Kogin Awash

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Awash (wani lokacin ana rubuta shi da sunan Hawash; Oromiffa: Awaash, Amharic: አዋሽ, Afar: We'ayot, Somali: Webiga Dir) hanyar ta gaba daya tana cikin iyakokin Habasha kuma ta shiga cikin layukan da ke haɗe da juna wanda zai fara daga Tafkin Gargori ya ƙare a Tafkin Abbe (ko Abhe Bad) a kan iyaka da Djibouti, kimanin kilomita 100 (mil 60 ko 70) daga shugaban Tekun Tadjoura. Wannan shi ne babban magudanar ruwa mai cike da ruwa wanda ya mamaye wasu yankuna na yankunan Amir, Oromia da Somalia, da kuma kudancin yankin Afar. A cewar Huntingford, a cikin ƙarni na 16 ana kiran kogin Awash babban kogin Dir kuma yana kwance a cikin ƙasar Musulmi.[1]

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar kwandon shara na Awash

Awash ya tashi kudu da Mount Warqe, yamma da Addis Ababa a yankin Dandi, kusa da garin Ginchi, Yammacin Shewa Zone, Oromia. Bayan sun shiga ƙasan Babban kwarin Rift, Awash yana kwarara kudu don zagaya Dutsen Zuqualla ta wata hanyar gabas zuwa can arewa maso gabas, kafin shiga ruwan Koka. A can, ana amfani da ruwa don ban-ruwa na gonakin rake fadamu. A can gefen ruwa, Awash din ya wuce garin Adama da kuma Filin shakatawa na Awash. Daga nan sai babban mai wadata, kogin Germama (ko Kasam) ya haɗa shi a bankin hagu, kafin ya juya zuwa arewa maso gabas da kimanin 11° N 40° 30'E har zuwa arewa zuwa 12° kafin a juya gabas gaba ɗaya don isa tafkin Gargori.

A cewar kayayyakin da Hukumar Kididdiga ta Tsakiya ta Habasha ta wallafa, Kogin Awash yana da tsayin kilomita 1200.[2] Frank Richardson Cana, a cikin Encyclopædia Britannica bugu na goma sha ɗaya labarin Abyssinia, ya bayyana ɓangarenta na tsakiya a matsayin "rafi mai zurfin gaske kusan ƙafa 200 [mita 61] faɗi da faɗi 4 ƙafa [mita 1.2] a lokacin rani, kuma yayin ambaliyar tana hawa 50 ko Ƙafa 60 [mita 15 ko 18] sama da alamar ƙaramin ruwa, don haka ambaliyar filayen na tsawon mil da yawa tare da bankunan biyu."[3]

Sauran rafuka na Awash sun haɗa da (cikin tsari zuwa sama): Logiya, Mille, Borkana, Ataye, Hawadi, Kabenna da Durkham Rivers. Garuruwa da birane tare da aikinta sun hada da Metehara, Awash, Gewane da Asaita.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin Awash a cikin Filin shakatawa na Awash

Mutane sun rayu a kwarin Awash kusan tun farkon halittar. Tsakanin Awash ya kasance inda aka samo yawancin abubuwan da ke jikin mutum.[4] Kwarin Awash daga kusan 9° N daga can ƙasa asalin gida ne na gargajiya na mutanen Afar da Issa.[5] An haɗa kwarin Awash a matsayin ɓangare na Fatagar, Ifat, da Shewa.[6]

Dam din Koka kafin a kammala shi a 1960

Bature na farko da ya gano hanyar Awash har zuwa ƙarshenta a cikin yankin Aussa shine Wilfred Thesiger a cikin 1933/1934, wanda ya fara daga garin Awash, ya bi tafkin har zuwa ƙarshensa na ƙarshe a Tafkin Abhebad, kuma ya cigaba da balaguronsa zuwa gabas zuwa Tadjoura. (Kodayake mai binciken L.M. Nesbitt ya bi wasu sassan hanyar Awash a 1928, sai ya juya baya daga kogin Asaita ya wuce arewa ta hanyar bakin ciki na Afar zuwa Bahar Maliya.)[7]

A cikin 1960, an kammala aikin Koka Dam a hayin Kogin Awash a wani wuri kusa da kilomita 75 daga Addis Ababa. Tare da buɗewa, ya zama babbar hanyar samar da wutar lantarki a yankin. Sakamakon tafkin ruwa mai kyau, Tabkin Gelila (wanda kuma aka sani da Ruwan Koka), yana da yanki kusan kilomita murabba'in 180. Dukkanin tabki da madatsar ruwa suna fuskantar barazana ta hanyar ƙara lalatattun abubuwa.

An sanyawa Bankin Awash na Bankin Duniya don Kogin Awash.

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayi na Basin Kogin Awash galibi ya rinjayi motsi na yankin haɗuwa tsakanin juna (ITCZ). A yayin motsinta zuwa arewa a cikin watan Maris zuwa Afrilu da komawa zuwa kudu, (ITCZ) ​​ya haifar da damuna biyu, mafi gajarta a watan Maris ('Belg'), da kuma wanda ya fi tsayi tsakanin Yuni da Satumba ('Kiremt'), wanda rabinsa ya fada daya lokacin damina. Lokacin-damina yakan zama kamar ruwa ne zuwa gabashin Habasha da kusan rashin daidaituwa zuwa yammacin Habasha. Lokaci tsakanin Oktoba zuwa Maris shine lokacin rani, ana kiransa 'Bega'.[8] Yanayin busassun bushewa zuwa yanayi mai ƙanƙumi a cikin Rift Valley. Sabanin haka, tsaunukan tsaunukan sama na sama sama da 1600 mm na ruwan sama a cikin ca. wata shida a shekara.[9]

Hydrology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauke ruwan da ke cikin ƙasa ya banbanta tsakanin ƙimomin da suka zarce 350mm a kowace shekara a cikin tsaunuka na sama kuma babu caji a ƙasan kwarin da ke ɓarke.[9][10] Yawanci ana sake maida ruwan karkashin ƙasa a cikin shinge da tsaunuka sama da 1900m al,[11] inda ruwan sama na shekara ya fi 1000mm.[10] Hakanan yakamata a sake yin ƙaramar siket na yanki a gefen ƙwanƙolin dutsen mai aman wuta.[11] Ruwan ƙasa na wucin gadi yana ɗaukar ƙarin wuri a gonakin ban ruwa a kwarin rift.[11] Saukewa daga asarar tashar kogi da kuma ta hanyar kutsawa daga tabkuna na taka rawa a cikin Babban Hawan Habasha (MER) da kudancin Afar.[10]

Ilimin Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin Kogin Awash wani ɓangare ne na gandun dajin Habasha wanda yake da ƙoshin lafiya. A tsaunukan tsaunuka na ƙasar Habasha masu dawa da dazuzzuka da ƙauyukan tsaunuka na Habasha sun fi yawa. Acasar daji ta Acacia-Commiphora da ke da ƙuri'a da ƙuraje suna da ƙarancin tsauni a cikin Rift.[12]

Ciyawar tankin yana da tasirin tasirin anthropogenic.[9] A duk saman Basin Awash na sama da tsakiyar, ragowar nau'ukan savanna daban har yanzu ana bayyane a sarari. Sun kasance daga savannas na ƙaya a cikin ɓarkewar ƙasa, daji, ciyawa da savannas buɗe sama da mita 800 da savannas na katako a kan raƙuman ruwa da tsaunuka. Da kyar da gandun daji ya kasance a cikin Kogin Awash, tare da 'yan kaɗan ban da ƙananan tsire-tsire na eucalyptus. A wajen filin shakatawa na Filin shakatawa na Awash da dazuzzuka kusan an gama noma su da albarkatu. Wannan yana da asusun musamman na duk hanyoyin tudu.[13] Ta haka murfin itacen da ya warwatse ya kasance daidai da yanayin asalin savannas, yayin da aka maye gurbin ciyawar da albarkatu. Tsayi mafi tsayi kawai har yanzu yana nuna gandun daji mai haɗe. An sake yin sake dashe a wani tsauni wanda ba za'a iya shuka shi ba tare da gandun daji na coniferous na biyu. Abubuwan da aka noma sune (cututtukan daji), masara, dawa, wake da kayan lambu.[13] Da wuya makiyaya suka kasance a inda ake noma. Shanun suna kiwo a gefen filin da hanyoyin gefen hanya da kan raƙuman raƙuman ruwa. Wannan babban dalili ne guda daya na zaizayar kasa, saboda rufe ciyayin wani bangare. Suttura-kiwo al'ada ce ta gama gari a cikin Tekin Awash.[14]

Fauna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasan kwarin Awash ɗayan ɗayan dabbobin daji ne na ƙarshe don ajiyar namun daji na Afirka. Dabba mai shayarwa yanzu ta mutu a Filin shakatawa na Yangudi Rassa, amma har yanzu ana samun ta a cikin Mile-Serdo Wild Ass Reserve.[15] Sauran manyan dabbobin da ke yankin sun hada da Beisa Oryx, Soemmering's barewa, Dorcas gazelle, gerenuk da zebra na Grevy.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. ʻArabfaqīh, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Qādir (2003-01-01). The conquest of Abyssinia: 16th century (in Turanci). Hollywood: Tsehai Publishers & Distributors. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-9723172-6-9.
  2. "Climate, 2008 National Statistics (Abstract)", Table A.1. Central Statistical Agency website (accessed 26 December 2009)
  3.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abyssinia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 84.
  4. Haile-Selassie, Yohannes (2001-07-12). "Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia". Nature (in Turanci). 412 (6843): 178–181. Bibcode:2001Natur.412..178H. doi:10.1038/35084063. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 11449272. S2CID 4432082.
  5. Markakis, John (2003). "Anatomy of a Conflict: Afar & Ise Ethiopia". Review of African Political Economy. 30 (97): 445–453. doi:10.1080/03056244.2003.9659777. ISSN 0305-6244. JSTOR 4006987. S2CID 153511308.
  6. Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopian Borderlands (Lawrenceville: Red Sea Press, 1997), p. 61
  7. As related in his memoirs, Hell-Hole of Creation: The Exploration of Abyssinian Danakil (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1935)
  8. Seleshi, Yilma; Zanke, Ulrich (2004-06-30). "Recent changes in rainfall and rainy days in Ethiopia". International Journal of Climatology (in Turanci). 24 (8): 973–983. Bibcode:2004IJCli..24..973S. doi:10.1002/joc.1052. ISSN 1097-0088.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Knoche, Malte; Fischer, Christian; Pohl, Eric; Krause, Peter; Merz, Ralf (2014). "Combined uncertainty of hydrological model complexity and satellite-based forcing data evaluated in two data-scarce semi-arid catchments in Ethiopia". Journal of Hydrology. 519: 2049–2066. Bibcode:2014JHyd..519.2049K. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.10.003.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Ayenew, Tenalem; Demlie, Molla; Wohnlich, Stefan (2008). "Hydrogeological framework and occurrence of groundwater in the Ethiopian aquifers". Journal of African Earth Sciences. 52 (3): 97–113. Bibcode:2008JAfES..52...97A. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2008.06.006.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Bretzler, Anja; Osenbrück, Karsten; Gloaguen, Richard; Ruprecht, Janina S.; Kebede, Seifu; Stadler, Susanne (2011). "Groundwater origin and flow dynamics in active rift systems – A multi-isotope approach in the Main Ethiopian Rift". Journal of Hydrology. 402 (3–4): 274–289. Bibcode:2011JHyd..402..274B. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.03.022.
  12. "The ecozones of the world. The ecological division of the geosphere". ResearchGate (in Turanci). Retrieved 2017-10-21.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Knoche, M. (2011): Hydrological Modelling of the Upper Awash Catchment (Main Ethiopian Rift). Master thesis, Technische Universität Freiberg, 2011, Freiberg, Germany
  14. Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Moeyersons, Jan; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef (2008-04-30). "Dynamics of soil erosion rates and controlling factors in the Northern Ethiopian Highlands – towards a sediment budget". Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (in Turanci). 33 (5): 695–711. Bibcode:2008ESPL...33..695N. doi:10.1002/esp.1569. hdl:1854/LU-416185. ISSN 1096-9837.
  15. Moehlman, P.D., Yohannes, H., Teclai, R. & Kebede, F. 2008. Equus africanus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 September 2011.