Kogin Limpopo

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Kogin Limpopo
General information
Tsawo 1,750 km
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 24°11′28″S 26°52′14″E / 24.1912°S 26.8706°E / -24.1912; 26.8706
Kasa Botswana, Mozambik, Afirka ta kudu da Zimbabwe
Hydrography (en) Fassara
Tributary (en) Fassara
Watershed area (en) Fassara 440,000 km²
Drainage basin (en) Fassara Limpopo basin (en) Fassara
River mouth (en) Fassara Tekun Indiya

Kogin Limpopo yana hawa a Afirka ta Kudu,[1] kuma yana kwarara gaba ɗaya ta hanyar Mozambique zuwa Tekun Indiya. Kalmar Limpopo ta samo asali ne daga Rivombo (Livombo/Lebombo), wasu gungun mazaunan Tsonga da Hosi Rivombo suka jagoranta wadanda suka zauna a yankin tsaunukan kuma suka sanyawa yankin sunan shugabansu. Kogin yana da kimanin kilomita 1,750 (1,087 mi), tare da magudanan ruwa mai murabba'in kilomita 415,000 (160,200 sq mi) a cikin girman. Matsakaicin fitowar da aka auna tsawon shekara shine 170 m3 / s (6,200 cu ft/s) a bakin ta.[2] Limpopo ita ce kogi mafi girma na biyu a Afirka wanda ya kwarara zuwa Tekun Indiya, bayan Kogin Zambezi.

Bature na farko da ya ga kogin shi ne Vasco da Gama, wanda ya toshe bakinsa a shekara ta 1498 kuma ya ba shi suna Espirito Santo River. St Vincent Whitshed Erskine ne ya binciko ƙarancin tafarkinsa a 1868-69, kuma Kyaftin J F Elton ya yi tafiyarsa ta tsakiya a 1870.

Yankin magudanan ruwa na Kogin Limpopo ya ragu akan lokacin ilimin ƙasa. Har zuwa Late Pliocene ko Pleistocene, babban kogin Zambezi ya malale zuwa Kogin Limpopo.[3] Canjin rabe-raben magudanan ruwa sakamakon motsawar ruwa ne wanda ya daukaka saman arewacin kogin Limpopo na yanzu, yana karkatar da ruwa zuwa Kogin Zambezi.[4]

Hanya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin yana gudana a cikin babban baka, da farko zigzagging arewa sannan arewa maso gabas, sannan ya juya gabas daga ƙarshe zuwa kudu maso gabas. Tana kan iyaka kusan kilomita 640 (miz 398), ta raba Afirka ta Kudu zuwa kudu maso gabas daga Botswana zuwa arewa maso yamma da kuma Zimbabwe zuwa arewa. Biyu daga cikin kogunan ruwa, Kogin Marico da Kogin Crocodile sun haɗu, a wannan lokacin sunan ya canza zuwa Kogin Limpopo. Akwai hanzari da dama yayin da kogin ya fado daga tsakiyar Kudancin Afirka.

Kogin Notwane babbar tashar ruwa ce ta Limpopo, wacce ke hawa a gefen Hamadar Kalahari a Botswana kuma tana kwarara ta hanyar arewa maso gabas.[5] Babban harajin Limpopo, Kogin Olifants (Kogin Elephant), yana ba da gudummawar kusan miliyan 1,233 na m3 na ruwa a kowace shekara.[6] Sauran manyan kogunan sun hada da Kogin Shashe, Kogin Mzingwane, Kogin Crocodile, Kogin Mwenezi da Kogin Luvuvhu.[7]

A kusurwar arewa maso gabashin Afirka ta Kudu kogin ya yi iyaka da Kruger National Park.

Garin Xai-Xai mai tashar jirgin ruwa, Mozambique yana kan kogi kusa da bakin. A ƙasan Olifants, kogin yana da zirga-zirgar dindin zuwa teku, ko da yake sandbar na hana manyan jirgi shiga sai dai a babban igiyar ruwa.

Ƙungiyoyin ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hannun hagu:[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kogin Notwane
  • Kogin Bonwapitse
  • Kogin Mahalapswe
  • Kogin Lotsane
  • Kogin Motloutse
  • Kogin Shashe
  • Kogin Umzingwani
  • Kogin Bubi
  • Kogin Mwenezi
  • Kogin Changane

Hannun dama:[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kogin Marico
  • Kogin Crocodile
  • Kogin Matlabas
  • Kogin Mokolo
  • Kogin Palala
  • Kogin Mogalakwena
  • Kogin Kolope
  • Kogin Sand
  • Kogin Nwanedi
  • Kogin Luvuvhu
  • Kogin Olifants

Halayen kwari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shiga cikin wurin kallo na Kogin Limpopo a Mapungubwe National Park, Afirka ta Kudu, tare da alamar daga Rudyard Kipling

Ruwan Limpopo suna gudana a hankali, tare da babban abun ciki mara kyau. Halin Rudyard Kipling na kogin a matsayin "babban launin toka-mai-kore, mai ƙanshi a Limpopo, duk suna tafiya da bishiyun zazzaɓi," ​​inda "Bi-Colored Python Rock-Snake" yake zaune[8] a cikin Just So Stories yana da kyau. Ruwan sama na yanayi ne kuma ba abin dogaro ba: a cikin shekarun rani, ɓangarorin sama na kogin suna gudana na kwanaki 40 ko ƙasa da hakan. Ɓangaren saman magudanan ruwa, a cikin hamadar Kalahari, busasshe ne amma yanayin ya zama ba shi da ƙarancin bushewa. Na gaba ya kai ga kawo ƙarshen mashigar ruwa ta Waterberg, wani ƙirar biome na yanke-yankewa da ƙananan ƙananan mutane.[9] Yankuna masu sanyin ƙasa suna tallafawa yawan jama'a, kuma kusan mutane miliyan 14 suna rayuwa a cikin mashigar Limpopo. Ambaliyar ruwa a lokacin damina matsala ce ta wani lokaci a ƙasan can. A cikin watan Fabrairun 2000 ruwan sama mai karfi sakamakon wata mahaukaciyar guguwa ta haifar da bala'in ambaliyar 2000 Mozambique.

Mafi girman dattin ciki a cikin Kogin Limpopo ana samunsa ne tsakanin Mokolo da Kogin Mogalakwena.[10]

Akwai ayyuka da yawa na ma'adinai a cikin Kogin Limpopo tare da kusan ma'adinai 1,900 masu aiki, ba tare da ƙidaya kusan ma'adanai 1,700 da aka watsar ba.[11]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Vasco da Gama, a balaguronsa na farko, tabbas yana daga cikin Turawan farko da suka ga kogin, lokacin da ya keɓe bakin daga cikin 1498. Ko yaya, akwai mazaunan mutane a yankin tun fil azal - wurare a cikin kwarin Makapans kusa da Mokopane sun ƙunshi burbushin Australopithecus daga shekaru miliyan 3.5 da suka gabata. St Vincent Whitshed Erskine, daga baya ya kasance Janar na Afirka ta Kudu, ya yi tafiya zuwa bakin kogin a 1868-69.[12]

Wani kamun kifin na Zambezi (Carcharhinus leucas) an kama shi daruruwan kilomita a hayin Kogin Limpopo da Luvuvhu a cikin Yulin 1950. Sharks Zambezi na jure wa ruwa mai kyau kuma suna iya yin tafiya mai nisa zuwa Limpopo.[13]

A shekarar 2013, kimanin kadoji 15,000 na Kogin Nilu ba da gangan aka saki cikin kogin daga kofofin ambaliyar a gonar Rakwena Crocodile da ke kusa.[14]

Gallery[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Limpopo River", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 2018-04-29
  2. Nakayama, Mikiyasu (2003). International Waters in Southern Africa. United Nations University Press. p. 9. ISBN 92-808-1077-4.; online at Google Books
  3. Goudie, A.S. (2005). "The drainage of Africa since the Cretaceous". Geomorphology. 67: 437–456.
  4. Moore, A.E. (1999). "A reapprisal of epeirogenic flexure axes in southern Africa". South African Journal of Geology. 102 (4): 363–376.
  5. The Notwane River, Botswana[permanent dead link]
  6. Görgens, A.H.M. and Boroto, R.A. 1997. Limpopo River: flow balance anomalies, surprises and implications for integrated water resources management. In: Proceedings of the 8th South African National Hydrology Symposium, Pretoria, South Africa.
  7. "Drought impact mitigation and prevention in the Limpopo River Basin". www.fao.org. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  8. The Elephant's Child, Rudyard Kipling
  9. C.Michael Hogan, Mark L. Cooke and Helen Murray, The Waterberg Biosphere, Lumina Technologies, May 22, 2006. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-03-24. Retrieved 2006-12-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. State of Rivers Report: the Mokolo River
  11. "Mines in the Limpopo River basin". limpoporak.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  12. Erskine, Vincent W. (1869). "Journey of Exploration to the Mouth of the River Limpopo". The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 39: 233–276. doi:10.2307/1798552. JSTOR 1798552.
  13. Pienaar, U. de V., The Freshwater Fishes of the Kruger National Park, Koedoe Vol 11, No 1 (1968)
  14. Editorial, Reuters. "South Africa police join hunt for 10,000 escaped crocodiles". reuters.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2018.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]