Hokusai

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Hokusai
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Honjo (en) Fassara da Edo (en) Fassara, 31 Oktoba 1760
ƙasa Japan
Mazauni Uraga (en) Fassara
Ƙabila Japanese people (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Asakusa (en) Fassara da Edo (en) Fassara, 10 Mayu 1849
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama unknown value  1790s)
unknown value  (1797 -
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Harshen Japan
Malamai Katsukawa Shunshō (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a painter (en) Fassara, xylographer (en) Fassara, illustrator (en) Fassara, ukiyo-e artist (en) Fassara, Masu kirkira, mai zane-zanen hoto, printmaker (en) Fassara, designer (en) Fassara, architectural draftsperson (en) Fassara, mai zane-zane da drawer (en) Fassara
Wurin aiki Edo (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (en) Fassara
The Dream of the Fisherman's Wife (en) Fassara
Hokusai Manga (en) Fassara
Ehon Chūkyō (en) Fassara
A Tour of the Waterfalls of the Provinces (en) Fassara
Oceans of Wisdom (en) Fassara
Watermelon (en) Fassara
Great Daruma (en) Fassara
Fafutuka Japonisme (en) Fassara
Kasei culture (en) Fassara
ukiyo-e (en) Fassara
Artistic movement ukiyo-e (en) Fassara
Hoto (Portrait)
Hokusai

Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾 北斎, c. 31 Oktoba, 1760–10 Mayu 1849), wanda aka fi sani da Hokusai, ɗan wasan ukiyo-e ne na Jafan a zamanin Edo (wato lokacin Edo), mai aiki a matsayin mai zane kuma mai tsara zane.[1] An fi saninsa da jerin zanukansa na katako mai sunaThirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, wanda ya haɗa da fitaccen zanen The Great Wave off Kanagawa. Hokusai ya taimaka wajen haɓaka ukiyo-e daga salon hoto wanda ya fi mayar da hankali akan kuyangu da 'ƴan wasan kwaikwayo a cikin salon fasaha mai faɗi wanda ya mai da hankali akan shimfidar kasa, tsirrai, da dabbobi.

Hokusai ya ƙirƙiri zanensa na tarihi mai suna Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji a matsayin martani ga bunƙasar sufuri na cikin gida a Japan kuma a matsayin wani ɓangare na sha'awar Tsaunin Fuji. Wadannan zanuka ne musamman (The Great Wave off Kanagawa alda kuma Fine Wind, Clear Morning) suka jawo masa daukaka ba wai a kasar Japan ba kadai harda sauran kasashen duniya ma. [2]

An fi sanin Hokusai da zanukansa na katako na ukiyo-e, amma ya yi aiki a fannoni daban-daban ciki har da zanen fenti da kuma da na littattafai. Tun yana ƙarami, ya ci gaba da aiki tare da inganta salonsa har zuwa rasuwarsa a lokacin yana da shekaru 88. A cikin dogon rayuwarsa a matsayin shahararren mai zane, Hokusai ya samar da zanuka sama da guda 30,000, zanuka na kwafin katako, da hotunan littattafai baki daya. Acikin zanukansa na musamman da kuma fasahar sa na musamman, Ana daukar Hokusai a matsayin daya daga cikin mashahurai tarihin zane.

Kuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Courtesan Barci, a bijin-ga surimono print, c. late 18th to early 19th century
Wuta a cikin Cool na Maraice a Ryogoku Bridge a Edo, bugawa, c. 1788–89

Ba'a san takamaiman kwanan watan na ranar haihuwar Hokusai ba, amma galibi ana tsammanin shi azaman ranar 23 ga watan 9 na shekara ta 10 na zamanin Hōreki (a cikin tsohuwar kalandar, ko 31 Oktoba 1760) ga iyalinsa, a gundumar Katsushika na Edo, babban birnin kasar Tokugawa Shogunate.[3] Sunansa na yarinta shine Tokitaró. An yi ittifakin cewa mahaifinsa shine Nakajima Ise, mai hada madubi ga mutanen Shogun. Mahaifin Hokusai bai taɓa mai da shi magajinsa ba, don haka tana iya yiwuwa mahaifiyarsa ƙwarƙwara ce. Hokusai ya fara zane tun yana dan shekara shida, watakila ya koya ne daga wajen mahaifinsa, wanda aikinsa ya hada da yin zanuka a jikin madubai.[3]

An san Hokusai da aƙalla sunaye guda talatin a lokacin rayuwarsa. Yayin da yin amfani da sunaye da yawa ya kasance al'ada ce ta masu zane na kasar Japan na wancan lokacin, adadin sunayensa sun zarce duk wani babban mai zane na Japan. Sunayensa na sauyawa da sauri, kuma sau da yawa suna da alaƙa da canji a cikin zane-zane da salonsa, wanda ake amfani da su don rarraba rayuwarsa zuwa lokuta daban daban.

Sanarwar mutuwar Hokusai

Lokacin da yake da shekaru 12, mahaifinsa ya tura shi don yin aiki a kantin sayar da littattafai da ɗakin karatu na ba da lamuni, sanannen wuri ne a birnin Japan, inda karatun labarai da aka rubuta akan katako ya kasance shahararren abun nishaɗi ga matsakaita karfi da kuma attajirai.[4] A shekaru 14, ya yi aiki a matsayin dan koyo ga wani mai sarrafa katakai, har zuwa lokacinda ya kai shekaru 18, lokacin da ya koma ɗakin studiyo na Katsukawa Shunshō. Shunshō ya kasance mai zane ne na ukiyo-e, wanda ke amfani da salon zane akan katako da kuma na fenti wadanda Hokusai zai koya, ya kuma zamo shugaban makarantar da ake kira Katsukawa. Ukiyo-e, kamar yadda masu zane irin su Shunsho suka yi, suna mayar da hankali akan hotunan kwarkwarori, ' yan wasan kwaikwayo na (bijin-ga) da kuma kabuki (yakusha-e) waɗanda suka shahara a biranen Japan na lokacin.[5]

Bayan shekara guda, sunan Hokusai ya canja a karo na farko, sa’ad da ubangidansa ya sa masa suna Shunrọ. A karkashin wannan sunan ne ya fara zanensa na farko, jerin hotunan jaruman kabuki da aka buga a shekarar 1779. A cikin shekaru goma da ya yi aiki a ɗakin studiyo na Shunsho, Hokusai ya auri matarsa ta farko, wacce ba a san ta sosai ba sai dai ta mutu a farkon shekarun 1790. Ya sake yin aure a shekara ta 1797, ko da yake ita ma wannan mata ta biyu ta rasu bayan wani dan lokaci kadan. Ya haifi 'ya'ya maza biyu da 'ya'ya mata uku tare da waɗannan mata biyu, kuma ƙaramar 'yarsa Ei, wanda aka fi sani da Ōi, ta zamo mai zane kuma daga bisani mataimakiyarsa. Littafinsa na Fireworks in the Cool of Evening at Ryogoku Bridge in Edo (c. 1788–89) daga wannan lokacin na rayuwar Hokusai.) [6]

Gabanin mutuwar Shunsho a 1793, Hokusai ya fara binciko wasu nau'ikan zaune, ciki har da salo irin na Turai wanda ya koya ta hanyar wani zane da ya samu a na Faransa da Holland. Ba da daɗewa ba Shunkō, babban almajirin Shunsho ya kore shi daga makarantar Katsukawa, wataƙila saboda kasancewarsa dalibi a makarantar Kanō abokan hamayyarsu. Wannan al'amari ya kasance, kamar yadda ya bayyana, ya ƙarfafa masa gwiwa: "Abin da ya ƙarfafa haɓakar salon zane na shi ne wulakanci da na sha a hannun Shunkō."

Bugu da kari, Hokusai ya canza jigon ayyukansa, ya daina zana hotunan kwarkwarori da ’yan wasan kwaikwayo wanda hakan ya kasance jigo na al’adun zanen ukiyo-e. Maimakon haka, ya mayar da hankali wajen zanen wurare da hotuna na rayuwar yau da kullum na mutanen Japan daga matakai daban-daban na zamantakewa. Wannan sauyi na jigo ya janyo cigaba ga ukiyo-e da kuma sana'ar Hokusai.

Samartakarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton masu wanka daga Hokusai Manga
Buga na zamani na Hokusai zanen Babban Daruma a cikin 1817
The Great Wave kashe Kanagawa, Fitaccen bugun Hokusai, na farko a cikin jerin Ra'ayoyi talatin da shida na Dutsen Fuji, c. 1829–1832
Iska mai kyau, Tsaftace Safiya (ko Red Fuji ),



</br> daga Duban Dutsin Fuji talatin da shida

Lokaci na gaba ya kasance haɗin gwiwar Hokusai da Makarantar Tawaraya da kuma karɓar sunan "Tawaraya Sōri". Ya samar da zanuka da yawa ga mutane don lokuta na musamman ( surimono ), da zanuka akan waƙoƙi na nishadi (kyōka ehon) a wannan lokacin. A cikin shekarar alif 1798, Hokusai ya cire sunansa a zaman ɗalibi kuma ya koma mai zane mai zaman kansa, wanda ba shi da alaƙa da wata makaranta a karo na farko, yana ɗauka sabon suna wato Hokusai Tomisa.

A shekara ta 1800, Hokusai ya cigaba da ƙara haɓaka amfani da ukiyo-e don wasu dalilai ba wai zanen mutane ba kadai. Ya kuma karɓi sunan da za a fi saninsa da shi, Katsushika Hokusai, sunan na farko na nufin ɓangaren Edo inda aka haife shi, na ƙarshen kuma na nufin 'studiyon arewa', don girmama Tauraruwar Arewa, alamar allahntaka mai mahimmanci a cikin addininsa na Buddha Nichiren. [7] A cikin wannan shekarar, yayi zane akan shimfidar wurare guda biyu, Shahararrun mahangar Babban Birnin Gabas da Wurare takwas na Edo (Tokyo a yau). Ya kuma fara jan hankalin dalibai, inda a karshe ya koyar da dalibai 50 a tsawon rayuwarsa.

Ya zama sananne a cikin shekaru goma masu zuwa, duka saboda aikin zane-zane da basirar tallan kansa. A lokacin bikin Edo a shekara ta 1804, ya ƙirƙiri wani babban hoto na shugaban addinin Buddha Daruma, wanda aka ce ya kai murabba'in mita 200, yana amfani da tsintsiya da bokiti cike da tawada. [8] Wani labarin kuma ya sanya shi a cikin kotun shōgun Tokugawa Ienari, an gayyace shi a can don yin gasa tare da wani mai zane wanda ya yi zane-zane na gargajiya na gargajiya. Hokusai ya zana shudi mai lankwasa a takarda, sannan ya kori wata kaza wadda aka tsoma kafafunta da jajayen fenti a kan hoton. Ya bayyana zanen ga shōgun a matsayin wani fili da ke nuna kogin Tatsuta da jajayen ganyen maple suna shawagi a cikinsa, inda ya lashe gasar.

Tsakanin 1804 zuwa 1815 Hokusai ya haɗa kai da mashahurin marubuci Takizawa Bakin akan jerin littafai da aka kwatanta. Musamman mashahurin labari mai ban sha'awa shine Chinsetsu Yumiharizuki (Bayan Tatsuniyoyi na Crescent Moon, 1807-1811) tare da Minamoto no Tametomo a matsayin babban hali, kuma Hokusai ya sami suna tare da zane-zanensa na kirkira da karfi, amma haɗin gwiwar ya ƙare bayan ayyuka goma sha uku. Akwai ra'ayoyi daban-daban game da dalilin da ya sa suka wargaza haɗin gwiwarsu, irin su mutane masu sabani da ra'ayoyi masu karo da juna kan yadda ake zana misalai. [9] [10] Hokusai kuma ya ƙirƙiri kundi da yawa na fasahar batsa ( shunga ). Hotonsa mafi shahara a cikin wannan nau'in shine Mafarkin Matar Mai Kamun Kifi, wanda ke nuna wata budurwar da aka haɗe da jima'i tare da dorinar dorinar ruwa, daga Kinoe no Komatsu, littafi mai girma uku na shunga daga 1814. [11]

Hokusai ya mai da hankali sosai kan samar da aikinsa. A cikin wasiƙun da ya yi tare da Toshisen Ehon, bugu na Jafananci na tarihin waqoqin Sinanci, Hokusai ya rubuta wa mawallafin cewa mawallafin Egawa Tomekichi, wanda Hokusai ya yi aiki da shi a baya kuma wanda yake mutuntawa, ya kauce daga salon Hokusai wajen yankan nama. wasu shugabannin. Ya kuma rubuta kai tsaye zuwa ga wani blockcutter da ke cikin aikin, Sugita Kinsuke, inda ya bayyana cewa baya son salon makarantar Utagawa wanda Kinsuke ya yanke ido da hancin adadi kuma ana buƙatar gyara don buga na ƙarshe ya kasance daidai da salon sa. A cikin wasiƙarsa, Hokusai ya haɗa da misalan duka salon kwatanta idanuwa da hanci da kuma salon makarantar Utagawa. [12]

Katsushika Hokusai

A cikin 1811, yana ɗan shekara 51, Hokusai ya canza sunansa zuwa Taito kuma ya shiga lokacin da ya ƙirƙiri Hokusai Manga da etehon daban-daban, ko littattafan fasaha. Waɗannan litattafan da suka fara a 1812 tare da Darussan Sauƙaƙe a cikin Sauƙaƙen Zane, an yi nufin su azaman hanya mai dacewa don samun kuɗi da jawo ƙarin ɗalibai. An buga juzu'in farko na Manga (ma'anar zane-zane bazuwar) a cikin 1814 kuma ya kasance nasara nan take. [13] A shekara ta 1820, ya samar da litattafai goma sha biyu (tare da wasu uku da aka buga bayan mutuwa) waɗanda suka haɗa da dubban zane-zane na abubuwa, tsire-tsire, dabbobi, masu addini, da mutanen yau da kullum, sau da yawa tare da sautin ban dariya.

A ranar 5 ga watan Oktoba, 1817, ya zana babban Daruma a wajen Hongan-ji Nagoya Betsuin a Nagoya. Wannan hoton tawada a kan takarda ya auna mita 18 × 10.8, kuma taron ya jawo ɗimbin jama'a. An ba da labarin wannan wasan a cikin wata shahararriyar waƙa kuma ya sami sunan " Darusen " ko "Daruma Master" [14] [15] Ko da yake an lalata asalin a 1945, takardun talla na Hokusai daga wancan lokacin sun tsira kuma an adana su a Gidan Tarihi na Nagoya City.

A shekarar 1820, Hokusai ya sake canza sunansa, wannan lokacin zuwa "Iitsu," wani canji wanda ya nuna farkon lokacin da ya sami shahara a matsayin mai zane a cikin Japan. Ayyukansa mafi girma, Ra'ayoyi talatin da shida na Dutsen Fuji, ciki har da shahararren Babban Wave daga Kanagawa da Red Fuji an samar dashi a farkon 1830s. Ana iya ganin sakamakon binciken hangen nesa na Hokusai a Manga a nan cikin Babban Wave inda ya yi amfani da abin da za a iya gani a matsayin hangen nesa na yamma don wakiltar zurfin da girma. Ya zama sananne sosai cewa an ƙara ƙarin kwafi goma a cikin jerin. Daga cikin fitattun fitattun bugu da ya yi a wannan lokaci akwai Ziyarar Ruwan Magudanar ruwa na Larduna da Tekun Hikima da Ra'ayin da ba a saba gani ba na gadajen da aka yi bikin a Larduna . Ya kuma fara samar da adadi dalla-dalla na hotuna na furanni da tsuntsaye ( kachō-e ), gami da filla-filla na Poppies da Flock of Chickens.

Tsufansa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton Hokusai na almajiri Keisai Eisen

Lokaci na gaba, wanda ya fara a 1834, inda Hokusai ya koma aiki a ƙarƙashin sunan "Gakyō Rōjin" (画狂老人 ; "Tsohon Mutum da ya haukace Hauka akan zane"). A wannan lokacin ne ya yi zanensa mai suna "One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji", wani muhimmin silsilar, gabaɗaya la'akari da "fitaccen zanen wurare daga cikin zanukansa ba littafi ".

From the age of six, I had a passion for copying the form of things and since the age of fifty I have published many drawings, yet of all I drew by my seventieth year there is nothing worth taking into account. At seventy-three years I partly understood the structure of animals, birds, insects and fishes, and the life of grasses and plants. And so, at eighty-six I shall progress further; at ninety I shall even further penetrate their secret meaning, and by one hundred I shall perhaps truly have reached the level of the marvellous and divine. When I am one hundred and ten, each dot, each line will possess a life of its own.[16]

A cikin shekara ta 1839 ne, gobara ta lalata ɗakin studiyo na Hokusai inda yawancin ayyukansa suka kone. A wannan lokacin, aikinsa ya fara dusashewa yayin da matasan masu zane irin su Andō Hiroshige suka zama sanannu. A lokacin yana da shekaru 83, Hokusai ya yi tafiya zuwa Obuse a lardin Shinano ( Nagano Prefecture a yanzu) bisa gayyatar wani hamshakin manomi, Takai Kozan inda ya zauna na tsawon shekaru da dama. A lokacin da yake a Obuse, ya ƙirƙiri zanuka na musamman da dama waɗanda suka haɗa da Masculine Wave da kuma Feminine Wave. [17] Tsakanin shekara ta 1842 zuwa 1843, a cikin abin da ya bayyana a matsayin "fitarwa na yau da kullum" ( nisshin joma ), Hokusai yan zana zakin kasar sin ( shishi ) a kowace safiya da tawada a kan takarda a matsayin wani kariya ga duk wani mummunan abu.

Hokusai ya ci gaba da aiki kusan har zuwa ƙarshe, inda ya zana Dodon Gudun Hayaki daga Dutsen Fuji da Tiger a cikin Dusar ƙanƙara a farkon 1849. [18]

Ko da yaushe yana neman samar da ingantacciyar aiki, da alama ya yi furuci a kan gadon mutuwarsa, “Idan da sama za ta ƙara mini shekaru goma kawai. Sai sauran shekaru biyar, sannan zan iya zama ainihin mai zane." Ya mutu a ranar 10 ga Mayu 1849 [19] kuma an binne shi a Seikyō-ji a Tokyo (Taito Ward).

Kabarin Katsushika Hokusai

A haiku da ya yi jim kaɗan kafin mutuwarsa yana karanta: "Ko da yake a matsayin fatalwa, zan taka da sauƙi, filayen bazara." [18]

Tasiri kan fasaha da al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Murfin Debussy 's La Mer, 1905

Hokusai ya sami nasarori a fagage daban-daban a matsayin mai zane. Ya yi zane-zane don zane-zane na littattafai da bugu na katako, zane-zane, da zane fiye da shekaru 70. Hokusai ya kasance farkon mai gwaji tare da hangen nesa na yamma a tsakanin masu fasahar Japan. Sesshū Tōyō da sauran nau'ikan zanen Sinawa sun yi tasiri ga Hokusai da kansa. Tasirinsa ya shimfiɗa a duk faɗin duniya zuwa abokansa na yamma a cikin karni na sha tara na Turai tare da Japonism, wanda ya fara da sha'awar tattara kayan fasaha na Japan, musamman ukiyo-e, wanda za a ga wasu samfurori na farko a Paris, lokacin da kusan kusan. A shekara ta 1856, ɗan wasan Faransa Félix Bracquemond ya fara cin karo da kwafin littafin Hokusai Manga a wurin taron bitar nasa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ya rinjayi motsi na Impressionism, tare da jigogi da ke nuna aikinsa yana bayyana a cikin aikin Claude Monet da Pierre-Auguste Renoir, da Art Nouveau, ko Jugendstil a Jamus. Yawancin masu fasaha na Turai sun tattara katakonsa, ciki har da Degas, Gauguin, Klimt, Franz Marc, August Macke, Manet, da van Gogh. Degas ya ce game da shi, "Hokusai ba mai fasaha ɗaya ba ne kawai a tsakanin sauran mutane a cikin Duniya mai iyo. Shi tsibiri ne, nahiya, duk duniya a cikinsa.” Hermann Obrist 's whiplash motif, ko Peitschenhieb, wanda ya zo don misalta sabon motsi, aikin Hokusai ya rinjayi a fili.

Ko bayan mutuwarsa, nune-nunen kayan fasaharsa na ci gaba da girma. A cikin 2005, Gidan kayan tarihi na Tokyo ya gudanar da baje kolin Hokusai wanda ke da mafi yawan baƙi na kowane nuni a wannan shekarar. [20] An kuma baje kolin zane-zane da dama daga baje kolin Tokyo a Burtaniya. Gidan kayan tarihi na Biritaniya ya gudanar da nunin nunin farko na zane-zane na Hokusai na shekara mai zuwa ciki har da 'Babban Wave' a cikin 2017. [21]

Hokusai ya yi wahayi zuwa ga lambar yabo ta Hugo - gajeriyar labari daga marubucin almarar kimiyya Roger Zelazny, "24 Ra'ayoyin Dutsen Fuji, na Hokusai", inda jarumin ya zagaya yankin da ke kewaye da Dutsen Fuji, yana tsayawa a wuraren da Hokusai ya zana. Wani littafi na 2011 game da hankali ya rufe da waƙar "Hokusai Says" na Roger Keyes, wanda ya riga ya bayyana cewa "[s] wani lokaci waƙa yana kama ran ra'ayi fiye da kowane abu." [22]

A cikin Encyclopædia Britannica na 1985, Richard Lane ya siffanta Hokusai a matsayin "tun daga karni na 19 na baya [yana da] burge masu fasaha na Yamma, masu suka da masu sha'awar fasaha iri ɗaya, fiye da, yuwuwa, fiye da kowane mai fasaha na Asiya guda ɗaya". [23]

'Littafan Siyar da Hoto na Store da Ukiyo-e' na Hokusai ya nuna yadda ake sayar da ukiyo-e a lokacin; ya nuna yadda ake sayar da waɗannan kwafin a shagunan gida, kuma talakawa za su iya siyan ukiyo-e. Ba kamar yadda aka saba ba a cikin wannan hoton, Hokusai ya yi amfani da hanya mai launin hannu maimakon yin amfani da shingen katako da dama.

'Yar ƙaramarsa Ei tana da manga da fim ɗinta mai suna Miss Hokusai .

ToAn fitar da wani fim na tarihin rayuwa game da mai zane a Japan a ranar 28 ga Mayu, 2021. An kaddamar da shi a bikin fina-finai na kasa da kasa na Tokyo na 33.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. https://books.google.com.ng/books?id=ZbayAAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Katsushika+Hokusai%22&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
  2. Kleiner, Fred S. and Christin J. Mamiya, (2009). Gardner's Art Through the Ages: Non-Western Perspectives, p. 115.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Weston, p. 116
  4. Weston, pp. 116–117
  5. Weston, p. 117
  6. Calza (2003), p. 426
  7. The name "Hokusai" (北斎 "North Studio") is an abbreviation of "Hokushinsai" (北辰際 "North Star Studio"). In Nichiren Buddhism the North Star is revered as a deity known as Myōken.
  8. Calza (2003), p. 128
  9. 日美ブログ 第86回 深川・両国・九段へ 北斎と馬琴の面影を探す旅. NHK. February 17, 2019
  10. 曲亭馬琴と葛飾北斎 Archived 2020-10-27 at the Wayback Machine Hokusai Museum.
  11. Calza (2003), p. 455
  12. Empty citation (help)https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hokusai#cite_ref-9
  13. Hillier, Jack R. (1980). The Art of Hokusai in Book Illustration. London: Sotheby Parke Bernet; Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. p. 107
  14. A shortened form of Daruma Sensei.
  15. Calza (2003), p. 192
  16. Calza, Gian Carlo. "Hokusau: A Universe" in Hokusai, p. 7. Phaidon
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hokusai Museum
  18. 18.0 18.1 Tsuji Nobou in Calza (2003), p. 72
  19. (18th day of the 4th month of the 2nd year of the Kaei era by the old calendar)
  20. Empty citation (help)
  21. Empty citation (help)
  22. https://grateful.org/resource/hokusai-says/
  23. Lane, Richard (1985). "Hokusai", Encyclopædia Britannica, v. 5, p. 973.

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Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  •  
  • Lane, Richard (1978). Images from the Floating World: The Japanese Print. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ISBN 978-0-19-211447-1;  .
  • Nagata, Seiji (1995). Hokusai: Genius of the Japanese Ukiyo-e. Tokyo: Kodansha International.
  • Ray, Deborah Kogan (2001). Hokusai: The Man Who Painted a Mountain. New York: Frances Foster Books.  ISBN 978-0-374-33263-1.
  • Smith, Henry D. II (1988). Hokusai: One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji. New York: George Braziller, Inc., Publishers.  ISBN 978-0-8076-1195-1.
  • Weston, Mark (1999). Giants of Japan: The Lives of Japan's Most Influential Men and Women. New York: Kodansha International.  ISBN 978-1-56836-286-1.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Janar tarihin rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Bowie, Theodore (1964). Zane na Hokusai. Jami'ar Indiana Press, Bloomington.
  • Forrer, Mathi (1988). Hokusai Rizzoli, New York. ISBN 978-0-8478-0989-9 .
  • Forrer, Mathi; van Gulik, Willem R., da Kaempfer, Heinz M. (1982). Hokusai da Makarantansa: Zane-zane, Zane-zane da Littattafan da aka kwatanta. Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem. ISBN 978-90-70216-02-3
  • Hillier, Jack (1955). Hokusai: Zane-zane, Zane da Yanke itace. Phaidon, London.
  • Hillier, Jack (1980). Art na Hokusai a cikin Misalin Littafi. Sotheby Publications, London. ISBN 978-0-520-04137-0 .
  • Lane, Richard (1989). Hokusai: Rayuwa da Aiki. EP Dutton. ISBN 978-0-525-24455-4 .
  • van Rappard-Boon, Charlotte (1982). Hokusai da Makarantarsa: Jafananci Buga c. 1800–1840 (Kasidar Tarin Jafananci, Rijksmuseum, Sashe na III). Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Takamaiman ayyukan fasaha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ga masu karatu waɗanda ke son ƙarin bayani kan takamaiman ayyukan fasaha na Hokusai, ana ba da shawarar waɗannan ayyuka na musamman.

  • Hillier, Jack, da Dickens, FW (1960). Fugaku Hiyaku-kei (Ra'ayoyi dari na Fuji daga Hokusai) . Frederick, New York.
  • Kondo, Ichitaro (1966). Trans. Terry, Charles S. Ra'ayoyi talatin da shida na Dutsen Fuji na Hokusai . Cibiyar Gabas-Yamma, Honolulu.
  • Michener, James A. (1958). Littattafan Sketch na Hokusai: Zaɓuɓɓuka daga 'Manga ' . Charles E. Tuttle, Rutland.
  • Morse, Bitrus (1989). Hokusai: Mawaka ɗari . George Braziller, New York. ISBN 978-0-8076-1213-2 .
  • Narazaki, Muneshige (1968). Trans. Mafi kyawun, John. Ayyukan Jagora na Ukiyo-E: Hokusai - Ra'ayoyi Talatin da Shida na Dutsen Fuji . Kodansha, Tokyo.

Art monographs[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Monographs sadaukarwa ga ayyukan fasaha na Hokusai:

  • Goncourt, Edmond de (2014). Muhimmancin Hokusai. Bournemouth, Parkstone International. ISBN 978-1-78310-128-3.
  • Goncourt, Edmond de (2014). Hokusai Mega Square. Bournemouth, Parkstone International. ISBN 978-1-78310-566-3

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]