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Masanin gine-gine da zane

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Masanin gine-gine da zane
sana'a, corporate title (en) Fassara da sana'a
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na designer (en) Fassara da white-collar worker (en) Fassara
Field of this occupation (en) Fassara Karatun Gine-gine, ginawa, computational design (en) Fassara da building design (en) Fassara
Patron saint (en) Fassara Thomas the Apostle (en) Fassara, Saint Barbara (en) Fassara da Benedict of Nursia (en) Fassara
Uses (en) Fassara architectural terminology (en) Fassara
ISCO-08 occupation class (en) Fassara 2161
ISCO-88 occupation class (en) Fassara 2141

Masanin gine-gine shine mutumin da ke tsarawa da kuma kula da gine-gine.[1] Yin aikin gine-gine yana nufin samar da ayyuka dangane da ƙirar gine-gine da sararin da ke cikin rukunin da ke kewaye da gine-ginen da mutane ke zaune ko kuma amfani da su a matsayin babban manufarsu.[2] Etymologically, kalmar Architecture ta samo asali ne daga tsarin gine-ginen Latin,[3] wanda ya samo asali daga Hellenanci[4] ( arkhi-, chief + tekton, magini), watau babban magini.[5]

Masanin gine-gine da zane

Buƙatun ƙwararrun masu gine-gine sun bambanta daga wuri zuwa wuri. Hukunce-hukuncen gine-ginen suna shafar lafiyar jama'a, don haka dole ne maginin ya sami horo na musamman wanda ya ƙunshi ilimi[6] mai zurfi da ƙwarewa (ko horarwa) don ƙwarewar aiki don samun lasisin yin gine-gine. Aiki, fasaha, da kuma buƙatun ilimi don zama injiniyan gine-gine sun bambanta ta hanyar hurumi, kodayake nazarin gine-gine na yau da kullun a cibiyoyin ilimi ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen haɓaka sana'ar gaba ɗaya.

Asali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin tarihi na d ¯ a da na daɗaɗɗen, galibin ƙirar gine-gine da gine-ginen masu sana'a ne suka yi su—kamar mashin dutse da kafintoci, waɗanda suka kai matsayin ƙwararren magini. Har zuwa zamani, babu wani taƙamaiman bambanci tsakanin gine-gine da injiniya . A Turai, laƙabin gine-gine da injiniya sun kuma kasance da farko bambance-bambancen yanki waɗanda ke magana akan mutum ɗaya, galibi ana amfani da su tare.[7][8]

Ana girmama Filippo Brunelleschi a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin mafi ƙirƙira da hazaka a tarihi.

An ba da shawarar cewa ci gaba daban-daban a fasaha da lissafi sun ba da damar haɓakar ƙwararru za ta ba da shawarar. Ba a yi amfani da takarda ba a Turai don zane har zuwa ƙarni na 15 amma ya zama mai girma bayan 1500. An kuma yi amfani da fensir sau da yawa don zana ta 1600. Samuwar duka biyun da aka ba da izinin yin zane-zanen da aka riga aka yi da ƙwararru.[9] A lokaci guda, gabatar da hangen nesa na layi da sabbin abubuwa kamar yin amfani da tsinkaye daban-daban don kwatanta ginin mai girma uku a cikin nau'i biyu, tare da ƙarin fahimtar daidaiton ƙima, ya taimaka wa masu zanen gini sadarwa ra'ayoyinsu.[10] duk da haka, ci gaban ya kasance a hankali. Har zuwa katrni na 18, gine-gine sun ci gaba da tsarawa da tsara su ta hanyar masu sana'a ban da manyan ayyuka.[11]

Gine-gine[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A yawancin ƙasashe masu tasowa, kawai waɗanda suka cancanta da lasisi masu dacewa, takaddun shaida, ko rajista tare da ƙungiyar da ta dace (sau da yawa na gwamnati) na iya yin aikin gine-gine bisa doka. Irin wannan lasisi yawanci yana buƙatar digiri na jami'a, nasarar kammala, da lokacin horo. Wakilin kansa a matsayin mai zane-zane ta hanyar amfani da sharuɗɗa da lakabi an iyakance shi ga masu lasisi ta doka, kodayake gaba ɗaya, abubuwan da aka samo asali kamar masu zanen gine-gine ba su da kariya ta doka.

Yin aiki da gine-gine yana nuna ikon yin aiki ba tare da kulawa ba. Kalmar (ƙwararriyar ƙira), ta bambanta, lokaci ne mai faɗi da yawa wanda ya haɗa da ƙwararrun waɗanda ke yin aikin kansu a ƙarƙashin wata madaidaicin sana'a, kamar ƙwararrun injiniya, ko waɗanda ke taimakawa a cikin aikin gine-gine a ƙarƙashin kulawar mai lasisi. gine-gine irin su masu aikin gine-gine . A wurare da yawa, masu zaman kansu, waɗanda ba su da lasisi na iya yin ayyukan ƙira a waje da hani na ƙwararru, irin waɗannan gidaje masu ƙira da sauran ƙananan sifofi.

Yi aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin sana'a na gine-gine, ilimin fasaha da muhalli, tsarawa da sarrafa gine-gine, da fahimtar kasuwanci suna da mahimmanci kamar zane. Duk da haka kuma, ƙirar ita ce ƙarfin motsa jiki a cikin aikin da kuma bayan. Masanin gine-gine yana karɓar kwamiti daga abokin ciniki. Kwamitin na iya haɗawa da shirya rahotannin yuwuwar, binciken ginin gini, ƙirar gini ko na gine-gine da yawa, gine-gine, da sarari a tsakaninsu. Mai ginin gine-gine yana shiga cikin haɓaka abubuwan da abokin ciniki ke so a cikin ginin. Duk cikin aikin (shirin zama), mai ginin gine-gine yana daidaita ƙungiyar ƙira. Tsarin, injiniyoyi, da injiniyoyin lantarki da sauran ƙwararrun abokin ciniki ne ko maginin gini ke ɗaukar hayar, waɗanda dole ne su tabbatar da cewa an daidaita aikin don gina ƙirar.

Matsayin ƙira[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mai ginin gine-gine, da zarar abokin ciniki ya yi hayar, yana da alhakin ƙirƙirar ra'ayi na ƙira wanda duka biyun suka dace da buƙatun waccan abokin ciniki kuma suna ba da wurin da ya dace da amfanin da ake buƙata. Dole ne mai zane ya sadu da, kuma yayi tambaya, abokin ciniki don tabbatar da duk buƙatun (da nuances) na aikin da aka tsara.

Sau da yawa cikakken taƙaitaccen bayani ba a bayyana gaba ɗaya ba a farkon: yana haifar da ƙimar haɗari a cikin aikin ƙira. Mai zane na iya yin shawarwari da wuri ga abokin ciniki, wanda zai iya sake yin aiki da ainihin sharuɗɗan taƙaitaccen bayani. "Shirin" (ko taƙaitaccen) yana da mahimmanci don samar da aikin da ya dace da duk buƙatun mai shi. Wannan to jagora ce ga mai ginin gine-gine a ƙirƙirar tunanin ƙira.

Gaba ɗaya ana kuma sa ran shawarwarin ƙira su zama na hasashe da kuma na zahiri. Ya danganta da wurin, lokaci, kuɗi, al'adu, da kuma samar da sana'o'i da fasahar da za a yi zane a ciki, madaidaicin iyaka da yanayin waɗannan tsammanin za su bambanta.

Haskaka wa wani abu ne da ake buƙata domin zayyana gine-gine wani aiki ne mai sarƙaƙiya da buƙatar aiki.

Duk wani ra'ayi na ƙira dole ne a farkon matakin tsararrakinsa ya yi la'akari da adadi mai yawa na batutuwa da masu canji waɗanda suka haɗa da halayen sarari (s), [12] ƙarshen amfani da tsarin rayuwa na waɗannan wuraren da aka tsara, haɗin gwiwa, alaƙa, da kuma al'amurran da ke tsakanin wurare ciki har da yadda aka haɗa su tare da tasirin shawarwari a kan kusa da wuri mai faɗi. Zaɓin kayan da suka dace da fasaha dole ne a yi la'akari da su, gwadawa da sake dubawa a matakin farko a cikin ƙira don tabbatar da cewa babu koma baya (kamar farashin da aka fi tsammani) wanda zai iya faruwa daga baya. Wurin da kewayensa, da al'adu da tarihin wurin, suma za su yi tasiri wajen zayyana. Zane kuma dole ne ya fuskanci ƙara damuwa tare da ɗorewar muhalli. Mai ginin gine-gine na iya gabatar da ( gangan ko a'a), zuwa mafi girma ko ƙarami, fannonin ilimin lissafi da gine-gine, sabon ko ƙa'idar gine-gine na yanzu, ko nassoshi ga tarihin gine-gine .

Wani muhimmin sashi na zane shi ne cewa mai zanen sau da yawa yana yin shawarwari tare da injiniyoyi, masu bincike da sauran ƙwararru a duk lokacin da aka tsara, tabbatar da cewa an haɗa nau'o'i irin su kayan tallafi na tsarin da abubuwan kwantar da hankali a cikin tsarin gaba ɗaya. Sarrafa da tsara farashin gini kuma wani ɓangare ne na waɗannan shawarwari. Haɗin kai na nau'o'in daban-daban ya haɗa da babban matsayi na sadarwa na musamman, ciki har da fasahar kwamfuta mai ci gaba kamar BIM ( ginin bayanan gini ), CAD, da fasahar tushen girgije.

A kowane lokaci a cikin ƙira, mai ƙirar yana ba da rahoto ga abokin ciniki wanda zai iya samun ajiyar kuɗi ko shawarwari, yana gabatar da ƙarin canji a cikin ƙira.

Masu ginin gine-gine suna huɗɗa da hukunce-hukuncen gida da na tarayya game da ƙa'idodi da ƙa'idojin gini . Mai tsara gine-ginen na iya buƙatar bin dokokin tsare-tsare na gida da na yanki, kamar koma baya da ake buƙata, iyakokin tsayi, buƙatun ajiye motoci, buƙatun bayyana gaskiya (windows), da kuma amfani da ƙasa . Wasu kafaffen hukunce-hukuncen suna buƙatar riko da ƙira da ƙa'idodin kiyaye tarihi . Haɗarin lafiya da aminci sun zama muhimmin ɓangare na ƙira na yanzu, kuma a yawancin hukunce-hukuncen, ana buƙatar rahotannin ƙira da bayanan da suka haɗa da abubuwan da ke gudana kamar kayan aiki da gurɓatawa, sarrafa sharar gida da sake yin amfani da su, sarrafa zirga-zirga da amincin gobara.

Hanyar ƙira[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A baya can, masu gine-gine sun yi amfani da zane-zane don nunawa da samar da shawarwarin ƙira. Duk da yake har yanzu ana amfani da zane-zanen ra'ayi ta hanyar gine-gine, fasahar kwamfuta yanzu ta zama ma'aunin masana'antu. Koyaya, ƙira na iya haɗawa da amfani da hotuna, haɗin gwiwa, kwafi, linocuts, fasahar sikanin 3D da sauran kafofin watsa labarai a cikin samar da ƙira. Ƙarawa, software na kwamfuta yana tsara yadda masu gine-gine ke aiki. Fasahar BIM ta ba da damar ƙirƙirar gini mai kama-da-wani wanda ke aiki a zaman bayanan don raba ƙira da bayanan gini a duk tsawon rayuwar ƙirar ginin, gini da kiyaye wa. Abubuwan gabatarwa na gaskiya (VR) suna zama ruwan dare gama gari don ganin ƙirar tsari da sarari na ciki daga hangen nesa.

Matsayin muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda gine-gine na yanzu an san su zama masu fitar da carbon zuwa sararin samaniya, ana ƙara sarrafawa akan gine-gine da fasaha masu dangantaka don rage hayaƙi, ƙara ƙarfin makamashi, da kuma yin amfani da makamashi mai sabunta wa. Za'a iya haɓaka hanyoyin makamashi masu sabunta wa a cikin ginin da aka tsara ko ta gida ko na ƙasa masu samar da makamashi mai sabuntawa. Sakamakon haka, ana buƙatar mai ginin gine-ginen ya ci gaba da bin ƙa'idodi na yanzu waɗanda ke ci gaba da tsanantawa. Wasu sabbin ci gaba suna nuna ƙarancin amfani da makamashi ko ƙirar ginin hasken rana . Koyaya, ana kuma ƙara buƙatar mai ƙirar don samar da yunƙuri a cikin ma'anar muhalli mai faɗi, kamar samar da sufuri mai ƙarancin kuzari, hasken rana na yanayi maimakon hasken wucin gadi, samun iska na yanayi maimakon kwandishan, gurɓatawa, da sarrafa sharar gida, amfani da sake yin fa'ida. kayan aiki da kayan aikin da za'a iya sake sarrafa su cikin sauƙi a nan gaba.

Matsayin gini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin da kuma zane ya zama mafi ci gaba da cikakkun bayanai, ƙayyadaddun bayanai da ƙididdiga an yi su ne daga dukkan abubuwa da sassan ginin. Dabarun samar da gine-gine suna ci gaba da ci gaba wanda ke ba da buƙata ga mai ginin don tabbatar da cewa ya ci gaba da kasancewa tare da waɗannan ci gaban.

Ya danganta da buƙatun abokin ciniki da buƙatun hukunce-hukuncen, bakan hidimomin gine-ginen yayin matakan gini na iya zama mai faɗi (cikakkun shirye-shiryen daftarin aiki da bitar gini) ko ƙasa da hannu (kamar ƙyale ɗan kwangila ya aiwatar da ayyuka na ƙira masu yawa).

Masu ginin gine-gine yawanci suna sanya ayyuka don bayar da tallafi a madadin abokan cinikin su, suna ba da shawara kan bayar da aikin ga babban ɗan kwangila, sauƙaƙe sannan kuma gudanar da kwangilar yarjejeniya wacce galibi ke tsakanin abokin ciniki da ɗan kwangila. Wannan kwangilar tana aiki bisa doka kuma ta ƙunshi nau'o'i daban-daban waɗanda suka haɗa da inshora da Alƙawuran duk masu ruwa da tsaki, matsayin takaddun ƙira, tanade-tanade don samun damar gine-gine, da hanyoyin sarrafa ayyukan yayin da suke ci gaba. Dangane da nau'in kwangilar da aka yi amfani da shi, ana iya buƙatar tanadi don ƙarin ƙaramin kwangila. Mai ginin gine-ginen na iya buƙatar cewa wasu abubuwa sun rufe da garanti wanda ke ƙayyadaddun rayuwar da ake tsammani da sauran ɓangarori na kayan, samfur ko aiki.

A mafi yawan hukunce-hukuncen, dole ne a ba da sanarwar kafin a fara aiki a wurin, don haka ba da sanarwar ƙaramar hukumar don gudanar da bincike mai zaman kansa. Mai zanen zai sake duba tare da duba ci gaban aikin tare da haɗin gwiwar ƙaramar hukuma.

Mai ginin gine-ginen zai yawanci duba zane-zanen ƴan kwangilar da sauran abubuwan ƙaddamarwa, shirya da ba da umarnin rukunin yanar gizon, da kuma ba da Takaddun shaida don Biyan kuɗi ga ɗan kwangila (duba kuma Design-bid-build ) wanda ya dogara da aikin da aka yi har zuwa yau da kuma kowane kayan sauran kayan da aka saya ko haya. A cikin Burtaniya da sauran ƙasashe, mai binciken adadi galibi yana cikin ƙungiyar don ba da shawarwari kan farashi. Tare da manya-manyan ayyuka masu sarƙaƙƙiya, ana ɗaukar manajan gini mai zaman kansa wani lokaci don taimakawa wajen ƙira da sarrafa gini.

A cikin hukunce-hukuncen da yawa, ana buƙatar takaddun shaida ko tabbacin kammala aikin ko ɓangaren ayyuka. Wannan buƙatar takaddun shaida ya ƙunshi babban haɗari - don haka, ana buƙatar duba aikin yau da kullun yayin da yake ci gaba a kan wurin don tabbatar da cewa ya dace da ƙirar kanta da kuma duk ƙa'idodi da izini masu dacewa.

Madadin yin aiki da ƙwarewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shekarun baya-bayan nan sun ga hauhawar ƙwararru a cikin sana'ar. Yawancin gine-ginen gine-gine da kamfanonin gine-gine suna mayar da hankali kan wasu nau'ikan ayyuka (misali, kiwon lafiya, dillalan, gidajen jama'a, gudanar da taron), ƙwarewar fasaha ko hanyoyin isar da ayyuka. Wasu gine-ginen sun ƙware kamar lambar gini, ambulaf ɗin gini, ƙira mai dorewa, rubutun fasaha, adana tarihi (US) ko kiyaye wa (Birtaniya), samun dama da sauran nau'ikan masu ba da shawara.

Mutane da yawa gine-gine zažužžukan don matsawa zuwa cikin dukiya (dukiya) ci gaban, kamfanoni kayayyakin tsare-tsare, aikin management, gini management, shugaban dorewa jami'an zane na ciki, birnin tsarawa, mai amfani gwaninta zane, zane bincike ko wasu related filayen.

Buƙatun ƙwararru[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kodayake akwai bambance-bambance daga wuri zuwa wuri, ana buƙatar yawancin masu gine-ginen duniya su yi rajista tare da ikon da ya dace. Don yin haka, ana buƙatar masu gine-gine yawanci don biyan buƙatu guda uku: ilimi, ƙwarewa, da jarrabawa.

Buƙatun ilimi gaba ɗaya sun ƙunshi digiri na jami'a a fannin gine-gine. Abubuwan da ake buƙata na ƙwarewa don masu neman digiri yawanci suna gamsuwa ta hanyar aiki ko horo (yawanci shekaru biyu zuwa uku, dangane da ikon). A ƙarshe, ana buƙatar Jarabawar Rijista ko jerin jarrabawa kafin a ba da lasisi.

Ƙwararrun da suka tsunduma cikin ƙira da lura da ayyukan gine-gine kafin ƙarshen ƙarni na 19 ba lallai ba ne su sami horo a cikin wani tsarin gine-gine na daban a fagen ilimi. Maimakon haka, sau da yawa suna horarwa a ƙarƙashin kafafan gine-gine. Kafin zamanin nan, babu bambanci tsakanin masu gine-gine da injiniyoyi kuma sunan da ake amfani da shi ya Kuma bambanta dangane da wurin da ake ciki. Sau da yawa suna ɗauke da laƙabin babban magini ko na safiyo[ana buƙatar hujja] bayan yin hidima na shekaru masu yawa a matsayin koyo (kamar Sir Christopher Wren ). Nazarin gine-gine na yau da kullun a cibiyoyin ilimi ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen bunkasa sana'ar gaba daya, wanda ya zama babban jigon ci gaban fasahar gine-gine da ƙa'idar.

Amfani da "Architect" ko gajarta kamar "Ar." kamar yadda doka ke tsara take da sunan mutum a wasu ƙasashe.

Kuɗaɗe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin kuɗin gine-gine yawanci ya dogara ne akan adadin ƙimar gini, azaman ƙimar kowane yanki na ginin da aka tsara, ƙimar sa'o'i ko ƙayyadadden kuɗin dunƙule. Haɗuwa da waɗannan sifofin su ma na kowa ne. Kafafen kuɗaɗe yawanci ana dogara ne akan kuɗin da aka keɓe na aikin kuma suna iya bambanta tsakanin kashi 4 zuwa 12% na sabon kuɗin gini, don ayyukan kasuwanci da na hukumomi, ya danganta da girman aikin da ƙaƙƙarfan aikin. Ayyukan mazaunin sun bambanta daga 12 zuwa 20%. Ayyukan gyare-gyare yawanci suna ba da umarni mafi girma bisa ɗari, wanda ya kai 15-20%.

Gaba ɗaya lissafin kuɗi na kamfanonin gine-gine sun yi yawa, ya danganta da wuri da yanayin tattalin arziki. Lissafin kuɗi sun dogara ne akan yanayin tattalin arzikin gida a al'ada amma, tare da saurin haɗin gwiwar duniya, wannan yana zama ƙasa da wani abu ga manyan kamfanoni na duniya. Albashi kuma ya bambanta, dangane da gogewa, matsayi a cikin kamfani (ginin ma'aikata, abokin tarayya, ko mai hannun jari, da sauransu), da girman da wurin kamfanin.

Ƙungiyoyin sana'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyoyin ƙwararrun ƙasa sun wanzu don haɓaka aiki da haɓaka kasuwanci a cikin gine-gine.

  • Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Ƙwararru ta Duniya (UIA)
  • Cibiyar Nazarin Gine-gine ta Amurka (AIA) Amurka
  • Cibiyar Sarauta ta Masarautar Biritaniya (RIBA) UK
  • Hukumar Rajista ta Architects (ARB) UK
  • Cibiyar Gine-gine ta Australiya (AIA) Australia
  • Cibiyar Nazarin Gine-gine ta Afirka ta Kudu (SAIA) Afirka ta Kudu
  • Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun (ACA) Birtaniya [13]
  • Ƙungiyar Masu Gine-gine masu lasisi (ALA) Amurka
  • The Consejo Profesional de Arquitectura y Urbanismo (CPAU) Argentina
  • Cibiyar Gine-gine ta Indiya (IIA) & Majalisar Gine-gine (COA) Indiya
  • Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun ta Ƙasa (NOMA) Amurka [14]

Kyaututtuka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bikin lambar yabo ta Aga Khan na 2019 don Architecture, yana ba da lambar yabo ga Cibiyar Ilimi ta Arcadia

Ƙungiyoyin ƙwararrun ƙasa da sauran ƙungiyoyi ne ke ba da kyautuka iri-iri, tare da sanin ƙwararrun masu gine-gine, gine-ginensu, tsarinsu, da ayyukan ƙwararru.

Kyautar da ta fi dacewa da mai ginin gine-ginen zai iya samu ita ce lambar yabo ta Pritzker, wani lokaci ana kiranta " Kyautar Nobel don gine-gine." Wanda ya lashe lambar yabo ta Pritzker shine Philip Johnson wanda aka ambata "tsawon shekaru 50 na tunani da kuzari wanda ya ƙunshi ɗimbin gidajen tarihi, dakunan karatu na wasan kwaikwayo, gidajen lambuna da tsarin kamfanoni". An ba da lambar yabo ta Pritzker na bugu arba'in da biyu kai tsaye ba tare da katsewa ba, kuma a yanzu akwai ƙasashe 22 da ke da aƙalla na gine-gine guda ɗaya. Sauran lambobin yabo na gine-gine masu daraja sune lambar yabo ta Royal Gold, Medal na AIA (Amurka), Medal na Zinare na AIA (Ostiraliya), da Praemium Imperiale .

Masanan gine-gine a Burtaniya, wadanda suka ba da gudummawa ga wannan sana'a ta hanyar ƙwararrun ƙira ko ilimin gine-gine, ko kuma ta wata hanya ta ci gaba da sana'ar, har zuwa 1971 za a iya zaɓar su ƴan uwan Royal Institute of British Architects kuma za su iya rubuta FRIBA bayan sunansu idan suna jin karkata. Wadanda aka zaba don zama memba na RIBA bayan 1971 suna iya amfani da baƙaƙen RIBA amma ba za su iya amfani da tsohuwar ARIBA da FRIBA ba. Abokin girmamawa na iya amfani da baƙaƙen, Hon. FRIBA. kuma Fellow na Ƙasashen Duniya na iya amfani da baƙaƙen Int. FRIBA. Masu gine-gine a Amurka, waɗanda suka ba da gudummawa ga sana'ar ta hanyar ƙwararrun ƙira ko ilimin gine-gine, ko kuma ta wata hanya ta ci gaba da sana'ar, an zaɓe su Fellows na Cibiyar Nazarin Gine-gine ta Amurka kuma za su iya rubuta FAIA bayan sunansu. Masu gine-gine a Kanada, waɗanda suka ba da gudummawa mai mahimmanci ga sana'a ta hanyar bayar da gudummawa ga bincike, malanta, sabis na jama'a, ko ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun gine-gine a Kanada, ko kuma wani wuri, ana iya gane su a matsayin Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada . za su iya rubuta FRAIC bayan sunansu. A Hong Kong, wadanda aka zaba don zama memba na HKIA na iya amfani da HKIA ta farko, kuma waɗanda suka ba da gudummawa ta musamman bayan nadi da kuma zaɓen Cibiyar Nazarin Gine-gine ta Hong Kong (HKIA), za a iya zabar su a matsayin ƴan uwan HKIA kuma suna iya amfani da FHKIA. bayan sunansu.

Masu gine-gine a Philippines da Filipino al'ummomin kasashen waje (ko su Filipinos ne ko a'a), musamman ma wadanda kuma suke da'awar wasu ayyuka a lokaci guda, ana magana da su kuma an gabatar da su azaman Architect, maimakon Sir / Madam a cikin magana ko Mr./Mrs. /Ms. ( G./Gng. /Bb. in Filipino) kafin surnames. Ana amfani da wannan kalmar ko dai a cikin kanta ko kafin sunan da aka bayar ko sunan mahaifi.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. https://build.com.au/whats-difference-between-architect-and-building-designer
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20110721200353/http://www.gov.ns.ca/legislature/legc/bills/60th_1st/3rd_read/b115.htm
  3. https://www.archdaily.com/898648/etymology-in-architecture-tracing-the-language-of-design-to-its-roots
  4. https://www.nedesignbuild.com/meaning-of-architect/
  5. https://www.etymonline.com/word/architect
  6. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttqm2?turn_away=true
  7. https://books.google.com.ng/books?id=VQYeHMGp2gwC&q=The+Architecture+of+the+Italian+Renaissance&redir_esc=y
  8. Jacob Burckhardt; Peter Murray (art historian). Missing |author2= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. https://totallyhistory.com/filippo-brunelleschi/
  10. https://books.google.com.ng/books?id=GZhiGQAACAAJ&redir_esc=y
  11. https://books.google.com.ng/books?id=GZhiGQAACAAJ&redir_esc=y
  12. Empty citation (help)
  13. Association of Consultant Architects
  14. National Organization of Minority Architects