Haƙƙin Kare Kai

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Wikidata.svgHaƙƙin Kare Kai
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na right (en) Fassara
Main regulatory text (en) Fassara Strafgesetzbuch (en) Fassara, Strafgesetzbuch (en) Fassara da Crimes Act 1900 (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara self-defence (en) Fassara

Hakk6in kare kai (wanda kuma ake kira, idan ya shafi kare wani, sauya son kai, kare wasu, kare mutum na uku ) Haƙƙin ne ga mutane su yi amfani da karfi ko kuma kariya, don manufar karewa rayuwar mutum ( kare kansa ) ko rayukan wasu, gami da –a wasu halaye- yin amfani da ƙarfi . [1]

Idan wanda ake kara yayi amfani da ƙarfi na kariya saboda barazanar wani ko kuma cutar da wani, ko kuma ya fahimci irin wannan cutar, ana cewa mai kare yana da wata hujja ta "kare kai". [2] Idan wanda ake kara yayi amfani da karfi na kariya saboda irin wannan fahimta, kuma tsinkayen bashi da ma'ana, wanda ake kara na iya samun " kare kai mara kyau " a matsayin uzuri .

Janar ra'ayi - ƙa'idar doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tabbatar da hujja baya sanya aikata laifi ta hanyar amfani da karfi ta hanyar halal; idan yin amfani da karfi yayi daidai, ba zai zama mai laifi ba sam. [3]

Tunanin farko bai nuna banbanci tsakanin kare mutum da kare dukiyar ba. Ko a sani ko a'a, wannan ya ginu ne bisa ka'idar Dokar Roman ta dominium inda duk wani hari akan membobin dangin ko dukiyar da ya mallaka ya kasance harin kai tsaye ne akan dangin dangi – Namiji shugaban gida, mai mallakar duk wata dukiya ta gidan, kuma doka ta bashi ikon mallakar dukkan zuriyarsa ta hanyar layin maza komai shekarunsu. [4] An fassara haƙƙin kare kai a matsayin ƙa'idar vim vi repellere licet ("an halatta ta tunkude ƙarfi ta hanyar ƙarfi") a cikin <i id="mwMQ">Digest</i> na Justitian (ƙarni na 6). Wani amfani na farko na wannan shi ne ra'ayin Martin Luther na adawa mai kyau ga mai mulkin Beerwolf, wanda aka yi amfani da shi a cikin koyarwar ƙaramin majistare da aka gabatar a cikin Maganar ta shekara ta 1550 Magdeburg. A cikin Leviathan (1651), Hobbes (ta amfani da kalmar turanci ta kare kai a karo na farko) ya gabatar da ka’idar siyasa da ke rarrabe tsakanin yanayin yanayi inda babu wata hukuma da ta zamani. Hobbes yayi jayayya cewa kodayake wasu na iya zama masu ƙarfi ko masu hankali fiye da wasu a cikin yanayin su, babu wanda ya fi ƙarfin da zai iya wucewa daga tsoron mummunan tashin hankali, wanda ya ba da kariya ta kai a matsayin mafi buƙata. A cikin Yarjejeniyar Biyun na Gwamnati, John Locke ya tabbatar da dalilin da ya sa mai shi zai ba da ikon kansu:

... jin daɗin dukiyar da yake da ita a wannan jihar bashi da aminci sosai, ba shi da tsaro sosai. Wannan ya sa ya yarda ya bar yanayin, wanda, duk da haka kyauta, yana cike da tsoro da haɗari na ci gaba: kuma ba tare da dalili ba, yake nema, kuma yana shirye ya shiga cikin jama'a tare da wasu, waɗanda sun riga sun kasance haɗe, ko suna da hankalin da za su haɗa kai, don kiyaye rayukansu, 'yanci da kadarorinsu, wanda da yawa ke kira da babban suna, dukiya.

A lokutan da suka gabata kafin ci gaban aikin ƴan sanda na ƙasa, harin da aka kai wa gidan dangi ya zama mummunan hari ne ga mutanen da ke ciki ko kuma kai musu hari ta hanyar kai tsaye ta hanyar hana su mafaka da / ko hanyoyin samarwa. Wannan dangantakar tsakanin kai hari ta mutum da dukiya sun raunana yayin da al'ummomi suka ci gaba amma barazanar tashin hankali shine babban jigon. A matsayin wani ɓangare na ikon mallaka, a cikin jawabinsa na 1918 Siyasa als Beruf ( Siyasa a Matsayin Kira), Max Weber ya bayyana wata ƙasa a matsayin hukuma mai da'awar mallakar ita kanta ta halal ta hanyar amfani da ƙarfi ta zahiri a cikin iyakokin yanki. Ganin cewa tsarin zamani na kasashe ya fito ne daga amfani da karfi, Weber ya tabbatar da cewa yin amfani da karfi ta hanyar cibiyoyin gwamnati ya kasance ba dole ba ne ga ingantacciyar gwamnati a kowane mataki wanda kuma hakan ya nuna cewa taimakon kai yana da iyaka idan ba a kebe shi ba. Ga masu ilimin zamani, batun kare kai yana daga cikin kyawawan halaye a cikin al'umma don saita iyaka ga yin biyayya ga jihar da dokokin ta da aka ba da hatsarin da ke yaɗuwa a cikin duniyar da ke cike da makamai. A cikin al'ummomin zamani, jihohi suna ta ƙara ba da izini ko bayar da ikon tilasta su ga kamfanoni masu ba da sabis na tsaro ko dai don ƙarin ko maye gurbin abubuwan da ke cikin tsarin ikon. Gaskiyar cewa jihohin ba sa ƙara yin ikirarin mallakar withinan sanda a cikin iyakokinsu, yana haɓaka gardamar cewa mutane na iya amfani da dama ko damar amfani da tashin hankali don kare kansu. Tabbas, 'yanci na zamani ya nuna yawancin dokoki a matsayin masu kutse ga cin gashin kai na mutum kuma, musamman, yana jayayya cewa haƙƙin kare kai daga tilastawa (gami da tashin hankali ) haƙƙin haƙƙin ɗan adam ne na asali, kuma a cikin kowane hali, ba tare da togiya ba, yana ba da damar duka amfani da tashin hankali wanda ya samo asali daga wannan haƙƙin, ba tare da kariya ga mutum ko dukiya ba. A cikin wannan mahallin, ka lura da cewa Mataki na 12 Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan Adam ta ce:

Ba wanda wani zai shiga sha'aninsa na sirri ba tare da yardarsa ba, ko danginsa, ko gidansa, ko wasiƙun sa, kuma ba wanda zai kai hari ga mutuncin sa da mutuncin sa. Kowane mutum na da haƙƙin kasancewa a cikin ja-gorancin ɗan adam.

Haɗa kariya daga dangi da gida ya san amfanin da ake da shi a duniya wanda ya samo asali daga mallakar mallakar zaman lafiya na dangi na dangi. Wannan tsarin na gaba daya ya shafi mayar da hankali ga Hohfeld akan alaƙar da ke tsakanin dama da aiki a matsayin wani ɓangare na mu'amalar ɗan adam sabanin haƙƙoƙin da ake ganin yana da mahimmanci saboda sun haɗu da mutum ta hanyar mallakar mallakarsa. Bugu da ari, ya biyo baya cewa, a cikin wannan aikin daidaita dabi'un, dokoki dole ne lokaci guda su aikata laifin zalunci wanda ke haifar da asara ko rauni, amma yanke hukunci daidai-dai da rikici wanda ke haifar da asara ko rauni saboda ana amfani da shi wajen kare kai. A matsayin ƙuduri na wannan abin da ya bayyana na banbanci da bijire wa Hohfeld, Robert Nozick ya tabbatar da cewa babu kyawawan 'yancin jama'a, kawai' yancin mallakar abu ne da kuma ikon cin gashin kai. A cikin wannan ka'idar, "ka'idar mallakar" ta bayyana cewa mutane suna da ikon karewa da adana duk abin da suka mallaka ta hanyar da ta dace kuma "ka'idar gyarawa" tana bukatar duk wani keta ka'ida ta farko da za a gyara ta hanyar mayar da kadarori ga masu su a matsayin rarrabawa "sau daya" Saboda haka, a tsoran kariyar kai a matakin farko, duk wata lalacewar dukiya dole ne ta zama mai kyau ko ta wani fanni ko ta ƙima. Hakazalika, masana ilimin tunani irin su George Fletcher da Robert Schopp sun dauki ra'ayoyin Turawa game da cin gashin kai a ra'ayoyinsu na sassaucin ra'ayi don ba da hujja ga mai rike da madafun iko ta hanyar amfani da dukkan karfin da ya dace don kare ikonsa da 'yancinsa. Wannan haƙƙin ya jujjuya ƙa'idodin amfani da amfani tare da tashin hankali wanda ya kasance mafi alkhairi ga mutum, amma daidai yake nuna Jeremy Bentham wanda ya ga dukiya a matsayin ƙarfin motsawa don bawa mutane damar haɓaka ayyukan su ta hanyar saka hannun jari da kasuwanci. A ka'idar masu sassaucin ra'ayi, saboda haka, don ƙara yawan mai amfani, babu buƙatar ja da baya ko amfani da ƙarfi daidai gwargwado. An ce maharin ya sadaukar da kariyar doka lokacin da ya fara harin. A wannan yanayin, dokar aikata laifi ba kayan aikin jin daɗin ƙasa bane wanda ke ba da kariya ga kowa lokacin da suka ji rauni. Koyaya, dole ne a yarda da wasu iyakoki azaman inda ƙaramin hari na farko ya zama kawai dalilin azabtarwa da wuce gona da iri. Tsarin dokar farar hula yana da ka'idar "cin zarafin 'yanci" don bayyana kin yarda da hujja a irin waɗannan munanan lamura.

Ka'idar ɗabi'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakkin kiyaye kai da makami ya samo asali ne daga ka'idar Graeco-Roman Natural Rights, wanda wani dan kasar Roman Cicero (106–43 BC) da sauran masu ilimin falsafa suka fada a fili, wanda Aristotle ya yi tasiri. Miguel Faria, marubucin littafin Amurka, Bindigogi, da 'Yanci (2019), da yake rubutu a Surgical Neurology International ya bayyana cewa mutane suna da haƙƙin kare mutanensu ta hanyar haƙƙinsu na ɗabi'a na kare kai; cewa mutane suna da hakkin kare kansu kawai amma kuma suna da kyawawan halaye na kare iyalai da makwabta; cewa haƙƙin kare kai da makami ya faɗaɗa ga al'umma don taƙaitawa ko hana azzalumar gwamnati.

Haƙƙin 'yanci na maza su dauki makami don kare kai, ya zama aikin kare wadanda ke karkashin iyalansu da kulawa. Yawancin addinai, musamman a cikin al'adun Yahudu-Krista sun yarda da haƙƙin kare kai da kariya ta gida da makamai. Katolika ta katolika da aka samo asali daga aikin tauhidin na St Thomas Aquinas. Ya karanta cewa: "Tsaron doka na iya zama ba wai kawai hakki ba ne amma kuma babban aiki ne ga wanda ke da alhakin rayuwar wasu. Kare lafiyar gama gari yana bukatar a sanya zalunci mai zalunci ba zai iya cutar da shi ba. " Bugu da ƙari, kamar yadda "ya faru cewa buƙatar sa mahaukaci ya kasa haifar da cutarwa wani lokacin ya ƙunshi ɗaukar ransa."

Masanin falsafar Ingilishi John Locke (1632-1704) ya gabatar da cewa haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam sun bayyana a fili kuma sun ba mutum ikon "neman rayuwa, lafiya, 'yanci da mallaka," da kuma haƙƙin kare kansa. Waɗanda suka kafa Amurka ne suka ɗauki wannan ra'ayin kuma Thomas Jefferson ya tsara shi a bayyane na 'Yancin kai. A cikin sharhinsa game da David Kopel's ɗabi'ar kare kai da daukar matakin soja: Al'adar Yahudu da Nasara (2017), Faria ta kammala da cewa: "'Yanci da hakkin kiyaye rayuwa ta hanyar kare kai hakkokin mutane ne na dabi'a - wato, kyaututtuka daga Allah ko Dabi'a zuwa mutum - da gwamnatocin da ke yunƙurin ƙetare waɗancan haƙƙoƙin ba su da halattattun gwamnatoci sai ɓarnata. Mummunan gwamnatoci da kwace daga mulki sun riga sun yi tawaye ga Allah da mutum, don haka mutane suna da haƙƙin haƙƙin kare kai ta hanyar tawaye don kifar da waɗannan gwamnatocin. ” [5]

Kare wasu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dokokin iri ɗaya ne yayin amfani da ƙarfi don kare wani daga hatsari. [2] Gabaɗaya, mai tuhuma dole ne ya yi imani mai kyau cewa ɓangare na uku yana cikin matsayi inda suke da haƙƙin kare kai. Misali, mutumin da ba da sani ba ga wasu 'yan wasan kwaikwayo biyu da suke yin faɗa zai iya kare ikonsu na wanda ya bayyana da zalunci.

Kariyar doka don iƙirarin kare kai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Da'awar shari'ar kare kai zai dogara ne ga barazanar. Wannan ya haɗa da ko barazanar magana ce ta sa mutum ya ji tsoro, har suka ji bukatar kare kansu. Hakanan zai dogara ne idan barazanar ta kusa ko a'a. Wasu tambayoyin da za ku yi shine barazanar tana faruwa kuma shin rayuwar mutum tana cikin haɗari da gaske? Shin sun tsokani mutum ne don harin ya faru? Lokacin da mutumin ya far wa mutumin, shin kare kansa ya yi daidai da barazanar, ko kuwa har ya kai ga mutun ya mutu lokacin da ba sa bukatar a kashe shi? Shin ' kariyar koyaswa ' tsaro? Shin da gangan suka fasa gidan mutum kuma suka yi ƙoƙarin cutar da mutumin ko danginsa har ta kai su ga kare kansu ko wasu ta amfani da ƙarfi?

Dokar Final ta yanzi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dokar Final ta yanzu a Amurika mai lamba §3.04 ta ƙunshi ingantaccen tsari don amfani da ƙarfi, gami da lokacin da ya cancanta, da iyakancewa akan dalilin. [2] Model Penal Code ba dokar hukuma bace a cikin Amurka, kodayake kotuna da jihohi da yawa suna cin bashi mai yawa daga gare ta.

Shari'o'in gama gari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Mutane v. La Voie, Kotun ƙoli na Colorado, 395 P.2d 1001 (1964), Kotun ta rubuta, "Idan mutum yana da dalilai masu ma'ana na yin imani, kuma a zahiri ya gaskata, cewa haɗarin kashe shi, ko na karɓar babban jiki cutarwa, ta gabato, yana iya yin aiki a kan irin wannan bayyani kuma ya kare kansa, har zuwa matakin ɗaukar ran mutum lokacin da ya cancanta, kodayake yana iya zama cewa bayyanuwar ƙarya ce, ko da yake yana iya kuskurewa game da girman ainihin hatsari. "

Ma'anar a takamaiman ƙasashe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ostiraliya
  • Jamhuriyar Czech
  • Sweden
  • Ingila da Wales
  • Amurka

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Koyarwar gida
  • Siyasar bindiga
  • Kariyar kai mara kyau
  • Kisan kai mai adalci
  • Ossian Mai Dadi
  • Pikuach nefesh
  • 'Yanci don kiyayewa da ɗaukar makamai
  • Assaultan cin mutunci
  • Amfani da karfi ci gaba

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. For the rationale of Self-defense, see: Boaz Sangero, Self-Defence in Criminal Law 11 - 106 (Hart Publishing, 2006).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Criminal Law Cases and Materials, 7th ed. 2012; John Kaplan, Robert Weisberg, Guyora Binder
  3. Dennis J. Baker, Glanville Williams Textbook of Criminal Law (London: 2012) at Chapter 21.
  4. See generally, Frier & McGinn, A Casebook on Roman Family Law, Oxford University Press (2004).
  5. Faria, Miguel A. "The moral philosophy of self-defense and resistance to tyranny in the Judeo-Christian Tradition". Surgical Neurology International (SNI). Retrieved 10 August 2020.

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  • Sir Edward Coke, Sashi na Farko na Cibiyoyin Laws of England, ko, Bayani kan Littleton (London, 1628, ed. F. Hargrave da C. Butler, 19th ed., London, 1832)
  • Dressler, Joshua, Sabbin Tunani Game da Ka'idar Tabbatarwa a cikin Dokar Laifi: Sanarwar Tunanin Fletcher da Tunawa, (1984) 32 UCLA L. Rev. 61.
  • Fletcher, George P. (1990) Laifukan Kare Kai: Bernhard Goetz da Doka a Shari'ar, Chicago: Jami'ar Chicago Press,  .
  • Fletcher, George P. (2000) Rethinking Laifin Laifi, Oxford: Jami'ar Oxford Press,  .
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  • Schopp, Robert F. (1998) Adalcin kariya da adalci, Cambridge: Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge,  .
  •  
  • Semeraro, (2006) Osservazioni sulla riforma della legittima difesa
  • Vitu, Halayyar kare doka da keta doka, Revue de Science Criminelle, 1987, 865.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • UseofForce.us, mai zaman kansa, zurfin rashi na dokokin kare kai na Amurka.
  •