Harshen Sango

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Harshen Sango
Sängö — Sango
'Yan asalin magana
harshen asali: 599,000 (2017)
second language (en) Fassara: 4,600,000 (2017)
2017: 500,000 (2017)
Baƙaƙen boko
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 sg
ISO 639-2 sag
ISO 639-3 sag
Glottolog sang1327[1]

Sango (ana rubuta shi Sangho ) shine yaren farko da ake magana a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya sannan kuma shine harshen hukuma na ƙasar. Ana amfani dashi azaman yaren yare a duk faɗin ƙasar kuma yana da masu magana da shi a ƙasar 450,000 a cikin 1988. Hakanan tana da masu magana da harshe na biyu miliyan 1.6.

Sango ne a Creole bisa Arewa Ngbandi harshe . An yi amfani dashi azaman yare na kasuwanci tare da Kogin Ubangi kafin turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa a cikin 1880s. A cikin maganganun magana 90% na kalmomin yare shine Sango,  alhali a cikin karin magana game da kalmomin aro na Faransa sun fi yawa.

Rarrabuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu masana ilimin harshe, suna bin William J. Samarin, sun rarraba shi a matsayin Ngbandi- tushen ƙira; duk da haka, wasu (kamar Marcel Diki-Kidiri, Charles H. Morrill) sun ƙi yarda da wannan rarrabuwa kuma suka ce canje-canje a cikin tsarin Sango (na ciki da waje) za a iya bayanin su sosai ba tare da tsarin ƙaddamarwa ba.

Dangane da tsinkayen mulkin mallaka, Sango ba abin bambance a cikin cewa ta Afirka ce maimakon ta Turai. Kodayake Faransanci ya ba da gudummawar kalmomin aro da yawa, tsarin Sango ya kasance tsarin Afirka ne gaba ɗaya.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan ƙabilar Sango, 1906

Anyi amfani da Sango iri-iri a matsayin harshen yare tare da Kogin Ubangi kafin mamayar ƴan mulkin mallaka na Faransa, a ƙarshen 1800s. Sojojin Faransa sun tattara 'yan Afirka ta Tsakiya, lamarin da ya sa suka ƙara amfani da Sango a matsayin hanyar sadarwa ta hanyar wariyar launin fata. Duk cikin ƙarni na 20, mishan mishan sun inganta Sango saboda yawan amfani da shi.

Asalin masu fataucin kogi suna amfani da shi, Sango ya kasance a matsayin yaren yare bisa lafazin Ngbandi na Arewa na ƙabilar Sango, wani ɓangare na tarin harsunan Ngbandi, tare da tasirin Faransa.

Cigaban da sauri na birnin Bangui tun daga shekarun 1960 yana da muhimmiyar ma'ana ga ci gaban Sango, tare da ƙirƙirar, a karon farko, na yawan masu magana da yaren farko. Ganin cewa baƙin haure zuwa birni suna magana da yarurruka daban-daban kuma suna amfani da Sango ne kawai a matsayin harshen yare, yaransu suna amfani da Sango a matsayin babban yarensu (kuma wani lokacin kawai). Hakan ya haifar da saurin fadada kamus din, gami da kalmomin yau da kullun da na karin magana. Hakanan, sabon matsayinta na yaren yau da kullun na babban birni ya haifar da Sango da samun babban matsayi kuma ana amfani da shi a cikin fannoni wanda a da ya saba amfani da Faransanci.

Yankunan kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sango ya yaɗu a cikin Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, tare da masu magana 350,000 a kidayar 1970. Ana kuma magana da shi azaman yankin yare a kudancin Chadi, inda mai yiwuwa ba a magana da shi ta asali kuma amfani da shi yana raguwa, kuma a Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo, inda amfani da shi ke karuwa.

A yau, Sango harshe ne na ƙasa da na hukuma na Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, wanda ya sa Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya ta kasance ɗaya ƙasashen Afirka da ke da harshen asali a matsayin harshen hukuma.

Rijista[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani bincike da Taber yayi (1964) ya nuna cewa wasu kalmomin asalin Sango kusan 490 sunada kusan kashi 90% na maganganun magana; duk da haka, yayin da ba a cika amfani da kalmomin aro na Faransanci ba, suna yin amfani da yawancin kalmomin, musamman a cikin maganganun masu ilimi. Ana iya kwatanta yanayin da Ingilishi, wanda yawancin kalmomin, musamman kalmomin "koya", sun samo asali ne daga Latin, Girkanci, ko Faransanci yayin da ƙamus ɗin asali ke da ƙarfi na Jamusawa . Koyaya, binciken da aka yi kwanan nan ya nuna cewa sakamakon ya keɓance takamaiman ilimin zamantakewar al'umma, wanda ake kira "mai aiki" iri-iri. Aikin Morrill, wanda aka kammala shi a cikin 1997, ya bayyana cewa akwai ka'idoji uku na zamantakewar al'umma da ke fitowa a cikin yaren Sango: nau'ikan "rediyo" na birane wanda aka tsara shi  da kashi 80% na wadanda suka zanta dashi kuma yana da karancin kalmomin bashi na Faransa; wani abin da ake kira "fasto" iri-iri, wanda aka ci 60%; da kuma nau'ikan "mai aiki", wanda masu ilimi ke magana dashi, waɗanda ke amfani da kalmomin aro na Faransa yayin amfani da Sango, wanda ya sami kashi 40%.

Fasaha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sango yana da wasulan baka bakwai da na hanci biyar. Ingancin wasali da yawan wasulan na iya shafar harshen uwa na waɗanda ba su da asali da harshen Sango.

Wasalin Sango
Wasulan baka Wasulan hanci
Gaba Baya Gaba Baya
Kusa i u ĩ ũ
Kusa-tsakiyar e o
Bude-tsakiyar ɛ ɔ ɛ̃ ɔ̃
Buɗe a ã

Bakandamiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sangoran baƙin Sango
Bilabial Labio-<br id="mwmA"><br><br><br></br> hakori Hakori Alveolar Palatal Velar Labial-<br id="mwow"><br><br><br></br> velar Glottal
Kusa p  b  (ɓ) t  d k  ɡ k͡p  ɡ͡b
Hannun mahaifa ᵐb (ᶬv) ⁿd ⁿz nj ᵑɡ ᵑ͡ᵐɡ͡b
Hanci m n
Fricative f  v s  z h
Mai kusanci l  r j w

Abubuwan haɗin Palatal suna faruwa ne a cikin kalmomin aro da wasu yaruka. Wasu yaruka suna da canje-canje tsakanin [ᶬv] da [m], [ᵐb] da [ᵑ͡ᵐg͡b], [ᵐb] and [b], medial-medial [l] and [r], and word-farkon [h] da [ᶬ ]. [ᶬv] ba safai ba.

Tsarin mara nauyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin silsila gabaɗaya CV ne. Wasulan jere suna da wuya amma suna faruwa. C Template:Angle bracketda kuma C Template:Angle bracketbi da bi.

Kalmomi gabaɗaya sune monosyllabic ko bisyllabic amma ƙasa da yawa sune trisyllabic. Huɗu

u-syllable kalmomi aka halitta via reduplication da tabi, kuma ƙila za a rubuta a matsayin kalmomi biyu (kêtêkêtê ko kêtê kêtê 'kankanin bit', walikundû ko wa likundû 'sihiri').

Sautin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sango yare ne na sautin murya. Yaren yana da sautunan asali guda uku (babba, tsakiyar, da ƙasa), tare da sautunan kwane-kwane kuma suna faruwa, galibi cikin kalmomin aro na Faransa. Sautuna suna da nauyin aiki mara nauyi, amma ƙananan nau'i-nau'i suna wanzu: 'ba da haihuwa' a kan ɗa 'rami'.

Kalmomin rancen daga Faransanci galibi suna da yanayin sautin ƙasa mai ƙasa ( bâan 'bench' daga bankin Faransa). A cikin kalmomin duk salo suna ɗauke da ƙaramar murya banda na ƙarshe, wanda aka tsawaita kuma yana ɗaukar sautin sauka. Sautin ƙarshe gabaɗaya yana ƙasa da ƙananan faɗakarwa don sunaye (ananäa 'abarba' daga ananas ta Faransanci) da faɗuwar ƙasa ƙwarai don kalmomin aiki (aretêe 'to stop' daga Faransanci arrêter ).

A keɓe, sautunan suna da bambancin aƙida, kuma hakan ma zai iya shafar su da harshen uwa na masu magana da ba asalinsu ba.

Nahawu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sango yare ne mai keɓe kalmomin magana-aikatau, kamar yadda yake a Turanci. Kalmomin suna suna na mai ƙayyade sifa-siffa-suna:

mbênï kêtê môlengê
bashi. karami yaro
"karamin yaro"

Ana sanya alamun jam'i a kalmomin â-, wanda ke gaba da jimlolin suna:

â-mbênï kêtê môlengê
PL -indef karami yaro
"wasu kananan yara"

- - ana iya haɗe shi zuwa abubuwa da yawa a cikin kalmar suna ta wasu masu magana, amma wannan ba shi da yawa:

â-kötä (â) zo
PL -baba mutum
"muhimman mutane / masu martaba"

Wani rabuwar ƙari na baya baki -ngö nominalizes fi'ilai. Hakanan yana canza duk sautunan cikin fi’ili zuwa tsakiya:

kono girma, zama babba kîri don dawowa, maimaita
könöngö girma kïrïngö dawo

Asali ana samarda halitta tare da gabatarwar tî 'na':

ngû
rami na ruwa
"ramin ruwa, da kyau"

Koyaya, haɗuwa yana ƙara zama gama gari: dûngü 'well' (lura da canjin yanayin). Irin waɗannan mahaɗan wasu lokuta ana rubuta su azaman kalmomi daban.

Ana amfani da kari na magana a- lokacin da batun yake na suna ko suna amma ba lokacin da batun yake ko dai karin magana ko a bayyane ba (kamar yadda yake a mahimmancin sa):

â-môlengê ga a-gä
PL- yaro na 3S SM- zama
"yaransa suka zo"
a-dü ga
SM -bayarwa. Haihuwa 3S
"an haifeshi" (lit. "wani ya haife shi")
löndö mo
tashi 3S zo
"tashi ka zo (nan)"

Wani lokacin ana sanya prefix a matsayin kalma daban.

Karin magana suna mbï "I", mo "ku (mufuradi)", ga "shi, ita, shi", ë "mu", ï "ku (jam'i)", âla "ku (jam'i)", âla "su" . [2] Fi'ili suna ɗaukan kari a- idan ba a gabatar da karin magana ba: mo yeke "kai ne" amma Bêafrîka ayeke "Afirka ta Tsakiya ita ce". A'idodi masu amfani musamman sun haɗa da yeke "be", bara "greet" ( bara o "hi!"), Hînga "sani". Abubuwan mallaka da ƙwarewa an ƙirƙira su da kalmar tî "na": ködörö tî mbï "ƙasata", yângâ tî sängö "Yaren Sango". Wani kowa bigire ne na, rufe da dama locative, dative, kuma instrumental ayyuka.

Tsarin al'ada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An fara rubuta Sangogo daga mishanarai na Faransa, tare da taron Katolika da na Furotesta da suka ɗan bambanta. Littafin Bible na 1966 da waka na 1968 suna da tasiri sosai kuma har yanzu ana amfani dasu har yau.

A cikin 1984, Shugaba André Kolingba ya rattaba hannu kan "Décret No 84.025", tare da kafa rubutun gargajiya ga Sango. Harafin Sango na hukuma ya ƙunshi haruffa 22:

Haruffa suna furta kamar yadda su IPA m, fãce Template:Angle bracket ya furta a matsayin [j]. Har ila yau, digraphs ake furta [k͡p] [ɡ͡b] [ᵐb] [(ᶬv)] [ⁿd] [ᵑɡ] [ᵑ͡ᵐɡ͡b] da [ⁿz], bi da bi.

Template:Angle bracket Template:Angle bracket kuma Template:Angle bracket iya amfani da rance da kalmomi ba da cikakken batutuwa a cikin Sango ta phonological tsarin.

Harshen aikin hukuma ya ƙunshi baƙaƙe masu zuwa: Template:Angle bracket wasu add Template:Angle bracket ga implosive /ɓ/ Sango yana da wasula bakwai ta baka, /a e ɛ i o ɔ u/, daga cikinsu guda biyar, /ĩ ã ɛ̃ ɔ̃ ũ/, sun auku a cikin nassi . A cikin aikin hukuma orthography, Template:Angle bracket tsaye ga duka biyu /e/ da /ɛ/ kuma Template:Angle bracket tsaye ga duka biyu /o/ da /ɔ/ ana rubuta wasulan hanci Template:Angle bracket .

Sango yana da sautuna uku: low, mid, da high. A misali sautin ƙasa ne wanda Template:Angle bracket tsakiyar sautin da aka alama tare da diaeresis, Template:Angle bracket, Template:Angle bracket kada-sake mi za a rubuta Template:Angle bracket

Sango yana da kayan rubutu kaɗan banda adabin addini, amma an inganta wasu kayan karatu da rubutu.

Koyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana ɗaukar Sango mai sauƙin koya; a cewar Samarin, "tare da aikace-aikacen ɗalibi ya kamata ya iya magana da yaren a cikin kimanin watanni uku." Koyaya, isa ga iya magana sosai yana ɗaukar lokaci mai tsayi, kamar kowane yare.

Ga masu magana da Ingilishi akwai manyan matsaloli biyu. Dole ne mutum ya tuna kada a raba baƙaƙe biyu: Bambari, misali, dole ne a kira shi ba-mba-ri, ba bam-ba-ri ba. Hakanan, kamar kowane yare na harshe, dole ne mutum ya koya kada ya bambanta sautin gwargwadon mahallin. Misali, idan mutum yayi wata tambaya tare da sautin tashinta kamar yadda yake a Turanci, mutum na iya fadin wata kalma daban-daban kuma bai dace ba a ƙarshen jimlar.

Bibiyar Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Buquiaux, Luc. Jean-Marie Kobozo et Marcel Diki-Kidiri, 1978 Dictionnaire sango-français. . .
  • Diki-Kidiri, Marcel. 1977. Le sango s'écrit aussi. . .
  • Diki-Kidiri, Marcel. 1978. Grammaire sango, phonologie da aiwatarwa
  • Diki-Kidiri, Marcel. 1998. Dictionnaire orthographique du sängö
  • Henry, Charles Morrill. 1997. Harshe, Al'adu da Ilimin Zamani a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Fitowar Cigaba da Ci gaban Sango
  •  
  • Khabirov, Valeri. 1984. Babban Abubuwan Tsarin Tsarin Nahawu na Sango (Takardun PhD, Jami'ar St. Petersburg, a cikin Rasha)
  • Khabirov, Valeri. 2010. Syntagmatic Morphology na Saduwa da Sango . Jami'ar Pedagogical ta Jami'ar Ural. 310 p.
  •  
  • Samarin, William. 1967. Darasi a Sango .
  • Saulnier, Pierre. 1994. Lexique orthographique sango
  • SIL (Centrafrique), 1995. Kêtê Bakarî tî Sängö: Farânzi, Anglëe na Yângâ tî Zâmani. Petit Dictionnaire Sango, Mini Sango Dictionary, Kleines Sango Wörterbuch
  •  978-1-57506-018-7
  • Taber, Charles. 1964. Lamunin Ba da Lamuni na Faransa a Sango: Nazarin Anididdiga . (Takardun MA, Hartford Seminary Foundation. )
  • Thornell, Christina. 1997. Harshen Sango da Littafinsa (Sêndâ-yângâ tî Sängö)
  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Sango". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Wikibooks:Sango/Pronouns