Harshen Kalanga

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Harshen Kalanga
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 kck
Glottolog kala1384[1]

Kalanga , ko TjiKalanga (a Zimbabwe), yare ne na Bantu wanda mutanen Kalanga ke magana da ita a Botswana da Zimbabwe . Tana da adadi mai yawa na sautunan murya, wanda ya haɗa da kalmomin faɗar baki, masu jujjuya ra'ayi, waɗanda ake so da kuma baƙin da ke da muryar numfashi, har ma da masu sibilan da aka busa.[2]

Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Zimbabwe na 2013 ya amince da Kalanga a matsayin yare na hukumar kasan kuma ana koyar da shi a makarantu a wuraren da masu magana da shi suka fi yawa.

Rabe-rabe da ire-Ire[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masana ilimin harsuna suna sanya Kalanga (S.16 a rarrabuwa na Guthrie ) da yaren a Nambya (a yankin Hwange na Zimbabwe) a matsayin reshen yamma na rukunin Shona (ko Shonic, ko Shona-Nyai) ƙungiyar rukuni na harsuna, gaba ɗaya an tsara su kamar S.10.

Yaren Kalanga na da bambancin yare tsakanin na Botswana da na Zimbabwe kuma suna amfani da salon magana daban daban. A tarihance, Wentzel ya ambaci Kalanga daidai a gabas da Lilima (Tjililima, Humbe) a yamma, da kuma ire-iren yanzu da suke da yawa ko suka shuɗe: Nyai (Rozvi), Lemba (Remba), Lembethu (Rembethu), Twamamba (Xwamamba), Pfumbi, Jaunda (Jawunda, Jahunda), and † Romwe, † Peri, † Talahundra (Talaunda).[3][4]

Fasaha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bakandamiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-<br id="mwNA"><br>alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain alveolar plain lab. plain lab. plain lab. plain lab.
Plosive voiceless p () k
voiced b d ɡ ɡʷ
prenasal ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ ᵑɡʷ
aspirated t̪ʰ tʰʷ kʰʷ
breathy kʷʱ
ejective ()
Affricate voiceless p͡s t̪͡s̪ t͡ʃ
voiced b͡z d̪͡z̪ d̪͡z̪ʷ d͡ʒ b͡ɡ
prenasal ⁿd͡ʒ
aspirated t̪͡s̪ʰ t̪͡s̪ʰʷ p͡kʰ
breathy t̪͡s̪ʱ t͡ʃʱ
ejective t͡ʃʼ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ ʃʷ (x) ()
voiced v z ʒ ɦ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ
Trill r
Approximant lateral l
central β̞ j w
breathy
  • Phonemes /tʰʷ, p͡s, b͡z, t͡ʃʼ/ faruwa ne kawai a matsayin mahimman sautunan sauti
  • Sauti /tʼ, tʷ, x, xʷ/ sauti ne da aka aro daga Tswana.[5]

Wasula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yaren Kalanga yana da tsarin wasali biyar na yau da kullun:

Gaba Tsakiya Baya
Kusa i u
Tsakiyar e o
Buɗe a

Bibliyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Chebanne, AM & Rodewald, M. K & Pahlen, KW (1995) Ngatikwaleni iKalanga: littafin rubuta Kalanga kamar yadda ake magana a Botswana . Gaborone: Kungiyar Botswana.
  • Chebanne, Andy & Schmidt, Daniel (2010). "Kalanga: Nahawu takaitaccen lafazi". Cape Town: CASAS zane mai lamba 75.
  • Letsholo, R. (2013). "Alamomin abubuwa a Ikalanga" . Gano Harshe . Kwalejin Dartmouth.
  • Mathangwane, Joyce T. (1999) Ikalanga sautikan magana da sauti: a synchronic da diachronic binciken. Stanford, CA: Labaran CSLI.


Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

http://talkingdictionary.swarthmore.edu/kalanga/

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Kalanga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Mathangwane, Joyce T. (1999). Ikalanga phonetics and phonology: a synchronic and diachronic study. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
  3. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online.
  4. Wentzel, Petrus Johannes (1981). The Relationship between Venda and Western Shona. Ph.D. Thesis. Univ. of South Africa.
  5. Mathangwane, Joyce T. (1999). Ikalanga phonetics and phonology: a synchronic and diachronic study. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.