Harar

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Sarki Abdullahi sarkin Harar na karshe

Harar (Gēy "The City",[1] Oromo: Adare Biyyo, Somali: Herer, Larabci: هرر) birni ne mai katanga a gabashin Habasha. A harshen larabci ana kiranta da Birnin Waliyyai (Larabci: مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء).

Harar babban birnin lardin Harari ne a kasar Habasha. Har ila yau birnin na Harar ya kasance wurin gudanar da mulki a shiyyar Hararghe ta Gabas ta yankin Oromia.[2] Tsohon birnin yana kan wani tudu a gabashin kasar kuma yana da nisan kusan kilomita dari biyar daga kujerar gwamnatin tarayya da babban birnin Addis Ababa a tsayin mita 1,885 (6,184 ft).

Shekaru aru-aru, Harar ta kasance babbar cibiyar kasuwanci, wacce hanyoyin kasuwanci ke hade da sauran kasashen Habasha, da daukacin yankin kahon Afirka, da yankin Larabawa, da Asiya, da ta tashoshin jiragen ruwa, da na waje. Harar Jugol, tsohon birni mai katanga, UNESCO ta sanya shi a matsayin wurin tarihi na duniya a shekara ta 2006 saboda karramawar al'adunsa.[3] Saboda dadewar da Harar ta yi na shiga harkar kasuwanci a yankin Larabawa, gwamnatin Habasha ta mayar da ita wani laifi na ruguza ko tsoma baki a duk wani wuri na tarihi da ke cikin birnin. Waɗannan sun haɗa da gidajen dutse, gidajen tarihi da abubuwan da aka watsar daga yaƙi. A cewar UNESCO, ana la'akarin "birni na hudu mafi tsarki na Musulunci" tare da masallatai 82, uku daga cikinsu sun kasance tun karni na 10, da wuraren ibada 102.[4][5]

Littafin Fatḥ Madīnat Harar na Yahyá Naṣrallāh, tarihin garin da ba a buga ba a karni na 13, ya rubuta cewa fitaccen waliyi Abadir Umar ar-Rida da wasu shugabannin addini da dama sun zauna a tudun Harar c. 1216 (612 AH).[6] Daga baya Sarkin Musulmi Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ya mai da birnin Harar sabuwar hedikwatar masarautar Adal a shekara ta 1520.[7] Birnin ya ga koma bayan siyasa a lokacin da Masarautar Harar ta biyo baya, sai dai ya dawo da wani muhimmin matsayi a zamanin Khedivate na Masar. A lokacin daular Habasha, birnin ya ruguje yayin da yake da wata daraja ta al'adu.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Katangar birnin Harar

Lokacin da aka kafa Harar ba a bayyana ba, kuma an ba da shawarar ranaku daban-daban.[8] Ko ta yaya, birnin Harar na zamani ya samo asali ne tun a shekarun 1700 da farko, amma wurin da kansa ya kasance wurin zama na birni tsawon lokaci mai tsawo.[8]

Wataƙila asalin mazauna yankin su ne mutanen Harla.[9] Harar wani yanki ne na masarautar Harla a karni na shida.[10][11] A zamanin Musulunci, birnin ya kasance karkashin kawancen kasashen Zaila.[2] A cewar wani Bayahude mai tafiya a ƙarni na goma sha biyu Benjamin na Tudela, yankin Zeila ƙasar Havilah ce, wadda al-Habash ta keɓe a yamma.[12][13]

A karni na tara, Harar ta kasance karkashin masarautar Maḥzumī ta Sultanate of Showa.[14][15]

Musulunci ya samu gindin zama a tudun Harar a karni na 10-11 CE ta hanyar kasuwanci da Zeila.[8] A karni na 13, Musulunci ya zama addini mafi rinjaye a yankin.[8]

Tashin Harar Musulmi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harar ta zama cibiyar al'adu da addinin Musulunci a yankin kahon Afirka a karshen tsakiyar zamanai.

A cewar Fatḥ Madīnat Harar, fitaccen Waliyi Abadir Umar Ar-Rida, tare da wasu malaman addini da dama, sun fito ne daga yankin larabawa domin su sauka a tudun Harar kimanin shekara ta 612H (1216 miladiyya), inda ake zaton Abadir ya hadu da Harla, Gaturi da mutanen Argobba.[16] A bisa al'ada, dan'uwan Abadir Fakr ad-Din ya kafa daular Mogadishu, yayin da daya daga cikin zuriyarsa ya kafa masarautar Hadiya.[17][18]

Bisa ga tarihin Amda Seyon I na ƙarni na 14, Gēt (Gēy) wani yanki ne a ƙasar Harla.[19] A lokacin tsakiyar zamanai, Harar tana cikin masarautar Adal, ta zama babban birninta a shekara ta 1520 a karkashin Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. Karni na sha shida shine zamanin Zinare na birnin. Al’adun yankin sun bunƙasa, kuma mawaƙa da yawa sun zauna suna yin rubuce-rubuce a wurin. Har ila yau, ya zama sananne ga kofi, saƙa, kwando da kuma hada littattafai.

Daga Harar, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, wanda aka fi sani da "Gurey" da "Grañ", dukkansu ma'ana "Hagu" sun kaddamar da yakin mamaya a karni na sha shida wanda ya kara tsawon mulkin siyasa tare da yin barazana ga wanzuwar 'yan mulkin mallaka. Makwabtan Gabashin Orthodox Kirista daular Habasha. Sarki Nur bn Mujahid wanda ya gaje shi ya gina katangar kariya a kewayen birnin.[20] Tsayin mita hudu tare da kofofi biyar, wannan tsari da ake kira Jugol, yana nan daram kuma alama ce ta garin ga mazauna. Mutanen Siltʼe, Wolane, Halaba da Harari sun zauna a Harar, su ukun kuma suka koma yankin Gurage.[21]

Nan da nan bayan yakin Ahmad, Harar ta fuskanci yunwa mai tsanani.[22] Farashin abinci da dabbobi sun tashi sosai: Sa'a daya (raka'a daidai da hannu hudu) na dawa ashraf 12, gishiri daidai gwargwado ya kai 15.[22] Saniya ta haura ashraf 300.[22] Yayin da tattalin arzikin ya farfado daga yunwa, farashin sa'a na dawa ya fadi zuwa 4-5 mahallak (wani bangare na ashrafi).[22] Wata yunwa kuma a zamanin Nur bn Mujahid ta kai kudin sa'ar dawa zuwa 2 ashraf.[22] Wannan shine farkon ambaton ashrafi da mahallak a matsayin darikar kudi a Harar.[22]

Bargon katako a kan titunan Harar.

Masarautar Harar ita ma ta buge kudinta, al'amurra na farko masu dauke da kwanan wata da za a iya karantawa a shekara ta 615 bayan hijira (1218/19 miladiyya); amma babu shakka an fitar da sulalla na farko a shekara ta 1789 CE, kuma an fitar da ƙarin har cikin ƙarni na sha tara.[23]

Elisée Reclus (1886) ta yi bayanin manyan hanyoyi guda biyu na dadaddiyar hanya daga Harar zuwa Zeila, hanya daya ta bi ta kasar Gadabuursi da kuma hanya daya ta ratsa cikin yankin Issa, dukkansu ’yan kabilar Dir ne:

“Hanyoyi biyu, wadanda galibin ‘yan fashin ne suka toshe su daga Harrar zuwa Zeila, daya ya tsallaka wani lungu da sako zuwa arewacin garin, daga nan ne suka koma cikin kwarin kwarin Awash ta mashigin Galdessa da kwarin, daga nan kuma a guje. zuwa tekun ta yankin Issa, wanda ke ratsa shi da jerin duwatsun da ke bijirewa zuwa kudu, dayan kuma mafi kai tsaye amma ya fi karkata, ya nufi arewa-maso-gabas zuwa mashigar Darmi, ta ratsa kasar Gadibursis ko Gudabursis.Garin Zeila. yana kudu da wani karamin tsibiri na tsibirai da rafukan da ke bakin gabar teku inda 'yan kabilar Gadibursi suka mamaye ta, tana da tashoshin jiragen ruwa guda biyu, daya da jiragen ruwa ke bi amma jiragen ruwa ba za su iya ba, yayin da daya kuma ba shi da nisa da kudancin garin. , ko da yake kunkuntar sosai, yana daga zurfin ƙafa 26 zuwa 33, kuma yana ba da mafaka mai aminci ga manyan sana'a."[24]

Tabarbarewar Harar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani yanayi a kan hanyar zuwa kasuwa a Harar, tsakanin 1900 zuwa 1920.

Bayan rasuwar sarki Nur, Harar ta fara raguwar dukiya da mulki. Wani sarki daga baya, Imam Muhammed Jasa, dan uwan ​​Ahmad Gragn, wanda aka fi sani da, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al Ghazi ya mika wuya ga matsi na karuwar hare-haren Oromo, kuma a shekara ta 1577 ya yi watsi da birnin, ya koma Aussa ya nada dan uwansa sarkin Harar. Sabon sansanin ba wai kawai ya gaza samar da karin tsaro daga kabilar Oromo ba, ya ja hankalin al'ummar Afar da ke makwabtaka da su, inda suka far ma ayarin da ke tafiya tsakanin Harar da gabar teku. Imaman Aussa ya ragu a karni na gaba yayin da Harar ta sami 'yancin kai a karkashin 'Ali ibn Da'ud, wanda ya kafa daular da ta yi mulkin birnin daga 1647 zuwa 1875, lokacin da Masar ta mamaye shi.[25]

Harar ta dogara sosai kan Berbera don kasuwanci tun tsakiyar zamanai. A cewar Richard Francis Burton, wanda ya ziyarci garuruwan Berbera da Harar a lokacin tafiyarsa, ya sake maimaita wata shahararriyar Harari yana cewa a shekarar 1854 ya ce: "Wanda ya yi umarni a Berbera, ya rike gemun Harar a hannunsa."[26] Wani muhimmin kaso na cinikayyar da ke tsakanin garuruwan biyu masu tarihi ya kasance karkashin ikon 'yan kasuwa 'yan kabilar Somali Isaaq ne, wadanda kuma suka shiga cinikin fitaccen kofi na Harari, wanda aka sanya wa suna Berbera Coffee a kasuwannin duniya.[27] Harar kuma ta kasance gidan malaman kasar Somaliya da dama da suka zo birnin domin yin karatu wanda ya fi shahara shi ne Sheikh Madar. Malaminsa Kabir Khalil wanda yana daya daga cikin manyan Malamai 3 na Harar.[28][29]

Ga dukkan alamu Harar ta fara kera tsabar kudi ko kadan a ci gaba da yi a zamanin sarki Abd al-Shakur bn Yusuf.[22] Tsirrai masu tsira daga mulkinsa suna da inganci, tare da babban abun ciki na azurfa da bayyanannun rubuce-rubucen da ke nuna amfani da mutuƙar kyau.[22] An yi watsi da kudin sosai a karkashin Muhammad bn Ali, wanda ya bullo da wani sabon nau'in tsabar kudi, wanda aka hada da kwano sosai, domin ya cika hakkinsa ga 'yan uwansa Gosa. Ya zartar da cewa duk wanda ke da tsohon kudin sai ya canza shi da sabon nau'in.[22] Muhammad Mukhtar, wani jami’in sojan kasar Masar, ya rubuta a shekara ta 1876 yana mai yin Allah wadai da wannan a matsayin babban ha’inci.[22] A shekara ta 1883, wani matafiyi ɗan ƙasar Jamus ya rubuta cewa kuɗin bai kai ko da kashi ɗaya bisa goma na ƙima ba.[22]

Tarihi 1875-1974[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1875 Muhammad Rauf Pasha ya jagoranci sojojin Masar daga Zeila zuwa cikin yankin kudu maso gabashin Habasha, yana mai nuna cewa balaguro ne na kimiyya. Ya mamaye Harar a ranar 11 ga Oktoba 1875.[30]

Da farko Rauf Pasha ya dakatar da kudaden Harari daga zazzagewa, sannan ya aika da wasu samfura zuwa Alkahira domin yin nazari, da fatan ya maye gurbinsu da kudin Masar.[22] Sai dai gwamnatin Masar ta kasa bayar da isassun kudade don yin hakan, ta kuma shawarce shi da ya ajiye kudin Harari.[22] Sai dai an sake tantance darajar mahallak din Harari daga 33 zuwa Maria Theresa thaler kafin 300 zuwa dala bayan.[22] Da zarar an kammala nazarin abubuwan azurfar tsabar tsabar, an ƙara canza wannan zuwa 311 zuwa thaler.[22]

A lokacin mulkin Masar (1875-1884), Arthur Rimbaud ya zauna a cikin birni a matsayin ma'aikacin gida na kamfanoni daban-daban na kasuwanci da ke Aden; ya dawo a 1888 don ci gaba da kasuwancin kofi, miski, da fata har sai da wata cuta mai muni ta tilasta masa komawa Faransa. Wani gida da aka ce shi ne wurin zama a yanzu ya zama gidan tarihi.[31]

A shekara ta 1885 Harar ta sami 'yencin kanta a karkashin Amir Abdullahi, amma wannan ya kai shekaru biyu kacal har zuwa ranar 6 ga Janairun 1887 lokacin da yakin Chelenqo ya kai ga mamaye Harar daga hannun Sarki Menelik na biyu na daular Habasha da ke girma a Shewa.[32]

Harar ita ce wurin da kasar Habasha ta zamani ta fara hako tsabar kudinta na farko a karkashin Menelik II, wanda ke dauke da ranar 1885 E.C. (1892 CE).[22]

Harar ta rasa wasu muhimman abubuwan da ta ke da ita na kasuwanci tare da samar da layin dogo na kasar Faransa wanda aka gina daga Addis Ababa zuwa Djibouti, wanda da farko ya nufa ya bi ta cikin birnin, amma ya karkata zuwa arewacin tsaunukan da ke tsakanin Harar da kogin Awash domin samun kudi. Sakamakon haka ne aka kafa Dire Dawa a shekarar 1902 a matsayin Sabuwar Harar. Birtaniya ta yi shirin farfado da hanyar kasuwanci mai dimbin tarihi ta Harar-Berbera ta hanyar hada garuruwan biyu ta layin dogo a matsayin hanyar karfafa kasuwanci. Sai dai majalisar ta ki amincewa da matakin ne bisa hujjar cewa zai cutar da Entente Cordiale tsakanin Faransa da Birtaniya.[33]

An ba da shawarar hanyar jirgin kasa daga Berbera zuwa Harrar a cikin Abyssinia a matsayin hanyar kawo cikin yankin kariya cikin sauƙi, kuma a lokaci guda na ciyar da kasuwancin Abyssinia; amma an ki amincewa da cewa yin gogayya da layin dogo na Faransa daga Jibouti zuwa Adis Ababa zai zama mummunar manufa a daidai lokacin da aka samu ciminti..[34]

Wani gida na gargajiya a birnin Harar wanda aka kawata shi da rubutun addinin musulunci.

Dakarun Italiya karkashin Marshall Rodolfo Graziani sun kwace Harar a lokacin yakin Italo da Habasha na biyu a ranar 8 ga Mayu 1936. Bataliya ta daya ta sojojin Najeriya da ta taso daga Jijiga ta hanyar Marda Pass, ta kwace birnin na abokan kawance a ranar 29 ga Maris 1941.[35] Bayan kammala yarjejeniyar Anglo-Ethiopian a shekarar 1944, an baiwa gwamnatin Birtaniya izinin kafa karamin ofishin jakadanci a birnin Harar, duk da cewa Birtaniya ta ki mayar da martani ta hanyar barin wani dan Habasha a birnin Hargeysa. Bayan rahotanni da yawa na ayyukan Birtaniyya a Haud da suka saba yarjejeniyar London na 1954, Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Habasha ta ba da umarnin rufe ofishin jakadancin a Maris 1960.[36]

Tarihi 1975 zuwa yanzu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1995, birni da kewayenta sun zama yankin Habasha (ko kuma kilil) a cikin haƙƙinsa. Yanzu haka ana aikin gina bututun da zai kai ruwa zuwa garin daga Dire Dawa.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar Sir Richard Burton Harar ita ce wurin haifuwar shukar khat.[37] Asalin shuka kofi na gida kuma an ce ya fito daga Harar.[38]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayin Harar an ware shi azaman yanayin tsaunuka masu zafi (Cwb) a cikin tsarin rarraba yanayi na Köppen-Geiger.

A cikin shekara, yanayin rana yana dumi zuwa dumi sosai, yayin da safiya ke sanyi zuwa laushi. Ruwan sama yana faɗuwa tsakanin Maris da Oktoba tare da kololuwa a cikin Agusta, yayin da Nuwamba zuwa Fabrairu yakan bushe.

Climate data for Harar
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Average high °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
26.3
(79.3)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
25.5
(77.9)
23.8
(74.8)
22.6
(72.7)
23.9
(75.0)
26.1
(79.0)
25.8
(78.4)
25.8
(78.4)
25.5
(77.9)
Average low °C (°F) 11.9
(53.4)
12.9
(55.2)
13.7
(56.7)
14.5
(58.1)
14.6
(58.3)
14.1
(57.4)
14.0
(57.2)
13.6
(56.5)
13.5
(56.3)
13.1
(55.6)
12.1
(53.8)
12.0
(53.6)
13.3
(56.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17
(0.7)
20
(0.8)
57
(2.2)
84
(3.3)
91
(3.6)
68
(2.7)
99
(3.9)
126
(5.0)
94
(3.7)
49
(1.9)
12
(0.5)
6
(0.2)
723
(28.5)
Source: Climate-Data[39]

Alkaluma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bisa kidayar jama'a a shekarar 2007 da hukumar kididdiga ta kasar Habasha (CSA) ta gudanar, birnin Harar yana da jimillar mazauna birane 99,368, daga cikinsu 49,727 maza ne, 49,641 kuma mata ne.[40] Amhara (40.55%), Oromo (28.14%), Harari (11.83%), Gurage (7.94%), Somali (6.82%), da Tigrayans (2.76%); duk sauran kabilun sun ƙunshi kasa da kashi 2% na al'ummar ƙasar.[40] Amhari ya zama yaren farko da kashi 49.2% na mazauna birni, Afaan Oromo da kashi 23.7%, Geysinan da kashi 12.2%, Somaliya kuma da kashi 6.6%.[40] Yawan jama'a. Mazauna biranen da ke da'awar Kiristanci na Orthodox na Habasha, tare da kashi 48.54% na al'ummar kasar sun ba da rahoton cewa sun aikata wannan akida, yayin da kashi 44.56% na al'ummar kasar suka ce Musulmi ne, kuma kashi 6.14% na Furotesta ne.[40][41]

Kabilanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohon taswirar Harar wanda ke nuna Gadabuursi, Geri, Issa, Karanle Hawiye da Berteri Jidwaaq al'ummar Somaliya.

Barker Haines ya ruwaito a cikin 1840 cewa yawancin mutanen Harar Harari ne amma wasu 'yan Oromo, Afar, Somali Issa da Larabawa 'yan kasuwa na Yemen sun kasance a wurin.[42] A cikin 1855 Richard Francis Burton ya kwatanta Harar da cewa tana da mazauna kusan 8,000; Makiyaya 3,000 (yana nufin makiyaya na lokaci-lokaci da suke "zo mu tafi", Harari 2,500, da Somaliyawa 2,500.[43] Burton ya kara da ba da rahoton kasancewar Oromo mai yawa da ke kaiwa garin.[44] A ziyararsa a Khedivate na Masar mamayar masarautar Harar, mai bincike Paultischke Ya bayyana Harar da cewa tana da kusan mutane 40,000 tare da 25,000 daga cikinsu Hararis ne, Oromo 6,000, Somaliya 5,000, Abyssinians 3,000 da kuma tsirarun Turawa da Asiyawa.[45]

Darajarsa Ahmad Bin Abi Bakr, Sarkin Harar.

Bayan mamaye Masarautar Harar da Daular Habasha ta yi, sai kwararowar Amhara suka mamaye Harar da kewaye.[46] Al'ummar Somaliya mazauna garin sun ragu bayan hambarar da gwamnatin Lij Iyasu da mayakan Abyssiyan suka yi.[47] ’Yan asalin Harari ’yan asalin da a da su ke da rinjaye a cikin birnin mai katanga, ba su kai kashi 15% ba, saboda tsarkake kabilanci da gwamnatin Haile Selassie ta yi.[48][49] [50]Sakamakon zaluncin da gwamnatin Habasha ta yi, a karshen shekarun 1970 Harari da ke zaune a Addis Ababa sun fi na Harar yawa.[51] A cewar Feener, Harari ba su farfaɗo ba daga 1948 da ta jagoranci murkushe al'ummarsu.[52]

Kabilun Somaliya da ke kewaye da Harar sun fito ne daga kabilar Gadabuursi da Issa na Dir da Karanle na Hauwaye. Suna wakiltar mafi yawan kabilun Somaliya a yankin.[53] Kabilar Darod na Geri da Jidwaaq su ma suna zaune a kusa da Harar. Gadabuursi da Geri Somali sun kai farmaki arewa da arewa maso gabashin garin. Richard Francis Burton (1856) ya siffanta dangin Gadabuursi da Geri na Somaliya a matsayin wanda ya kai gaban Harar.[54][55] 'Yan kabilar Issa da Karanle Hawiye sun kai hari arewa da arewa maso yamma yayin da Jidwaaq ke ci gaba da gabas.[56][57]

I.M. Lewis (1998) ya ce:

"Cikin kasa da ke zagaye da Harar da Dire Dawa da 'yan Somalia na kabilar Iise da Gadabuursi ke zaune."[58]

Tsarin birni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohon birnin Harar mai katanga ya kasu kashi 5: Assum Bari, Argob Bari, Suqutat Bari, Badro Bari, da Asmadiri Bari.[8] Daga nan sai a kara raba wadannan guraren zuwa unguwannin da ake kira toya, wadanda galibi ana kiransu da sunan wurin ibadar musulmi ko wata fitacciyar bishiyar da ke zama wata alama ta gari.[8] A cewar S.R. Waldron, akwai irin waɗannan unguwanni 59 a kusa da 1975.[59]

A ƙarshen 1960s, har yanzu yana yiwuwa a zagaya bayan bangon birni da ƙafa; yin haka ya dauki kusan awa daya.[59] A farkon shekarun 1980, duk da haka, hakan bai yiwu ba saboda birnin ya fara fadada daga birnin mai katanga, tare da gina wasu gine-gine kai tsaye zuwa wajen bangon.[59]

Gidaje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wajen gidan Harari

Wanda aka fi sani da gey gar ("gidan birni", jam'i: gey garach), gidajen Harari sun zama wani nau'in tarihi na musamman wanda ya bambanta da sauran yankunan musulmi da kuma sauran sassan Habasha.[60] Har yanzu ana amfani da tsarin gidan na Harari na gargajiya a yau, inda aka samu sauye-sauye kadan, kuma Harari da suka koma wasu garuruwa suna kokarin bin irin wannan salon.[59] Harari suna alfahari da gidajensu, kuma sun kasance wani muhimmin bangare na al'adun Harari.[60]

Ginin bango (abāt) ya ƙunshi gidaje da yawa, waɗanda ke da bango iri ɗaya amma ba su da alaƙa.[59] An jera su a tsakar gida, yawancin tagogin da ke fuskantar farfajiyar maimakon titi.[59] Ƙofofin zuwa wuraren zama kusan koyaushe suna nuni zuwa gabas ko yamma; Kofofin da ke fuskantar arewa ko kudu ba kasafai suke ba.[60] A cewar Kabir Abdulmuheimen Abdulnassir, manoma da ‘yan kasuwa galibi suna fuskantar kofofin gabas ta yadda za su tashi da wuri don yin aiki.[60] Iyalai da yawa waɗanda ke zaune a fili ɗaya suna raba dafa abinci ɗaya ko biyu, waɗanda ba su da alaƙa da wuraren zama.[59] Ganuwar da ke kewaye da mahadi suna haɗuwa tare don su kasance masu ci gaba.[59] Ƙofar waje da ke fuskantar titi yawanci katako ne amma wani lokacin ƙarfe, kuma ana yi musu fenti ko farar fata.[59] Ganuwar sun kafa wani wurin adana kayan tarihi a kusa da su.[59]

Wani lokaci wasu mahadi da yawa suna haɗuwa tare zuwa "block" na mahadi, duk an kewaye su da bango ɗaya sannan kuma suna da nasu bango kewaye da su.[59] Ana saita waɗannan “blocks” ta yadda baƙo ya wuce fili na farko kafin ya kai na biyu, da dai sauransu.[59]

Kayan gini dutse ne na gida, yayin da aka yi amfani da cakuda duwatsun da aka daka da kuma yumbu a matsayin turmi da filasta don rufe bango kafin a wanke su.[59] Haka lamarin yake a sababbin gidaje da kuma na tsofaffi.[59]

Cikin gidan Harari

Tsarin bene na gidan Harari na yau da kullun yana da rectangular.[59] Babban dakin shi ne babban falo mai suna gidīr gar ko gyar ēqäd.[59] Gidīr gār yana da dandali masu tasowa da yawa, ana kiransa nädäbas, waɗanda ke aiki azaman kujeru ko gadaje.[59] A hankula gidan zai yi nädäbas biyar.[59] A baya na gidir gar, a hayin daga gaban ƙofar, akwai biyu nädäbas: da "kananan" daya, ko tīt nädäba, sa'an nan a baya shi da "babban" daya, ko gidīr nädäba, wanda shi ne da ɗan mafi girma sama.[59] Waɗannan su ne biyu mafi girma nädäbas.[60] Ana iya sanya takalma har zuwa tit nädäba, amma sai an cire su.[59] Tīt nädäba ita ce wurin da matasa ko mutanen da ba su da girma suke zama.[60] Yara kuma barci a kan wannan nädäba.[60] A tarihi, a kotun sarki, ta zama wurin zama na masu kara ko wadanda ake kara. Gidīr nädäba ya zama dattawa da mutanen da ake ganin sun fi girma.[60] A tarihance, a fadar sarki, an zaunar da manyan mutane a nan.[60] Lokacin da mutum ya mutu, ana ajiye jikinsu a kan gidīr nädäba kafin a binne shi a matsayin alamar girmamawa.[60] Ana haka wani kwano a cikin gidīr nädäba a cika da ruwa a wanke jiki, sannan a sake cika kwandon.[60]

Amīr nädäba, ko nädäba na girmamawa, an keɓe shi ga maigidan gida da ga baƙi masu daraja; yana iya kasancewa a hagu ko dama ya danganta da gidan.[59] An sanya shi ne domin shugaban iyali ya ga duk wanda ya shiga gida ya yi aiki daidai.[60] The "boye" nädäba, ko sutri nädäba, na iya kasancewa a kowane gefe amma koyaushe yana bayan ginshiƙi mai tasowa ko maxazu.[59] A tarihi, ana kiran wannan da "malassay nädäba" saboda masu gadin sarki suna zaune a nan lokacin tarurruka ko shari'ar kotu.[60] Ana amfani da sutri nädäba don barci.[59] Ana kuma amfani da ita a matsayin wurin zama da miji ke hutawa idan ya dawo gida.[60] A ƙarshe, akwai gäbti äḥer näbäda, ko kuma wanda ke bayan ƙofar shiga.[59] Kamar amir da sutri nädäbas, wannan na iya kasancewa a hagu ko dama.[59] A sasanninta na baya akwai wasu lokutan da aka gina a cikin kabad ko ɗakunan tufafi da ake kira näbäda dēras.[59] Ana adana tsabar kuɗi[60] da mahimman takardu a cikin ƙirji a cikin näbäda dēra.[59] Ana amfani da ɓangaren sama na näbäda dəra don adana tufafi na maigidan gida.[60]

Ganuwar bango a cikin gidan Harari

Gidīr gār yana da ginanniyar abubuwan da ake kira ṭāqēts waɗanda ake amfani da su don adanawa da nuna abubuwan sirri.[59][8] Suna da tsayi sosai kuma akwai yawanci 11 daga cikinsu: 5 akan babban bango daura da ƙofar, sauran kuma akan sauran bangon.[59] Niches guda biyu masu rectangular a tsakiyar babban bango (wanda ake kira ēqäd ṭāqēt) yawanci ana amfani da su don adana littattafai, musamman Kur'ani.[59] Siffar su ta rectangular yakamata ya zama mai jan hankali ga mutuwa da kabari.[59] Bugu da ƙari ga manyan wuraren 11, akwai wasu lokuta kuma a cikin nädäbas, waɗanda ake amfani da su don riƙe takalma ko ƙona turare.[59]

Matakalar zuwa qala a hagu, tare da kirtät a bango

A ko wane gefen kofar akwai wata budaddiyar kofar da za ta nufi kirtät, dakin gefe ne mai karamin rufi da nasa nädäba.[59] Katangar da ke tsakanin kirtät da gidīr gar wani lokaci tana da allon taga tare da sassaken katako na ado.[59] Mata sukan zauna a kirtät lokacin da maza suke da bärça (taron cin abinci da zuzzurfan tunani).[59] A baya, da kirtät ne kuma inda matasa amarya za su zauna a keɓe ga watanni 8 bayan ta bikin aure.[59] A wannan yanayin, hanyar shiga kirtät, wadda ba ta da kofa, za a rufe ta da allon bamboo da labule.[59]

Dakin gefe na biyu mai ƙaramin rufi, dēra, an haɗa shi da kirtät ta wata ƙaramar kofa.[59] Ana amfani da shi don adana abubuwan da beraye ba su iya kaiwa hari.[59] Kusa da kofa, bangon dəra yana da wani wuri na musamman inda ake ajiye aflala.[59] Waɗannan kwantenan tukwane baƙar fata masu dogayen wuyoyi kuma an rufe su da ledojin kwando masu tsayi da ake kira afla uffas.[59] Ana amfani da su wurin adana kayan adon iyali da sauran kayayyaki masu daraja, da kuma cibiyar ’ya’yan iyali.[59] A cewar Fethia Ahmed, mai kula da gidan adana kayan tarihi na Harari, murfi da aka juye na nuni da cewa mijin ya rasu kuma akwai wata bazawara da ke zaune a gidan.[60]

Dēra wuri ne mai zaman kansa, inda mata da miji za su iya magana ba tare da 'ya'yansu sun saurari ba.[60] Haka kuma yara ‘yan tsakanin shekaru 3 zuwa 7 suna amfani da ita wajen cin abinci a cikin watan Ramadan ba tare da ganin jama’a ba, kafin su fara azumin yini a lokacin da suke shekara 7.[60] An gina wannan dēra ne da dutse mai ratsa jiki ba tare da siminti ba don samun damar samun iskar iska.[60]

Silin da ke saman gidīr gar ya tashi zuwa tsayin gidan.[59] Sama da ɗakunan gefe, duk da haka, akwai wani matakin sama da ake kira qala.[59] Asali ana amfani da qala wajen ajiya, wani lokacin ma wurin kwana, ba a raba ta da gidīr gar ta kowace fuska.[59] Tun da marigayi karni na 19, ko da yake, akwai yawanci wani katako allo raba biyu, da kuma qala ya m zama jinsin na biyu bene, sau da yawa tare da dama da dakuna, ko da yake ba tare da nädäbas ko wasu shigarwa.[59] Matakan hawa zuwa qala yawanci yana ƙunshi matakai 6 zuwa 9.[59] A cikin sababbin gidaje yana da katakon katako da aka sassaka amma a cikin tsofaffin gidaje ba a yi ba.[59]

A al'adance ana yin rufin gida ne da kayan itace na bakin ciki waɗanda aka cire haushi.[59] A yau an rufe rufin tare da sauran gidan.[59] Daya daga cikin katako, wanda yake saman gefen tīt nädäba, ana kiransa ḥāmil; yau ana amfani dashi don rataye fitilar neon daga, amma a da mutane za su rataye kwai na ciki saboda an yi imani cewa yin hakan zai kare gidan daga walƙiya.[59] A zamanin yau, rufin an yi shi da katako mai katako, tare da ḥāmil ya bambanta da girman sa da kuma nau'ikan sa.[59]

A al'adance ana yin benaye da jajayen ƙasa (wanda ake kira qēḥ afär), kuma sassan nädäbas waɗanda ba a rufe su da tagumi ko tabarmi su ma an yi musu ja.[59] A yau ana yawan yin tayal, yawanci tare da akalla wasu ja.[59] Jajayen ya kamata ya kasance yana tunawa da jinin da aka zubar a yakin Chelenqo.[59]

Wasu gidajen za su kasance suna da tīt gār na gaba ko kuma "ƙaramin gida", wanda ke da ƙofar daban da kuma nädäba na kansa.[59] Yawancin lokaci ba a haɗa tit gar zuwa babban gida.[59] Ƙananan dangi ke amfani da shi, ko kuma wani lokacin hayar ga masu haya.[59] Tun daga karni na 20, wasu gidaje suna ƙara wani matakin sama da tīt gar kuma suna haɗa shi da qala tare da ba shi ƙofar daban ta wani matakala a wajen gidan.[59]

Kowane fili yana ƙunshe da ɗaki dabam don mai hannu ko bawa, ba tare da nädäbas ko ɗakunan gefe ba.[59] Haka kuma za a yi matattarar shanu da jakuna.[59] Hakanan akwai yawanci "gidaje na kicin" ɗaya ko biyu, waɗanda ba a haɗa su da gidajen, galibi suna a kowane gefen farfajiyar.[59] Wadannan dakunan dafa abinci ba su da tagogi, tare da hayaki na fita ta kofar gida, don haka a karshe katangar ta rufe da toka.[59] Ana amfani da ɗakunan da aka yi daga kututturen itace don adana kayan abinci.[59]

A da, gidajen Harari ba za su kasance da ƙarancin kayan aiki ba.[59] Tun daga karni na 20, kujerun katako masu sauƙi irin na yammacin Turai sun yaɗu, da kuma gadaje na ƙarfe tare da katifan kapok waɗanda aka kafa akan sutri nädäba.[59]

Richard Francis Burton ya bayyana gidan sarkin a matsayin ginin daya tilo da aka yi wa farar farare a waje, yana mai nuni da cewa galibin gine-ginen ba a yi musu ado ba a lokacin ziyararsa a shekarun 1800.[59] Yawancin gidaje an kwatanta su da cewa ba fenti ko farar fata ba a ƙarshen 1935.[59] A yau, duk da haka, Hararis yawanci suna wanke gidajensu tare da cakuda lemun tsami (wanda ake kira näçih afär) aƙalla sau ɗaya kuma sau biyu a shekara, sau ɗaya kafin Ramadan kuma sau ɗaya kafin bikin Arfa.[59] Ana tsaftace kayan gida da kwanduna sosai a lokaci guda.[59] A yau, maimakon farar fata, wani lokaci ana fentin bango ta hanyar amfani da fenti. Wannan na iya zama kowane launi, kodayake kore shine mafi mashahuri.[59]

Zaure a gidan Harari na gargajiya

Ado na cikin gida yawanci mata ne ke yin su.[59] Suna rufe nädäbas da tagulla, tabarma, da matashin kai, kuma suna ƙawata bango da kwandon Harari (wanda kuma galibi mata ne ke yin su).[59] A yau ma an rataye farantin enamel da kwanoni a jikin bango.[59] Kwandunan ado gabaɗaya ana rataye su daidai gwargwado kuma bi-biyu.[59] Kowane gida yana da nasa salon adon, kuma mata baƙi sukan yi tsokaci kan yadda suke son yadda ake ƙawata gidan mai masaukin baki.[59] Akwai ra’ayin cewa ‘yan mata kanana sun fi ƙwazo wajen yin ado da gidajensu fiye da manyan mata, da kuma cewa ƙanana ma’aurata suna sake shafa jan ƙasa a benaye sau ɗaya a mako yayin da manya ke yin sa sau kaɗan a shekara.[59]

Mafi girman nau'in kwandunan ado su ne nau'in da ake amfani da su don ba da burodi da kayan zaki a wurin taron mata.[59] Waɗannan suna da dogayen murfi masu maƙarƙashiya waɗanda aka rataye a sama kuma suna lulluɓe su.[59] Ana rataye su a cikin layuka ɗaya ko biyu akan bangon bayan gidīr nädäba da ƙasan abubuwan da aka gina, kuma yawanci suna cikin nau'i-nau'i daban-daban.[59] Tsakanin ēqäd ṭāqēts, niches biyu masu rectangular a cikin cibiyar da ake amfani da su don adana littattafai, akwai layi na tsaye na ƙananan faranti na kwando mai suna sagaris tare da murfi.[59] Ana amfani da waɗannan don hidimar wake a lokacin bikin aure ko jana'izar.[59] Suna yawanci cikin rukuni na 3, tare da 2 daga cikinsu suna raba tsari da ƙira.[59] Kusa da amir nädäba da dəra, an ƙawata bangon da sauran faranti na kwando bibbiyu. Wadannan sun kai girman farantin karin kumallo kuma a al'adance ana amfani da su don yin burodi.[59] Biyu daga cikinsu ana kiransu “kwadunan surukai”, ko kuma hamāt mot, kuma dangin amarya suna gabatar da waɗannan ga surukai a wurin bikin aure.[59]

Masu hijira daga Harar sukan yi ƙoƙari su tsaya kan tsarin gidan Harari na gargajiya idan ya yiwu, har ma a cikin gine-gine masu salon gine-gine daban-daban.[59] Za a yi wani nau'i na gidīr gār da aka nuna, tare da tagulla da matashin kai da za su zama näba na yau da kullun, kuma za a yi ado da bangon da kwandon gargajiya na Harari.[59]

Abubuwan jan hankali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban Masallacin Harar
Gidan Arthur Rimbaud da gidan kayan gargajiya

Bayan katangar dutse da ke kewaye da birnin, tsohon garin na da masallatai 110 da sauran wuraren ibada masu yawa, wanda ya tsaya a dandalin Feres Magala. Manyan gine-gine sun haɗa da Medhane Alem Cathedral, gidan Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael, Monument ga Ras Makonnen, wanda Antun Augustinčić ya sassaƙa a 1959 wanda aka lalata a watan Yuni 2020, gidan Arthur Rimbaud, Masallacin Jami na ƙarni na sha shida da Babban Five mai tarihi. Gates na Harar. Filin wasa na Harrar Bira filin wasa ne na gida na Harrar Beer Bottling FC. Hakanan mutum na iya ziyartar kasuwa.

Al'adar da ta daɗe ta ciyar da nama ga kurayen da aka hange ita ma ta samo asali ne a cikin shekarun 1960 zuwa wani wasan kwaikwayo na dare mai ban sha'awa ga masu yawon bude ido.[61] (Dubi kurayen da aka hange a Harar.)

Sauran wuraren ban sha'awa sun haɗa da ambaton mafi girma da ke kallon birnin, dutsen Kondudo ko "W", wanda ke ɗaukar dawakai na dawakai. Manufar kimiyya ta 2008 ta ƙaddamar da ƙoƙarin kiyaye su, saboda dabbobi suna cikin haɗari sosai.[62]

Selam Bus Line Share Company ne ke ba da sabis ɗin motar bas na tsaka-tsaki.

Gaskiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harar Jugol wani misali ne da ba kasafai ba na wani gari mai cike da tarihi wanda ya ci gaba da rike al'adunsa, gine-ginen birane, da al'adun musulmi na Harari har ya zuwa yanzu. Yana daya daga cikin garuruwa masu tsarki na Musulunci a Afirka, kuma hedkwatar wasu tsiraru a cikin Habasha Kirista. Garin mai tarihi yana da iyaka ta zahiri kuma an siffanta shi sosai ta hanyar katangarsa ta karni na 16 da ke kewaye kuma an kiyaye wurin tare da bangarorin gabas da kudu maso gabas na kadarorin. Duk da haka, ayyukan da ba su dace ba, kamar yi wa gidaje, canza ƙofofi daga itace zuwa ƙarfe, ƙaddamar da kayan da ba na al'ada ba da kuma tasirin gani kamar eriya na TV sun kasance a hankali suna shafar sahihancin masana'anta na tarihi.

Yan'uwa garuruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙasa Gari
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1974, 2020–present).svgFaransa Emblem of the French Republic.svg Charleville-Mézières
Tarayyar Amurka Amurka Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg Clarkston
Flag of Djibouti.svg Djibouti Emblem of Djibouti.svg Arta
Flag of Turkey.svgTurkiyya Emblem of Turkey.svg Şanlıurfa

Sanannen mazauna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Abd Allah II bn Ali 'Abd ash-Shakur, sarkin Harar na karshe
  • Abadir Umar ar-Rida, fitaccen waliyyi musulmi kuma wanda ya kafa Harar
  • Amha Selassie, Sarkin Daular Habasha (Mai Zaɓaɓɓe)
  • Mahfuz, Imam kuma Janar na Adal Sultanate
  • Bati del Wambara, matar Ahmad bn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
  • Nur bn Mujahid, Sarkin Harar
  • Abdullah al-Harari, shugaban al-Ahbash
  • Malik Ambar, Shugaban Sultan Ahmadnagar
  • 'Ali ibn Da'ud, wanda ya kafa Masarautar Harar
  • Ambasada Mohammed Abdurahman, Lauyan Harari na farko, Jikan Haj Abdullahi Sadiq
  • Haj Abdullahi Ali Sadiq, Gwamnan Harar 1889 -1914
  • Arthur Rimbaud, mawaƙin Faransanci, ya zauna a matsayin ɗan kasuwa a Harar tsakanin 1880 zuwa 1891.
  • Haile Selassie, Sarkin Habasha
  • Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, shugaban Adal Sultanate
  • Sheikh Madar Shirwa, Sheikh Somaliya wanda ya kafa Hargaisa Tariqa (kungiyoyin addini)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  2. 2.0 2.1 Wehib, Ahmed (October 2015). History of Harar and Harari (PDF). Harari people regional state, culture, heritage and tourism bureau. p. 5.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  3. "Panda sanctuary, tequila area join UN World Heritage sites". Un.org. 2006-07-13. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
  4. "Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town". World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 6 August 2009. It is considered 'the fourth holy city' of Islam, having been founded by a holy missionary from the Arabic Peninsula.
  5. "Five new heritage sites in Africa". BBC. July 13, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-18. Harar Jugol, seen as the fourth holiest city of Islam, includes 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th Century, and 102 shrines.
  6. Siegbert Uhlig, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: He-N, Volume 3, (Otto Harrassowitz Verlag: 2007), pp.111 & 319.
  7. Richard Pankhurst, History of Ethiopian Towns (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982), p. 49.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Insoll, Timothy (2003). The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–8. ISBN 0-521-65171-9. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  9. Gebissa, Ezekiel (2004). Leaf of Allah: Khat & Agricultural Transformation in Harerge, Ethiopia 1875-1991. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-85255-480-7.
  10. Belayneh, Anteneh (2014). "Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat human ailments in the prehistoric place of Harla and Dengego valleys, eastern Ethiopia". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 10: 18. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-10-18. PMC 3933041. PMID 24499509.
  11. Insoll, Timothy. "First Footsteps in the Archaeology of Harar, Ethiopia". Journal of Islamic Archaeology.
  12. The St. James's Magazine. Houlston & Wright. 1868. p. 84.
  13. Adler, Elkan Nathan (2014). Jewish Travellers. Routledge. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-134-28606-5.
  14. The Ethno-History of Halaba People (PDF). p. 15. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  15. Østebø, Terje (2011). Localising Salafism: Religious Change Among Oromo Muslims in Bale, Ethiopia. BRILL. p. 56. ISBN 978-90-04-18478-7.
  16. Braukämper, Ulrich (2002). Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Collected Essays. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-8258-5671-7.
  17. Hassen, Mohammed (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300-1700. Boydell & Brewer. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  18. Luling, Virginia (2002). Somali Sultanate: The Geledi City-state Over 150 Years. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0914-8.
  19. Budge, E. A. Wallis (2014). A History of Ethiopia: Volume I (Routledge Revivals): Nubia and Abyssinia. Routledge. p. 297. ISBN 978-1-317-64915-1.
  20. Dr. Enrico Cerulli, Documenti arabi per la storia dell’Ethiopia, Memoria della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Vol. 4, No. 2, Rome, 1931
  21. Crass, Joachim (2001). "The Qabena and the Wolane: Two peoples of the Gurage region and their respective histories according to their own oral traditions". Annales d'Éthiopie. 17 (1): 180. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  22. 22.00 22.01 22.02 22.03 22.04 22.05 22.06 22.07 22.08 22.09 22.10 22.11 22.12 22.13 22.14 22.15 Zekaria, Ahmed (1991). "Harari Coins: A Preliminary Survey". Journal of Ethiopian Studies. 24: 23–46. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  23. Richard Pankhurst, An Introduction to the Economic History of Ethiopia (London: Lalibela House, 1961), p. 267.
  24. Reclus, Elisée (1886). The Earth and its Inhabitants The Universal Geography Vol. X. North-east Africa (PDF) (in Turanci). J.S. Virtue & Co, Limited, 294 City Road. Two routes, often blocked by the inroads of plundering hordes, lead from Harrar to Zeila. One crosses a ridge to the north of the town, thence redescending into the basin of the Awash by the Galdessa Pass and valley, and from this point running towards the sea through Issa territory, which is crossed by a chain of trachytic rocks trending southwards. The other and more direct but more rugged route ascends north-eastwards towards the Darmi Pass, crossing the country of the Gadibursis or Gudabursis. The town of Zeila lies south of a small archipelago of islets and reefs on a point of the coast where it is hemmed in by the Gadibursi tribe. It has two ports, one frequented by boats but impracticable for ships, whilst the other, not far south of the town, although very narrow, is from 26 to 33 feet deep, and affords safe shelter to large craft.
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  33. Berbera-Harrar Railway Survey Vol. 1 (Report).
  34. The Navy Everywhere, 1919. p. 244
  35. Anthony Mockler, Haile Selassie's War (New York: Olive Branch, 2003), pp. 145, 367f
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Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Fritz Stuber, "Harar in Äthiopien - Hoffnungslosigkeit und Chancen der Stadterhaltung" (Harar in Ethiopia - The Hopelessness and Challenge of Urban Preservation), in: Die alte Stadt. Vierteljahreszeitschrift für Stadtgeschichte, Stadtsoziologie, Denkmalpflege und Stadtentwicklung (W. Kohlhammer Stuttgart Berlin Köln), Vol. 28, No. 4, 2001, Template:ISSN, pp. 324–343, 14 ill.
  • David Vô Vân, Mohammed Jami Guleid, Harar, a cultural guide, Shama Books, Addis Abeba, 2007, 99 pages
  • Salma K. Jayyusi; et al., eds. (2008). "Harar: the Fourth Holy City of Islam". The City in the Islamic World. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. pp. 625–642. ISBN 9789004162402.