun 1940 da 1950 sun kasance shekaru masu yawa musamman a cikin kwandon ruwa. Tun daga 1975, ya fi bushewa, matsakaicin fitarwa ya zama kashi 70% kawai na wannan daga shekarun 1930 zuwa 1958.

Tarihin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alamar Victoria Park ta Kasa

Har zuwa Late Pliocene ko Pleistocene (sama da shekaru miliyan biyu da suka wuce), kogin Babban Zambezi ya kasance yana kwarara kudu ta inda yake yanzu Makgadikgadi Pan zuwa Kogin Limpopo.[17] Canjin hanyar kogin sakamakon motsawar epeirogenic ne wanda ya daukaka saman a rabe-raben ruwa na yau tsakanin kogunan biyu.[18]

A halin yanzu, kilomita 1,000 (620 mi) gabas, yankin yamma na Kogin Shire a gabashin Rift ta gabashin Afirka ta hanyar Malawi ya lalata wani kwari mai zurfin kan rakiyar yamma. Dangane da kimar peran cm a kowace shekara, wannan kogin, Tsakiyar Zambezi, ya fara yanke gadon kogin nasa zuwa yamma, tare da taimakon riƙo (rift valleys) da ke kan hanyarsa ta hanyar gabas zuwa yamma. Kamar yadda ta yi haka ta kame wasu koguna da ke kwarara ta kudu kamar su Luangwa da Kafue.

Daga ƙarshe sai babban Zambezi ya kama babban kogin da ya makale a Makgadikgadi (ko kuma wani yanki daga gare shi) yana yankan baya zuwa gareshi, kuma ya wofintar da shi zuwa gabas. Hakanan an kame Babban Zambezi. Tsakiyar Zambezi ya kai kimanin mita 300 (ƙafa 980) ƙasa da Upper Zambezi, kuma wata ƙatuwar maɓuɓɓugar ruwa da aka kafa a gefen ƙauyen mashigar da ƙoshin babban kogin yake gudana. Wannan shi ne Fadar ruwan Victoria na Farko, a wani wuri zuwa Ruwa na Batoka kusa da inda Tafkin Kariba yake yanzu.[19]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanin Lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bature na farko da yazo ketaren kogin Zambezi shine Vasco da Gama, a cikin Janairu 1498, wanda ya kafa abin da ya kira Rio dos Bons Sinais ("Kogin Kyakkyawan Omens"), yanzu Quelimane ko Quá-Qua, ƙaramin kogi a kan ƙarshen ƙarshen Delta, wanda a wancan lokacin ya haɗu da tashoshi masu amfani da shi zuwa rafin Zambezi daidai (haɗin da aka ƙulla da shi a cikin 1830s). A cikin fewan kaɗan daga cikin tsoffin taswirori, an fassara kogin duka kamar haka. Amma tuni zuwa farkon 1500s, sabon suna ya fito, kogin Cuama (wani lokacin "Quama" ko "Zuama"). Cuama shine sunan yankin da mazaunan Tudun Swahili suka ba shi don matsugunin da yake kan ɗayan tsibirai na kudu maso yamma (kusa da tashar Luabo). Mafi yawan tsofaffin taswirar jiragen ruwa suna nuna shigar Luabo a matsayin Cuama, duka yankin kamar "kogunan Cuama" da kogin Zambezi sun dace da "Kogin Cuama".

Duk da haka, tuni a cikin 1552, marubucin tarihin Fotigal João de Barros ya lura cewa mutanen wannan birni na Monomatapa suna kiran wannan kogin Cuama Zembere.[20] Friar Fotigal Dominican João dos Santos, ta ziyarci Monomatapa a 1597, ta ba da rahoton as Zambeze (Harsunan Bantu suna canzawa tsakanin z da r) kuma sun bincika asalin sunan; an gaya masa an sa masa sunan mutane.

Taswirar da Willem Janszoon Blaeu ya yi, wanda aka ba shi a ranar 1635, wanda ke nuna tafarkin Zambezi, da asalinsa a cikin babban tafki.

"A gefensu ana kiran Kogin Cuama da suna Zambeze; shugaban da yake da nisa a cikin Kasa har babu wani daga cikinsu da ya san shi, amma bisa al'adar magabata sun ce ya fito ne daga wani Tafki a tsakiyar nahiyar wanda ya hada da sauran manyan Koguna, hanyoyi daban-daban da ke ziyartar Tekun. Suna kiran shi Zambeze, na ofasar Cafres da ke zaune kusa da Tekun wanda ake kira da haka." —J. Santos Ethiopia Oriental, 1609[21]

Don haka kalmar "Zambezi" ta kasance bayan mutanen da ke zaune a gefen babban tafki zuwa arewa. 'Yan takarar da ake ganin sun fi dacewa su ne "M'biza", ko mutanen Bisa (a tsofaffin rubutun da aka bayar a matsayin Muisa, Movisa, Abisa, Ambios da sauran bambance-bambancen), mutanen Bantu ne da ke zaune a yankin da ke tsakiyar gabashin Zambiya a yanzu, tsakanin Kogin Zambezi da Tafkin Bangweolo (a lokacin, kafin mamayewar Lunda, da alama Bisa zai kara fadada arewa, mai yiwuwa zuwa Lake Tanganyika). Bisa ya yi suna a matsayin manyan dillalan yadi a duk yankin.[22]


A cikin sanarwa mai ban sha'awa, ɗan asalin Goas ɗin nan dan asalin ƙasar Portugal Manuel Caetano Pereira, wanda ya yi tafiya zuwa ƙasashen Bisa a cikin 1796 ya yi mamakin nuna shi na biyu, keɓaɓɓen kogi da ake kira "Zambezi".[23] Wannan "sauran Zambezi" wanda ya ba da mamaki ga Pereira shine wataƙila abin da majiyoyin zamani ke rubutawa na Kogin Chambeshi a arewacin Zambiya.

Maganar Monomatapa (Santos ta ruwaito) cewa Zambezi ya samo asali ne daga wani babban tafki na ciki yana iya zama ishara ga ɗayan Manyan tabkuna na Afirka. Ofayan sunayen da masu bincike na farko suka bayar da rahoto game da Tafkin Malawi shine "Lake Zambre" (wataƙila ɓarna ce ta "Zambezi"), mai yiwuwa saboda Tafkin Malawi ya haɗu da ƙananan Zambezi ta Kogin Malawi. Labarin Monomatapa ya yi daidai da tsohuwar tunanin Turai, wanda aka samo daga tsohuwar tarihi, cewa duk manyan kogunan Afirka-Kogin Nilu, da Senegal, da Kwango, yanzu ma Zambezi, duk an same su ne daga babban babban tafkin. Haka kuma an gaya wa Fotigal din cewa "kogin" na Mozambican Espirito Santo (a zahiri an gina shi ne daga kogin Umbeluzi, Matola da Tembe) daga wani tafki (saboda haka aka san hanyar da ake kira Delagoa Bay). A sakamakon haka, tsoffin taswirori da yawa suna nuna Zambezi da kogunan "Espirito Santo" suna haɗewa cikin zurfin ciki, a tafki ɗaya.

Koyaya, tushen asalin Bisa ba tare da jayayya ba. A 1845, WD Cooley, yana nazarin bayanan Pereira, ya kammala kalmar "Zambezi" ba daga mutanen Bisa bane, a'a daga kalmar Bantu "mbege"/"mbeze" ("kifi"), saboda haka yana iya nufin kawai "kogi" na kifi".[24] David Livingstone, wanda ya isa Zambezi na sama a cikin 1853, yana kiranta da "Zambesi" amma kuma ya lura da sunan yankin "Leeambye" da mutanen Lozi ke amfani da shi, wanda ya ce yana nufin "babban kogi ko kogi daidai da kyau". Livingstone ya rubuta wasu sunaye na Zambezi - Luambeji, Luambesi, Ambezi, Ojimbesi da Zambesi - waɗanda mutane daban-daban suka yi amfani da su a yayin tafiyarta, kuma ya tabbatar da cewa "dukkansu suna da irin wannan mahimmancin ra'ayi kuma suna bayyana ra'ayin asalin ƙasar na wannan kyakkyawan rafin kasancewar babban magudanar ruwa. ƙasa ".[25]

A cikin bayanan Fotigal, lokacin "Kogin Cuama" ya ɓace kuma ya ba da kalmar zuwa "Kogin Sena" (Rio de Sena), wanda yake nuni ga tashar kasuwanci ta Swahili (kuma daga baya Portuguese) a Sena. A shekarar 1752, yankin Zambezi Delta, da sunan "Kogin Sena" (Rios de Sena) ya kafa gundumar mulkin mallaka ta Fotigal Mozambique. Amma amfani da yau da kullun na "Zambezi" ya haifar da zartar da hukunci a cikin 1858 a hukumance ya sauya sunan yankin "Zambézia".

Binciken kogin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton tauraron dan adam wanda yake nuna Fadar ruwan Victoria da kuma jerin kwazazzabai masu zuwa

Yankin Zambezi ya kasance sananne ne ga masanan tarihin zamanin da daular Monomotapa, kuma tafkin kogin, da kuma matsayin tabkuna Ngami da Nyasa, an ba su sosai daidai a farkon taswira. Waɗannan an gina su ne daga bayanan Larabawa.[26]

Bature na farko da ya ziyarci rafin Zambezi shi ne yaren Portuguese da ke António Fernandes a cikin 1511 da kuma a cikin 1513, tare da manufar bayar da rahoto game da yanayin kasuwanci da ayyukan cikin tsakiyar Afirka ta Tsakiya. Rahoton ƙarshe na waɗannan binciken ya bayyana mahimmancin tashoshin jiragen ruwan Zambezi na sama ga tsarin kasuwancin cikin gida, musamman cinikin gwal na Gabashin Afirka.[27]

David Livingstone ne ya fara binciken farko na Zambezi na sama a bincikensa daga Bechuanaland tsakanin 1851 da 1853. Bayan shekara biyu ko uku sai ya sauko da Zambezi a bakinta kuma a cikin wannan tafiya ya sami Fadar ruwan Victoria. A tsakanin 1858-60, tare da John Kirk, Livingstone ya hau kogin ta bakin Kongone har zuwa Falls, sannan kuma ya bi tafkin ɗan kwali na Shire har ya isa Tafkin Malawi.[26]

Domin shekaru 35 masu zuwa kadan binciken kogin ya faru. Wani ɗan Burtaniya mai bincike Serpa Pinto ya binciki wasu daga cikin yammacin rafin kogin kuma ya auna ma'aunin Fadar ruwan Victoria a 1878.[26] A cikin 1884 ɗan mishan mission ɗan asalin Scotland wanda yake ɗan mishan mai suna Frederick Stanley Arnot ya yi tattaki a tsayin ƙasa tsakanin kogunan Zambezi da Kongo, kuma ya gano tushen Zambezi.[28] Ya yi la'akari da cewa tsaunin da ke kusa da kuma Kalene Hill wuri ne da ya dace da manufa.[29] Arnot ya kasance tare da ɗan kasuwar Fotigal da hafsan sojan António da Silva Porto.[30] A cikin 1889 an ga tashar Chinde a arewacin manyan bakin kogin. Tafiya biyu da Manjo A. St Hill Gibbons ya jagoranta a shekarar 1895 zuwa 1896 da 1898 zuwa 1900 sun ci gaba da aikin binciken da Livingstone ya fara a cikin babban kwarin da tsakiyar kogin.[26]

Wasu mutane biyu a cikin kogin Zambezi kusa da Fadar ruwan Victoria, Zambiya.

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan kwarin kogin Zambezi ya kai kimanin miliyan 32. Kimanin kashi 80% na yawan kwarin sun dogara ne da aikin gona, kuma filayen ambaliyar ruwa na sama suna ba da ƙasar noma mai kyau.

Al’ummomin da ke bakin kogin suna kama shi sosai, kuma mutane da yawa suna yin tafiya daga nesa zuwa kifi. Wasu garuruwan Zambiya a kan hanyoyi da ke zuwa kogin suna karbar harajin da ba na hukuma ba 'harajin kifi' kan mutanen da ke daukar kifin Zambezi zuwa wasu sassan kasar. Hakanan kamun kifi don abinci, kamun kifi wasa muhimmin aiki ne akan wasu sassan kogin. Tsakanin Mongu da Livingstone, gidajen shakatawa na safari da yawa suna ba da baƙi don yawon buɗe ido waɗanda ke son kamun kifi don nau'ikan jinsuna, kuma da yawa kuma suna kama kifin don sayar wa aquaria.[31]

Kwarin kogin yana da wadatattun ma'adanai da burbushin halittu, kuma hakar kwal na da mahimmanci a wurare. Hakanan madatsun ruwa tare da tsawonsu suna samar da aikin yi ga mutane da yawa da ke kusa da su, wajen kula da tashoshin samar da wutar lantarki da kuma madatsun da kansu. Yankunan kogin da yawa kuma shahararrun wuraren yawon bude ido ne. Fadar ruwan Victoria tana karɓar baƙi sama da 100,000 a kowace shekara, tare da baƙi 141,929 da aka ruwaito a cikin 2015.[32] Mana Pools da Tafkin Kariba kuma suna zana adadi masu yawa na yawon bude ido.[33]

Sufuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton 1975 na Gadar Fadar ruwan Victoria

Ana saurin katse kogin da hanzari saboda haka bai taba kasancewa muhimmiyar hanyar jigila ba. Tafiyar Zambezi ta David Livingstone ta yi ƙoƙari ta buɗe kogin don kewaya ta jirgin ruwa, amma Cahora Bassa Rapids ya ci shi. Tare da wasu shimfidawa, sau da yawa ya fi dacewa don tafiya ta kwale-kwale tare da kogin maimakon kan hanyoyin da ba a inganta su ba wadanda galibi suna cikin mawuyacin hali saboda ambaliyar ruwa a kai a kai, kuma yawancin ƙauyuka da yawa da ke gefen kogin suna kawayawa ta jirgin ruwa. A cikin shekarun 1930s da 40s wani sabis na jigilar kaya ya yi aiki a kan hanyar tsakanin Katombora Rapids, kimanin kilomita 50 (31 mi) daga daga Livingstone, kuma masu saurin gudu daga Katima Mulilo. Koyaya, ya danganta da matakin ruwa, ana iya shiga kwale-kwale ta hanyar-Lozi paddlers, dozin ko fiye a cikin jirgin ruwa, na iya ma'amala da yawancin su - ko kuma a ja su zuwa gaɓar tekun ko a ɗauke su a kusa da hanzari, da ƙungiyar shanu ya jawo jiragen ruwa masu nisan kilomita 5 (3.1 mi) a kan ƙasar da ke kusa da Fadar ruwan Ngonye.[34]

Hanya, layin dogo da sauran mashigan kogin, sau ɗaya ne kaɗan da kuma nesa, suna ta ƙaruwa. Su ne, domin daga asalin kogin:

  • Gadar hanyar Cazombo, Angola, ta jefa bam cikin yaƙin basasa kuma har yanzu ba a sake gina ta ba[35]
  • Chinyingi ya dakatar da dutsen kusa da garin Zambezi, wani dusar ƙafa mai tsawon mita 300 (ƙafa 980) wanda aka gina a matsayin aikin al'umma
  • Gadar Lubosi Imwiko II da ta hada garuruwan Mongu da Kalabo, sabuwar gada ce mai tsawon mita 1,005 da karafa wacce ta hada da kilomita 38.5 na babbar hanyar da ta bi ta hanyar Barotse Floodplain da kamfanin kasar Sin ya gina tsakanin 2011 da 2016 (yunkurin na 2) na tiriliyan 1.2 na kwacha.[36][37]
  • Gadar Sioma kusa da Ngonye Falls, sabuwar hanyar gada mai tsawon mita 260 (K 108 miliyan), an buɗe ta a 2016 a matsayin wani ɓangare na hanyar Sesheke - Senanga[38]
  • Gadar Katima Mulilo, mai nisan mita 900 (kafa 3,000), tsakanin Namibia da Sesheke a Zambiya, an bude ta 2004, an kammala babbar hanyar Trans – Caprivi da ta hada Lusaka a Zambiya da Walvis Bay a gabar tekun Atlantika
  • Gadar Kazungula - a cikin watan Agusta na 2007 an ba da sanarwar maye gurbin Kazungula Ferry, ɗayan manyan jiragen ruwa a Kudancin Afirka, da gada ta hanyar inda kogin ya kai mita 430 (1,410 ft) faɗi
  • Gadar Fadar ruwan Victoria (hanya da layin dogo), wanda aka fara ginawa, an kammala shi a watan Afrilu 1905 kuma an fara niyyarsa azaman hanyar haɗi a cikin shirin Cecil Rhodes don gina hanyar jirgin ƙasa daga Cape Town zuwa Alkahira: mita 250 (ƙafa 820)
  • Dam din Kariba yana dauke da babbar hanyar Kariba / Siavonga a hayin kogin
Jirgin ruwan yawon bude ido a kan Kogin Zambezi, Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, Zambiya. Hoton 1971.
  • Otto Beit Bridge a Chirundu, hanya, mita 382 (1,253 ft), 1939
  • Na biyu gadar Chirundu, hanya, mita 400 (1,300 ft), 2002
  • Cahora Bassa Dam yana cikin yanki mai nisa kuma baya ɗaukar babbar hanya a ƙetaren kogin
  • Gadar dakatarwar Tete, gada mai nisan kilomita 1 (1,000 m) (1970s)
  • Gadar Dona Ana, hanyar jirgin kasa ce ta asali amma aka canza ta zuwa hanya daya, (1935), mafi tsayi a kilomita 3 (1.9 mi), tun a ƙarshen 2009 ya zama gada ta hanyar jirgin ƙasa, fasinjoji da jiragen ƙasa masu jigilar kayayyaki suna sake tsallakawa ta ƙetaren kuma daga 2011 akan layin dogo akan wannan gadar na iya isar da miliyoyin tan na kwal na Tete zuwa tashar jirgin ruwan Beira.
  • Gadar Caia - an fara aikinta ne a cikin 2007 na babbar gada mai tsawon kilomita 2.3 (1.4 mi) don maye gurbin jirgin Caia, wanda, tare da Kazungula, shine jirgi mafi girma a ƙetaren kogin

Akwai wasu ƙananan jiragen ruwa da ke ƙetare kogin a Angola, yammacin Zambiya, da Mozambique, musamman tsakanin Mongu da Kalabo. Sama da Mongu a cikin shekaru masu zuwa bayan damuna masu ƙarancin ruwa ana iya yin rijistar kogin a wuri ɗaya ko biyu. A yankuna masu yawon bude ido, kamar su Fadar ruwan Victoria da Kariba, jiragen ruwan yawon bude ido na daukar ‘yan baƙi tare da kogin.

Ilimin Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tafkin Cahora Bassa a cikin Mozambique, daya daga cikin manyan hanyoyin samar da makamashin lantarki

Gurɓatarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Magudanar ruwa na daga cikin manyan abubuwan dake haifar da gurbacewar ruwa a kusa da biranen, saboda rashin wadatattun wuraren kula da ruwa a duk manyan biranen yankin ya tilasta musu sakin najasa da ba a kula da ita a cikin kogin. Wannan ya haifar da lalata ruwan kogin kuma ya sauƙaƙa yaduwar cututtukan rashin tsabta kamar kwalara, zazzaɓi da zazzaɓin cizon sauro .[39]

Illar madatsun ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gina wasu manyan madatsun ruwa biyu da ke tsara yadda kogin ke gudana ya yi babban tasiri a kan namun daji da kuma yawan mutanen da ke ƙasan yankin Zambezi. Lokacin da aka kammala madatsar Cahora Bassa a shekarar 1973, manajojinta suka ba ta damar cikawa a cikin lokaci guda na ambaliyar ruwa, suna cin karo da shawarwarin cika akalla shekaru biyu. Rage raguwar kwararar kogin ya haifar da raguwar kashi 40 cikin ɗari a cikin bishiyar mangroves, ya ƙaru ƙwarai da zaizayar yankin bakin ruwa da raguwar kashi 60% na kamun kifin daga bakin saboda raguwar sanya dusar ƙanƙara da hade da gina jiki. Tsarin ruwa na Wetland da ke gabar ruwa ya ragu sosai. An kara fuskantar barazanar namun daji a cikin yankin ta hanyar farauta mara kan gado a lokacin yakin basasa a Mozambique.[40][41]

Matakan kiyayewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Kavango – Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation zai mamaye wasu sassan Zambiya, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe da Botswana, gami da mashahurin Okavango Delta a cikin Botswana da Mosi-oa-Tunya (Hayakin da ke Damuwa, ko Fadar ruwan Victoria). Ana tunanin cewa wurin shakatawar zai iya taimakawa tare da hanyoyin yin hijirar dabbobi da kuma taimakawa wajen kiyaye wuraren da ke da ruwa wanda yake da tsaftataccen ruwa, kasancewar ruwan da najasa ga al'uma matsala ce.[42]

An inganta kudaden don kiyaye iyakokin kan iyaka tare da Zambezi a shekarar 2008. Kavango – Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation project - wanda ke bin Kogin Zambezi kuma ya tsallaka zuwa Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambiya da Zimbabwe - ya sami tallafin €8 miliyan daga Kungiyar ba ta gwamnati ba ta Jamusawa. Za'a yi amfani da wani ɓangare na kuɗin don bincike a wuraren da aikin ya ƙunsa. Koyaya, Angola ta yi gargadin cewa nakiyoyi daga yakin basasar su na iya kawo cikas ga aikin.[43]

Kogin a halin yanzu ya ratsa ta Ngonye Falls National Park, Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, da Lower Zambezi National Park (a Zambiya), da Zambezi National Park, Victoria Falls National Park, Matusadona National Park, Mana Pools National Park, da kuma Middle Zambezi Biosphere Reserve (a Zimbabwe).[44]

Gudanar da hannun jari na kifi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga shekara ta 2017 halin da ake ciki na tsananin kamun kifi a cikin manyan Zambezi da raƙuman ruwa an ɗauke shi mai wahala, a wani ɓangare saboda raunin aiwatar da ƙa'idojin kamun kifi. An gano kamun kifin na tabkin Liambezi da ke gabashin Caprivi ya kare gaba daya, kuma binciken ya nuna raguwar tsarin ruwan kogin Zambezi-Kwando-Chobe. Yin kamun kifi ba bisa doka ba (i.a. daga baƙi waɗanda Namibiya ke aiki da su) da kuma mutane masu ra'ayin kasuwanci, suna amfani da albarkatun don cutar da kasuwannin cikin gida da al'ummomin da al'adunsu da tattalin arzikinsu suka dogara da waɗannan albarkatun.[45]

Sakamakon haka ne jami'an Namibia suka hana gidajen sauro, kuma suka sanya lokacin rufewa na kimanin watanni 3 a kowace shekara don ba kifin damar yin kiwo. Sun kuma nada masu gadin kifi na kauye kuma an bayyana tashar Kayasa a cikin yankin masarautar Impalila a matsayin ajiyar kamun kifi. Har ila yau, ma'aikatar ta Namibia ta inganta kiwon kifi da niyyar raba dubban yatsu ga kananan manoman kifi da ke rajista a yankin.[46]

Ɓarkewa ta EUS[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 14 ga Satumbar 2007, cututtukan fuka (EUS) sun kashe ɗaruruwan kifaye masu rauni a cikin kogin. Ministan aikin gona na Zambiya Ben Kapita ya nemi masana da su binciki barkewar cutar don bincika musababbin don gano ko za a iya yada cutar ga mutane

Manyan garuruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tare da yawancin tsafin kogin, yawan jama'a ba su da yawa, amma manyan birane da tare da hanyarta sun haɗa da masu zuwa:

  • Katima Mulilo (Namibia)
  • Mongu, Lukulu, Livingstone da Sesheke (Zambiya)
  • Fadar ruwan Victoria da Kariba (Zimbabwe)
  • Songo da Tete (Mozambique)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Zambezi River | river, Africa". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  2. "Zambezi River Facts and Information". www.victoriafalls-guide.net. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  3. "Zambezi River". Zambia Tourism (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  4. Pasanisi, Francesco; Tebano, Carlo; Zarlenga, Francesco (March 2016). "A Survey near Tambara along the Lower Zambezi River". Environments (in Turanci). 3 (1): 6. doi:10.3390/environments3010006.
  5. "Dilapidated Zambezi Source Site Worry Ikelenge DC". muvitv.com. Muvi TV. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  6. "ZM002 Source of the Zambezi". birdlife.org. Birdlife International. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Dorling Kindersley, pp. 84–85
  8. Ashton, Peter; Love, David; Mahachi, Harriet; Dirks, Paul. "An Overview of the Impacts of Mining and Mineral Processing Operations on Water Resources and Water Quality in the Zambezi, Limpopo AND Olifant Catchments in Southern Africa" (PDF). International Institute for Environment and Development. Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project, Southern Africa. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  9. Page, Geology (2014-11-25). "Zambezi River". Geology Page (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  10. Edington, Sean (2020-12-29). "Is rafting on the Zambezi River below The Victoria Falls Dangerous?". SAFPAR (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  11. Valkenburgh, Blaire Van; White, Paula A. (20 April 2021). "Figure 1: Map showing location of Luangwa Valley and Greater Kafue Ecosystem in Zambia". PeerJ. 9: e11313. doi:10.7717/peerj.11313/fig-1. Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  12. "Zambezi - Encyclopedia". theodora.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  13. Knifton, Dulcie (July 2004). Revise AS Level Geography for Edexcel Specification B. Heinemann. ISBN 9780435101541.
  14. "Zambezi River Delta : Image of the Day". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 29 August 2013.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Template:WWF ecoregion
  16. Richard Beilfuss & David dos Santos: Patterns of Hydrological Change in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique.
  17. Goudie, A.S. (2005). "The drainage of Africa since the Cretaceous". Geomorphology. 67 (3–4): 437–456. Bibcode:2005Geomo..67..437G. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.11.008.
  18. Moore, A.E. (1999). "A reapprisal of epeirogenic flexure axes in southern Africa". South African Journal of Geology. 102 (4): 363–376.
  19. AWF Four Corners Biodiversity Information Package No 2: Summary of Technical Reviews Archived 17 ga Faburairu, 2012 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 1 March 2007.(dead link)
  20. Barros, Da Asia, Dec.
  21. Fr. J. dos Santos (1609), Ethiopia Oriental e varia historia de cousas Notaveis do Oriente, Pt. III. English translation is from Samuel Purchas's 1625 Haklyutus Posthumus, (1905) ed., Glasgow, vol. 10: p.220-21
  22. The connection between Santos/Monomatapa "Zambezi" and the "M'biza" is suggested in Cooley (1845).
  23. "Notícias dadas por Manoel Caetano Pereira, comerciante, que se entranhou pelo interior da África", as published in José Acúrsio das Neves (1830) Considerações Políticas e Comerciais sobre os Descobrimentos e Possessões na África e na Ásia.
  24. W.D. Cooley (1845) "The Geography of N'yassi, or the Great Lake of Southern Africa, investigated, with an account of the overland route from the Quanza in Angola to the Zambezi in the government of Mozambique", Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, p.185-235.
  25. David Livingstone (1857) Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (p.208)
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCana, Frank (1911). "Zambezi". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 951–953.
  27. Newitt, Malyn (2005). A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 1400-1668. Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 0-203-32404-8.
  28. Howard, Dr. J. Keir (2005). "Arnot, Frederick Stanley". Dictionary of African Christian Biography. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  29. Pritchett, James Anthony (2007). Friends for life, friends for death: cohorts and consciousness among the Lunda-Ndembu. University of Virginia Press. pp. 29–31. ISBN 978-0-8139-2624-7.
  30. Fish, Bruce; Fish, Becky Durost (2001). Angola, 1880 to the present: slavery, exploitation, and revolt. Infobase Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 0-7910-6197-3.
  31. "The Zambezi River, Drained Bone Dry". International Rivers (in Turanci). 2017-11-30. Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  32. [1] Republic of Zambia Ministry of Tourism and Arts 2015 Tourism Statistical Digest
  33. "Hydroelectric Power: Advantages of Production and Usage". www.usgs.gov (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  34. E. C. Mills: "Overlanding Cattle from Barotse to Angola", The Northern Rhodesia Journal, Vol 1 No 2, pp 53–63 (1950).
  35. Visible on Google Earth at latitude -11.906 longitude 22.831.
  36. Visible on Google Earth at longitude 22.924 latitude -15.214.
  37. "Mongu-Kalabo Road - Zambia's Engineering Marvel". zedcorner.com. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  38. "President launches K108m Sioma Bridge – Zambia Daily Mail". daily-mail.co.zm. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  39. Herbig, Friedo J. W. (2019-01-01). Meissner, Richard (ed.). "Talking dirty - effluent and sewage irreverence in South Africa: A conservation crime perspective". Cogent Social Sciences. 5 (1): 1701359. doi:10.1080/23311886.2019.1701359.
  40. "Zambezi River Tourist Information". www.touristlink.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-22.
  41. Isaacman, Allen; Sneddon, Chris (2000). "Toward a Social and Environmental History of the Building of Cahora Bassa Dam". Journal of Southern African Studies. 26 (4): 597–632. doi:10.1080/713683608. ISSN 0305-7070. JSTOR 2637563. S2CID 153574634.
  42. User, Super. "KAZA Conservation Area". www.kavangozambezi.org (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  43. "Funding boost for cross-border conservation project".
  44. "mana pools national park in a sentence - mana pools national park sentence". eng.ichacha.net. Retrieved 2021-05-22.
  45. Kooper, Lugeretzia (2017-06-23). "Zambezi fishermen warned against overfishing". namibian.com.na. The Namibian. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  46. Kooper, Lugeretzia (2017-06-23). "Zambezi fishermen warned against overfishing". namibian.com.na. The Namibian. Retrieved 24 July 2017.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bento C.M., Beilfuss R. (2003), Wattled Cranes, Waterbirds, and Wetland Conservation in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique, report for the Biodiversity Foundation for Africa for the IUCN - Regional Office for Southern Africa: Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource Utilisation Project.
  • Bourgeois S., Kocher T., Schelander P. (2003), Case study: Zambezi river basin, ETH Seminar: Science and Politics of International Freshwater Management 2003/04
  • Davies B.R., Beilfuss R., Thoms M.C. (2000), "Cahora Bassa retrospective, 1974–1997: effects of flow regulation on the Lower Zambezi River," Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnologie, 27, 1–9
  • Dunham KM (1994), The effect of drought on the large mammal populations of Zambezi riverine woodlands, Journal of Zoology, v. 234, p. 489–526
  • Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc. (2004). World reference atlas. New York: Dorling Kindersley.
  • Wynn S. (2002), "The Zambezi River - Wilderness and Tourism", International Journal of Wilderness, 8, 34H. C. N. Ridley: "Early History of Road Transport in Northern Rhodesia", The Northern Rhodesia Journal, Vol 2 No 5 (1954)—Re Zambezi River Transport Service at Katombora.
  • Funding boost for cross-border conservation project

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]