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Harshen Chimariko

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Harshen Chimariko
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 cid
Glottolog chim1301[1]

Chimariko wani ɓataccen harshe ne wanda a da ake magana da shi a arewacin Trinity County, California, ta mazaunan al'ummomi masu zaman kansu da yawa. Yayin da jimillar yankin da waɗannan al'ummomin ke da'awar ya kasance ƙanƙanta sosai, Golla (2011: 87-89) ya yi imanin cewa akwai shaidar cewa an gane yarukan gida guda uku: Kogin Triniti Chimariko, wanda ake magana da shi tare da Kogin Triniti daga bakin Kudu Fork a Salyer har zuwa yanzu. sama kamar Babban Bar, tare da babban ƙauye a Burnt Ranch ; South Fork Chimariko, wanda aka yi magana a kusa da mahaɗin Kudancin Fork da Hayfork Creek, tare da babban ƙauye a Hyampom ; da Sabon Kogin Chimariko, wanda aka yi magana tare da Sabon Kogin a kan gangaren kudu na Triniti Alps, tare da babban ƙauye a Denny .

Dangantakar kwayoyin halitta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shawarwari masu alaƙa da Chimariko zuwa wasu harsuna a cikin nau'o'in nau'ikan dangin Hokan na tunanin an ci gaba. Roland Dixon ya ba da shawarar dangantaka tsakanin Chimariko da dangin Shastan da Palaihnihan . Shahararren rarrabuwa na Edward Sapir na 1929 ya haɗa Chimariko tare da Shastan, Palaihnihan, Pomoan, da Karuk da Yaruka a cikin ƙungiyar Hokan da aka sani da Arewacin Hokan . An ba da shawarar dangin Kahi wanda ya ƙunshi Chimariko, Shastan, Palaihnihan, da Karuk (wanda kuma ya bayyana a cikin Hokan ta Arewa na Sapir na 1929). Yawancin ƙwararru a halin yanzu suna ganin waɗannan alaƙa ba su da alaƙa, kuma suna la'akari da Chimariko ya kasance mafi kyawun ɗaukar shi a matsayin keɓewa. [2]

Takardun tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Stephen Powers ya tattara jerin kalmomin farko daga masu magana da Chimariko a cikin 1875 (Golla, 2011, p. 89). Ba da daɗewa ba, Irmiya Curtin ya tattara bayanai masu yawa (shafi na 25). 89). Roland Dixon ya fara aiki a kan yaren Chimariko a farkon shekarun 1900, lokacin da sauran masu magana kaɗan ne. Dixon ya yi aiki tare da biyu: Mrs. Dyer da wani mutum da aka mai suna Jumma'a. Yayin yin aiki tare da Hupa na kusa, Edward Sapir ya tattara bayanai kuma ya yi sharhi game da aikin Dixon na baya (Golla, 2011, p. 89). Daga baya, JP Harrington, wanda ya yi aiki tare da Sally Noble, mai magana da harshe na ƙarshe, ya yi aiki mai yawa akan harshen. Babu ɗayan waɗannan ayyukan da aka buga, amma za a iya kallon nunin faifai na duk ayyukan Harrington akan gidan yanar gizon Smithsonian Institution . Mataimakin Harrington John Paul Marr shi ma ya yi rikodin yaren tare da mai magana Martha Zigler. George Grekoff ya tattara ayyukan ilimin harshe na baya da nufin rubuta nahawu, amma ya mutu kafin a kammala shi (Golla, 2011, p. 89). Chimariko mai magana na ƙarshe shine Martha Ziegler wacce ta mutu a cikin 1950s (Golla, 2011, shafi na 1950). 89). A cewar Golla, masu magana da harshen Hupa-Chimariko masu harsuna biyu ƴan asalin yankin Kudu Fork na Kogin Triniti, Burnt Ranch da New Rivers, an tsara su azaman kabilar Tsnungwe (daga Hupa cʰe:niŋxʷe: 'Ironside Mountain people') kuma suna neman amincewar tarayya, amma jaddada Hupa don dalilai na farfado da al'adu". Babu wasu shirye-shirye da ake da su don koyawa ko farfado da Chimariko daga halin da yake ciki na bacewa (shafi na 25). 89).

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙididdigar ƙididdiga na Chimariko ita ce: [3]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Chimariko". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Jany (2009)
  3. Carmen Jany, 2009, p. 16