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Masarautar Aksum

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Masarautar Aksum


Wuri
Map
 14°07′42″N 38°43′02″E / 14.1283969°N 38.7172569°E / 14.1283969; 38.7172569

Babban birni Axum (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Addini Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (en) Fassara, Musulunci da Yahudanci
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. 4 century "BCE"
Rushewa <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. 960
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati feudal monarchy (en) Fassara da Sarauta
Ikonomi
Kuɗi Aksumite currency (en) Fassara
Masarautar Aksum
Samfuri:Native name


Wuri
Map
 14°07′42″N 38°43′02″E / 14.1283969°N 38.7172569°E / 14.1283969; 38.7172569

Babban birni Axum (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Addini Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (en) Fassara, Musulunci da Yahudanci
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. 4 century "BCE"
Rushewa <abbr title="Circa (en) Fassara">c. 960
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati feudal monarchy (en) Fassara da Sarauta
Ikonomi
Kuɗi Aksumite currency (en) Fassara

Masarautar Aksum (Ge'ez, Mängəśtä ʾäksum ), wacce kuma aka sani da Masarautar Axum ko daular Aksumite, masarauta ce da ta ke a arewa maso gabashin Afirka da Larabawa ta Kudu tun daga zamanin da har zuwa tsakiyar zamanai. An samo asalinta ne a yankin da ke arewacin Habasha a yanzu, kuma ta mamaye Eritriya ta zamani, arewacin Djibouti, da gabashin Sudan, ta yi tsayin daka har zuwa yawancin kudancin Larabawa na zamani a zamanin Sarki Kaleb.

Axum ta kasance babban birnin masarautar a tsawon ƙarni da yawa amma ta ƙaura zuwa Jarma a cikin ƙarni na 9 saboda raguwar haɗin gwiwar kasuwanci da mamayewar waje da ke ci gaba da faruwa. [1] Fitowa daga wayewar D'mt na farko, da alama an kafa masarautar a farkon karni na 1st. Al'adun Pre-Aksumite sun haɓaka a wani ɓangare saboda tasirin Larabawa ta Kudu, bayyananne a cikin amfani da rubutun Larabawa ta Kudu ta ancient da kuma ayyukan addinin Semitic na ancient. Koyaya, rubutun Geʽez an fara amfani da shi a karni na 4, kuma yayin da masarautar ta zama mai babban iko ta hanyar kasuwanci tsakanin Roma da Indiya, ta shiga cikin al'adun Greco-Roman kuma ta fara amfani da Girkanci azaman yare. Ta haka ne Masarautar Aksum ta dauki addinin Kiristanci a matsayin addinin kasa a tsakiyar karni na 4, karkashin Ezana na Axum. Bayan addinin Kiristanci, Aksumiyawa sun daina gina sulke. [2]

Ana kuma ɗaukar Masarautar Aksum daya daga cikin manya manyan kasashe hudu na duniya a karni na 3 ta hannun annabin Farisa Mani, tare da Farisa, Roma, da China. Tun daga mulkin Endubis, Aksum ya haƙa nasa tsabar kudi, waɗanda aka tono a wurare har zuwa Kaisariya da kudancin Indiya. [3] Masarautar ta ci gaba da faɗaɗa cikin ƙarshen zamanin da, inda ta ci Meroe na ɗan lokaci kaɗan, wanda daga gare shi ta gaji kalmar Helenanci "Habasha". Mallakar Aksumite a Tekun Bahar Maliya ya ƙare a zamanin Kaleb na Axum, wanda bisa ga umarnin daular Byzantine Justin I, ya mamaye daular Himyarite a Yaman don kawo ƙarshen tsananta wa Kiristoci da Sarkin Yahudawa Dhu Nuwas ya yi. Tare da mamaye Himyar, Masarautar Aksum tana kan iyakarta mafi girma. Koyaya, an rasa yankin a yaƙe-yaƙe na Aksumite da Farisa.

An fara ganin raguwar daular a hankali tun karni na 7, inda aka daina hako kudin waje. Kasancewar Farisa (da kuma musulmi daga baya) a cikin Bahar Maliya ya sa Aksum ya sha wahala ta fuskar tattalin arziki, kuma yawan mutanen birnin Axum ya ragu. Tare da abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli da na ciki, an nuna hakan a matsayin dalilin raguwar ta. Ana ɗaukar ƙarni uku na ƙarshe na Aksum a matsayin duhu, kuma ta hanyar yanayi mara tabbas, masarautar ta rushe a kusan shekaru 960.[4] Duk da matsayinta na ɗaya daga cikin manyan masarautu na ƙarshen zamanin da, Masarautar Aksum ta faɗi cikin duhu yayin da Habasha ta kasance saniyar ware a cikin tsakiyar zamanai.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Axumite tulu

Asali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kafin kafuwar Axum, yankin Tigray na arewacin Habasha gida ne ga wata masarauta da aka sani da D'mt . Shaidun archaeological sun nuna cewa Saba'awa ne daga Yaman ta zamani suka rinjayi masarautar; Ijma’in malamai a baya ya kasance cewa ‘yan Saba’a su ne suka kafa wayewar Semitic a Habasha, ko da yake yanzu an karyata hakan, kuma ana ganin tasirinsu a matsayin karami. Kasancewar Sabaean mai yiwuwa ya kasance na tsawon shekaru da yawa, amma tasirin su akan wayewar Aksumite daga baya ya haɗa da ɗaukar rubutun tsohuwar Larabawa ta Kudu, wanda ya haɓaka zuwa rubutun Geʽez, da addinin Semitic na tsohuwar Semitic.

Sarki Ezana's Stela, Obelisk Aksumite a Axum, Habasha

Na farko tarihin ambaton Axum ya fito ne daga Periplus na Tekun Erythraean, jagorar ciniki wanda wataƙila ya kasance a tsakiyar karni na 1 AD. An ambaci Axum tare da Adulis da Ptolemais na farauta kamar yadda yake kwance a cikin daular Zoskales. An bayyana yankin a matsayin farkon samar da hauren giwa, da kuma harsashi na kunkuru. Har ila yau, an ce Zoskales ya kasance "ya san wallafe-wallafen Girkanci", wanda ke nuna cewa tasirin Greco-Roman ya riga ya kasance a wannan lokacin.[5] A bayyane yake daga Periplus cewa, ko da a farkon tarihinsa, Axum ya taka rawa a cikin hanyar kasuwanci tsakanin Rome da Indiya.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

1907 sake buga zanen da aka lalata na Zanen Sarakuna Shida wanda ke nuna Sarkin Habasha na Axum, wanda mai zanen Halifancin Umayyad ya kirkira a karni na 8 AD.
Dutsen Ezana ya ba da labarin yadda Ezana ta tuba zuwa Kiristanci da kuma tauye hakkinsa na mutane daban-daban a kusa, ciki har da Meroë .
Axumite Menhir in Balaw Kalaw (Metera) kusa da Senafe
Taswirar hannun jarin Axumite a Kudancin Arabiya, 230 AD
  1. "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century". Fordham University Internet History Sourcebooks, chapters 4 and 5.Empty citation (help)
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Phillipson48
  3. "Snowden Lectures: Stanley Burstein, When Greek was an African Language". The Center for Hellenic Studies. 2020-11-02. Retrieved 2022-02-23.Empty citation (help)
  4. Turchin, Peter and Jonathan M. Adams and Thomas D. Hall: "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires and Modern States", p. 222. Journal of World-Systems Research, Vol. XII, No. II, 2006
  5. Munro-Hay, Stuart (1991). Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0748601066.