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Harshen Nubi

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Harshen Nubi
'Yan asalin magana
harshen asali: 42,000 (2002)
Baƙaƙen larabci
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 kcn
Glottolog nubi1253[1]

Harshen Nubi (kuma ana kiransa Ki-Nubi, Larabci: كي-نوبي‎, romanized: kī-nūbī) harshe ne na larabci na kasar Sudan wanda ake magana da shi a kasar Uganda a kusa da Bombo, da kuma Kenya a kusa da Kibera, na kabilar Nubian na Uganda, wadanda yawancinsu zuriyar Emin Pasha ne na sojojin Sudan wadanda gwamnatin mulkin mallaka na Birtaniya ta yi musu zama a can . Kimanin mutane 15,000 ne suka yi magana a Uganda a cikin 1991 (bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a), da kuma kimanin 10,000 a Kenya; wata majiya ta kiyasta kusan masu magana 50,000 kamar na 2001. Kashi 90% na ƙamus ya samo asali ne daga Larabci, amma an sauƙaƙa nahawu, kamar yadda tsarin sauti yake. Nairobi yana da mafi girman taro na masu magana da Nubi.[2][3] Nubi yana da tsarin gabaɗaya, suffixing da haɗe-haɗe kuma yana cikin Larabci.

Yawancin masu magana da harshen Nubi su ne Kakwa waɗanda suka fito daga yankin Nubian, na farko zuwa Equatoria, daga nan kuma zuwa kudu zuwa Uganda da Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo . Sun yi suna a karkashin shugaban kasar Uganda Idi Amin, wanda shi ne Kakwa.

Jonathan Owens ya bayar da hujjar cewa Nubi ya zama babban misali ga ra'ayoyin Derek Bickerton na samuwar harshe, yana nuna "ba fiye da wata dama ta kamanceceniya da siffofin creaole na duniya na Bickerton ba" duk da cika cikakkiyar yanayin tarihin da ake sa ran zai kai ga irin waɗannan siffofi.

Fassarar sauti

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai wasula guda biyar a cikin Nubi. Ba a bambanta wasula da tsayi sai aƙalla keɓancewa biyu daga Nubi na Kenya (waɗanda ba sa cikin yarukan Uganda) inda bara yana nufin "waje" kuma lafazin ne yayin baara yana nufin "waje" kuma suna ne, da kuma inda saara</link> ma'ana "dabo" ana kwatanta shi da sara</link> ma'ana "garrke, shanu". Duk da haka, akwai hali na wasula a cikin maɗaukakin maɗaukaki don yin rajista a matsayin dogon wasali.

Gaba Baya
Babban i u
Tsakar e o
Ƙananan a

Kowanne daga cikin wasulan yana da allfofi da yawa kuma ainihin sautin wasalin ya dogara da baƙaƙen da ke kewaye.

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Buga<br id="mwfg"><br><br><br></br> alveolar Velar Uvula Farin ciki Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ( ŋ )
M /



</br> Haɗin kai
voiceless p t k ( q ) ( ʔ )
voiced b d ɡ
Ƙarfafawa voiceless f ( θ ) s ʃ ( x ) ( ħ ) h
voiced v ( ð ) z
Rhotic r ( ɽ )
Na gefe l
Kusanci w j ( w )

Masu iya magana na iya amfani da daidaitattun wayoyi na Larabci don kalmomin da aka koyi larabci don su. Sigar retroflex na sautin /r/ na iya faruwa kuma wasu yaruka suna amfani da /l/ a wurinsa. Geminates ba sabon abu bane a Nubi. Waɗannan ƙananan wayoyin hannu ana nuna su a maƙallan. [4]

Ineke Wellens yana ba da rubutun rubutun na gaba don Nubi inda ya bambanta da alamun IPA: / ʃ</link> / = sh; /t ʃ</link> / = ch; / </link> /= j; / ɲ</link> / = ba; /w/ = w ko ku; /j/ = y ko i; / θ</link> / = ta; / ð</link> / = dh; /x/ = kh; / ħ</link> / = ḥ.

Tsarin Harafi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harsuna yawanci suna da tsarin CV, VC, V ko CVC tare da VC da ke faruwa kawai a cikin saƙon farko. CC na ƙarshe da na farko suna faruwa ne kawai a cikin wasu takamaiman misalai kamar skul</link> wanda ke nufin "makarantar" ko kuma sems</link> wanda ke nufin "rana" . [4]

Damuwa na iya canza ma'anar kalmomi misali saba</link> yana nufin "bakwai" ko "safiya" ya danganta da ko damuwa yana kan saƙon farko ko na biyu bi da bi. Sau da yawa ana barin wasulan a cikin maras ƙarfi, na ƙarshe, kuma wani lokaci har ma da ma'anar "u" ta ƙarshe a cikin sigar da ba ta dace ba ana iya share su bayan "m", "n", "l", "f" ko "b". Wannan na iya haifar da daidaita saƙon ko da a cikin kalmomi. [4]

Sunan suna da lamba kawai (ɗaukar nau'i ɗaya ko jam'i) ko da yake ga yawancin sunaye wannan baya wakiltar canjin yanayi . Jonathan Owens yana ba da manyan nau'ikan sunaye guda 5: [4]

  1. Sunayen da ke juyar da yanayin damuwa lokacin da aka kafa jam'i.
  2. Sunayen da ke fuskantar apophony .
  3. Sunaye waɗanda suke ɗaukar kari kuma suna jujjuya damuwa a cikin jam'i.
  4. Sunayen da suke samar da jam'i ta hanyar kari
  5. Bantu aro-kalmomi waɗanda ke ɗaukar prefixes daban-daban a cikin nau'i ɗaya da jam'i

Teburin da ke ƙasa yana nuna misalan kowane nau'in jam'i. An sanya ridda a gaban ma’anar da aka danne: [4]

Nau'in

Yawaita

Sifar Mufuradi Jam'i Form Fassarar Turanci
1 yo uwa yau'le yaro(s)
2 kabir kubar babba [abu(s)]
3 Tajir taji'rin masu arziki
3 'sedar sede'ra itace (s)
4 'marya nus'wan mace / mata 1
5 magana waze tsoho/tsofaffi

1 Nuswan</link> ana iya ƙarawa da ƙari kamar nau'in 3 ne, don haka, nuswana</link> yana iya nufin "mata". [4]

Siffai suna bin suna kuma wasu sifofi suna da nau'i ɗaya da jam'i waɗanda dole ne su yarda da suna. Siffofin kuma na iya ɗaukar prefixes al</link> , ali</link> , ab</link> ko abu</link> wanda ke nuna su a matsayin al'ada . Mallaka sunayen suna bin abin da aka mallaka, tare da barbashi ta</link> sanya a tsakanin. A cikin yanayin mallakar da ba za a iya raba shi da barbashi ba. [4]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Nubi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Mutibwa, Phares Mukasa (1992-01-01). Uganda Since Independence: A Story of Unfulfilled Hopes (in Turanci). Africa World Press. ISBN 9780865433571.
  3. "Amin Buys Loyalty of Soldiers - the Washington Post". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Empty citation (help)Owens, Jonathan (2006). "Creole Arabic". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: 518–27.