Matsalar Yanayi

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Logo na Kwamitin Zaɓar Majalisar Dokokin Amurka kan Rikicin Yanayi (samuwar da aka ba da izini 9 ga Janairu, 2019).[1] Kwamitin sauyin yanayi na asali (wanda aka kafa a cikin 2007), wanda ake kira Kwamitin Zaɓar Ƙwararrun Makamashi da ɗumamar Duniya,[2] an soke shi lokacin da ƴan jam'iyyar Republican suka sake samun ikon majalisar a 2011.[3]

Matsalar yanayi kalma ce da ke bayyana ɗumamar yanayi da sauyin yanayi, da tasirinsu ga muhalli.

An yi amfani da kalmar don bayyana barazanar ɗumamar yanayi ga duniya, da kuma yin kira da a daƙile sauyin yanayi mai tsanani.[2][4][3][5]

Misali, a cikin mujallar BioScience, labarin Janairu 2020, wanda masana kimiyya sama da 11,000 a duk duniya suka amince da shi, ya bayyana cewa "rikicin yanayi ya zo" kuma "ana bukatar karuwar ma'auni a kokarin da ake yi na kiyaye halittunmu don guje wa wahala da ba za a iya samu ba. ga rikicin yanayi."[6][7]

Waɗanda suka yi imani da wannan kalmar tana haifar da tsananin barazanar da duniya ke fuskanta daga ci gaba da fitar da hayaƙi mai gurbata yanayi kuma za ta iya taimakawa wajen zaburar da irin yunƙurin siyasa da aka daɗe ba a ba da shawarar yanayi ba.[2] Sun yi imanin cewa, kamar yadda "ɗumamar yanayi" ta haifar da haɗin kai da goyon baya ga aiki fiye da "canjin yanayi",[2][8][9] calling climate change a crisis could have an even stronger impact.[2] kiran canjin yanayi rikicin na iya yin tasiri mai ƙarfi.

Wani bincike ya nuna cewa kalmar tana yin kira da amsa mai ƙarfi ta motsin rai wajen isar da ma'anar gaggawa,[10] amma wasu taka tsantsan cewa wannan martanin na iya zama mara amfani, kuma yana iya haifar da sakamako na koma baya saboda hasashe na masu faɗakarwa. karin gishiri.[11] and may cause a backlash effect due to perceptions of alarmist exaggeration.[12][13]

Tushen kimiyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin da aka daɗe ana amfani da harshe mai ƙarfi wajen bayar da shawarwari, siyasa da kafofin watsa labaru, har zuwa ƙarshen shekarun 2010 al'ummar kimiyya a al'adance sun kasance cikin takurawa cikin harshensu. Koyaya, a cikin sanarwar Nuwamba 2019 da aka buga a cikin Janairu 2020 na mujallar kimiyyar BioScience , ƙungiyar sama da masana kimiyya 11,000 sun yi iƙirarin cewa kwatanta ɗumamar yanayi a matsayin gaggawar yanayi ko rikicin yanayi ya dace. Masanan kimiyya sun bayyana cewa ana buƙatar "ƙaramar haɓakar sikelin a cikin ƙoƙarin" don adana biosphere, amma an lura da "alamun daɗaɗɗa masu ban tsoro" gami da ci gaba da haɓaka yawan dabbobi, samar da nama, asarar murfin itace, amfani da mai, jigilar iska, da CO 2 fitar da hayaƙi-a lokaci guda tare da haɓakar haɓakawa a cikin tasirin yanayi kamar hauhawar yanayin zafi, narkewar ƙanƙara ta duniya, da matsanancin yanayi.

Hakanan a cikin Nuwamba 2019, wata kasida da aka buga a cikin Nature ta ƙaddamar da cewa shaida daga wuraren da ke nuna yanayin yanayi kaɗai ya nuna cewa "muna cikin yanayin gaggawa na duniya", yana bayyana gaggawa a matsayin samfur na haɗari da gaggawa, tare da abubuwan biyun da aka yanke hukuncin zama "m" . Labarin Yanayi ya yi nuni da Rahotannin Musamman na IPCC na baya-bayan nan (2018, 2019) wanda ke ba da shawarar za a iya ƙetare maki kai tsaye na kowane mutum tare da kaɗan kamar 1-2. °C na matsakaicin ɗumamar yanayi (dumamar yanayi na yanzu shine ~1 °C), tare da ɗimbin ɓangarorin duniya na maki mai yiwuwa tare da ɗumamar ɗumama.

Ma'anoni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin yanayin sauyin yanayi, Pierre Mukheibir, Farfesa na Water Futures a Jami'ar Fasaha ta Sydney, ya bayyana cewa kalmar rikici "mahimmanci ne ko yanke shawara ko yanayi da zai iya haifar da wani batu ," wanda ya shafi "al'amuran da ba a taba gani ba. ." Ma'anar ƙamus ta ce "rikici" a cikin wannan mahallin yana nufin "lokacin juyi ko yanayin rashin kwanciyar hankali ko haɗari," kuma yana nuna cewa "yana buƙatar ɗaukar mataki a yanzu in ba haka ba sakamakon zai zama bala'i." Wata ma’anar kuma ta bambanta kalmar daga ɗumamar yanayi da sauyin yanayi sannan kuma ta bayyana rikicin yanayi a matsayin “abubuwa iri-iri da sauyin yanayi mara kyau ke haifarwa ko barazana ga wannan duniyar tamu, musamman ma inda wadannan illolin ke da tasiri kai tsaye ga bil’adama”.

Amfani da kalmar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Na tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohon Mataimakin Shugaban Amurka Al Gore ya yi amfani da kalmomin rikice-rikice tun a shekarun 1980, tare da haɗin gwiwar Rikicin Yanayi (wanda aka kafa a 2004).

Wani rahoto na 1990 daga Jami'ar Amirka na Nazarin Dokokin Duniya ya haɗa da zaɓaɓɓun kayan da suka yi amfani da kalmar "rikici". Ƙunshe a cikin wannan rahoton, "Ƙa'idar Alkahira: Game da Haɗin Kai a Duniya game da Rikicin Yanayi" (Disamba 21, 1989) ya bayyana cewa "Dukkan al'ummomi... za su ba da haɗin kai a kan sikelin da ba a taɓa gani ba. Dole ne su yi alkawura masu wahala ba tare da bata lokaci ba don magance wannan rikicin."

Kwanan nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zaɓaɓɓen Wakilin Amurka Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez da Sanatan Amurka Bernie Sanders a watan Disamba, 2018, "Maganin Rikicin Yanayin Mu, Majalisar Gari ta Kasa"

A ƙarshen 2010s, kalmar ta fito "a matsayin muhimmin yanki na ƙamus na shaho na yanayi", wanda Green New Deal, The Guardian, Greta Thunberg, da ƴan takarar siyasar Demokraɗiyya na Amurka kamar Kamala Harris suka karbe shi. A lokaci guda kuma, ya shigo cikin amfani da ya fi shahara "bayan faɗuwar gargaɗin kimiyya da farfaɗo da kuzari a cikin duniyar shawarwari".

A ƙarshen 2018, Majalisar Wakilan Amurka ta kafa Kwamitin Zaɓuɓɓuka na Majalisar kan Rikicin Yanayi, kalmar da ɗan jarida ya rubuta a cikin The Atlantic shine "tunatar da yadda siyasar makamashi ta canza a cikin shekaru goma da suka gabata". Kwamitin sauyin yanayi na asali (wanda aka kafa a cikin 2007) an kira shi Kwamitin Zaɓar Ƙwararren Ƙwararrun Makamashi da ɗumamar Duniya, kuma an soke shi lokacin da 'yan Republican suka sake samun ikon majalisar a 2011.

Jama'a Citizen ya ba da rahoton cewa a cikin 2018, ƙasa da kashi 10% na labarai a cikin manyan jaridun Amurka 50 sun yi amfani da kalmomin "rikici" ko "gaggawa". A cikin 2019, wani kamfen na "Kira shi Rikicin Yanayi" yana kira ga manyan kungiyoyin watsa labarai da su yi amfani da kalmar, ya bayyana cewa a cikin 2018, kawai 3.5% na sassan labaran talabijin na ƙasa suna magana game da canjin yanayi a matsayin rikici ko gaggawa, (50 na 1400), kodayake Jama'a Jama'a sun ba da rahoton sau uku adadin ambaton, 150, a cikin watanni huɗu na farkon 2019.

Shekarar 2019 ta zama wani wuri mai canzawa ga ilimin harsunan yanayi, wanda ke da alaƙa da ƙarin mahimmancin harshe da adireshin Sakatare Janar na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ya yi amfani da shi a taron Aiki na Yanayi; roƙon ƙungiyoyin labarai don canza harshensu ta hanyar Al Gore's Climate Reality project, Greenpeace and the Sunrise Movement; zanga-zangar a wajen ginin The New York Times don tilasta sauyin; da kuma canjin Mayu 2019 a cikin jagorar salon The Guardian .

Biyo bayan amfani da "rikicin yanayi" na Satumba 2018 da Sakatare-Janar na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya António Guterres ya yi, a ranar 17 ga Mayu, 2019 The Guardian a hukumance ta sabunta jagorar sa don nuna fifikon "gaggawa na yanayi, rikici ko rugujewa" da "dumi na duniya". Babbar Edita Katharine Viner ta bayyana cewa, "Muna so mu tabbatar da cewa muna yin daidai a kimiyance, yayin da muke tattaunawa da masu karatu a fili kan wannan muhimmin batu. Kalmar nan 'canjin yanayi', alal misali, tana jin daɗin jin daɗi da laushi lokacin da abin da masana kimiyya ke magana akai shine bala'i ga ɗan adam." The Guardian ya zama babban abokin tarayya a cikin Rufe Yanayi Yanzu, wani yunƙuri na ƙungiyoyin labarai da aka kafa a cikin 2019 ta Columbia Journalism Review da The Nation don magance buƙatar ɗaukar yanayi mai ƙarfi. [14]

A watan Yunin 2019, kamfanin dillancin labarai na Spain EFE ya ba da sanarwar kalmar da ta fi so rikicin climática (rikicin yanayi), tare da ƴar jaridar Grist Kate Yoder tana mai cewa "waɗannan sharuɗɗan sun tashi a ko'ina", yana mai cewa "rikicin yanayi" yana "damuwa da ɗan lokaci". A cikin Nuwamba 2019, Hindustan Times ita ma ta karɓi kalmar saboda "canjin yanayi" "ba ya nuna daidai girman barazanar wanzuwar". Hakazalika, Warsaw, jaridar Poland Gazeta Wyborcza ta yi amfani da kalmar "rikicin yanayi" maimakon "sauyin yanayi", babban edita na sashin Gazeta na zielono (jarida a cikin kore) wanda ke bayyana sauyin yanayi a matsayin daya daga cikin muhimman batutuwa. takarda ta taba rufe.

Akasin haka, a watan Yuni, 2019 Kamfanin Watsa Labarai na Kanada ya sabunta jagorar yare don karanta "Rikicin yanayi da gaggawar yanayi ba su da kyau a wasu lokuta kamar ma'anar 'canjin yanayi'. Amma ba koyaushe ba ne mafi kyawun zaɓi. . . Misali, 'rikicin yanayi' na iya haifar da ɓangarorin bayar da shawarwari a wasu batutuwan siyasa." Sabuntawar ya sa farfesa na aikin jarida Sean Holman ya ce "ƴan jarida suna da nasaba da dabi'u biyu masu gasa a yanzu" - don faɗi gaskiya da nuna rashin son zuciya - amma ta hanyar faɗin gaskiya 'yan jarida suna nuna son kai ga "yawan al'umma. .. (cewa) kada ku yi imani da gaskiya".

A watan Yunin 2019, an kama masu fafutukar sauyin yanayi 70 da suka yi zanga-zanga a wajen ofishin jaridar New York Times, suna kira ga jaridar da ta yi amfani da jumlar "rikicin yanayi" ko "rikicin yanayi", zanga-zangar ta kasance wani bangare na matsin lamba na jama'a wanda ya tilasta Majalisar City sanya New York birni mafi girma don ɗaukar sanarwar gaggawar yanayi a hukumance.

A cikin Mayu 2019, aikin yanayi na Al Gore mai suna Climate Reality Project (2011-) ya gabatar da buɗaɗɗiyar koke ga kungiyoyin labarai da su yi amfani da "rikicin yanayi" a maimakon "canjin yanayi" ko "dumar yanayi", yana mai cewa "lokaci ya yi da za a watsar da sharuɗɗan biyu. a al'ada". Hakanan, Saliyo Club, Sunrise Movement, Greenpeace, da sauran ƙungiyoyin muhalli da ci gaba sun shiga cikin wata wasiƙar Jama'a ta 6 ga Yuni, 2019 ga ƙungiyoyin labarai, suna kira gare su da su kira canjin yanayi da rashin aikin ɗan adam "abin da yake-a rikicin–da kuma rufe shi kamar daya”.

A cikin Nuwamba 2019, ƙamus na Oxford sun haɗa da "rikicin yanayi" a cikin gajeren jerin sunayensa don kalmar shekarar 2019, ƙirar da aka tsara don gane kalmomin da "suna nuna ɗabi'a, yanayi, ko abubuwan da ke cikin shekara mai wucewa" kuma hakan ya kamata ya sami "ɗorewa". yuwuwar a matsayin ma'anar mahimmancin al'adu".

A cikin 2021, jaridar Finnish Helsingin Sanomat ta ƙirƙiri nau'ika guda takwas waɗanda ke da alaƙa da raguwar ƙanƙaramar tekun Arctic, suna ganin yadda ƙanƙara ke narkewa cikin shekaru da yawa. Daraktan fasaha na jaridar ya nuna cewa rubutun duka yana haifar da kyawun yanayin muhalli kuma ya zama hoto mai gani na bayanai .

A cikin sabuntawar 2021 zuwa Gargaɗi na Masana Kimiyya na Duniya ga Bil'adama, masana kimiyya sun ba da rahoton cewa shaidar kusa ko ketare wuraren abubuwan da ke da mahimmanci na tsarin Duniya suna taruwa, cewa hukunce-hukuncen 1990 sun amince da dokar ta-baci ta yanayi, wanda akai-akai. kuma ana buƙatar samun sabuntawa game da rikicin yanayi ko gaggawar yanayi, cewa COVID-19 " murmurewa kore " bai isa ba kuma ana buƙatar tsarin tushen tushen canje-canje sama da siyasa.

Madadin kalmomi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan abubuwan da ke faruwa na Google sun nuna cewa, bayan fitowar 2006 na fim ɗin Al Gore, Gaskiyar da ba ta dace ba, "rikicin yanayi" ya karu, tare da sake dawowa daga ƙarshen 2018. Har ila yau da aka zana: bincike-binciken gaggawa na yanayi (duba sanarwar gaggawar yanayi ).
Misalin kalmomin rikicin yanayi da yanayin gaggawa da ake amfani da su tare

Bincike ya nuna cewa abin da ake kira al'amari, ko kuma yadda aka tsara shi, "yana da matuƙar tasiri a kan yadda masu sauraro suka gane cewa al'amarin" da kuma "na iya yin tasiri mai zurfi a kan abin da masu sauraro ke yi". A wasu lokuta ana bayyana tasirin sauyin yanayi cikin sharuɗɗan kama da rikicin yanayi, kamar:

  • "Masifu na yanayi" (an yi amfani da shi dangane da shirin David Attenborough na 2019 da lokacin gobarar daji ta Australiya ta 2019-20 )
  • " barazanar da ke shafar duniya" ( Asusun namun daji na Duniya, 2012—)
  • "Rushewar yanayi" ( Masanin kimiyyar yanayi Peter Kalmus, 2018)
  • "hargitsi na yanayi" ( Taken labarin New York Times, 2019; ƴan takarar Democrat na Amurka, 2019; da ƙungiyar tallan Ad Age, 2019)
  • "Lalacewar yanayi" ('Yan takarar Democrat na Amurka, 2019)
  • "dumi na duniya" ( Richard A. Betts, Met Office UK, 2018)
  • "Gaggawar yanayi" ( wasiƙar gargaɗin masana kimiyya 11,000 a cikin BioScience, kuma a cikin The Guardian, duka 2019),
  • "Rushewar muhalli", "rikicin muhalli" da "gaggawa na muhalli" (duk abin da mai fafutukar yanayi Greta Thunberg ya gabatar, 2019)
  • "narkewar duniya", "Ƙasa mai Ciki", "Babban Rugujewa", da "Tsarin Duniya" (ƙungiyar tallan Ad Age, 2019)
  • " bala'i na yanayi "da" yanayin yanayi " ( The Guardian, 2019)

Baya ga "rikicin yanayi", an bincika wasu sharuɗɗan daban-daban don tasirinsu ga masu sauraro, gami da "ɗumamar yanayi", "canjin yanayi", da "lalata yanayi", da kuma "lalacewar muhalli", "yanayin yanayi". rashin zaman lafiya", da kuma "rushewar muhalli".

Tasiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Satumba na 2019, ɗan jaridar Bloomberg Emma Vickers ya gabatar da cewa kalmomin rikice-rikice - ko da yake batun ɗaya ne, a zahiri, na ilimin tauhidi - na iya zama "na nuna sakamako", yana ambaton kuri'ar 2019 ta Washington Post da Gidauniyar Iyalin Kaiser suna cewa 38% na Amurka manya sun kira sauyin yanayi "rikici" yayin da adadinsu ya kira shi "babban matsala amma ba rikici ba". Shekaru biyar da suka gabata, manya na Amurka suna la'akari da shi rikicin ya kai kashi 23%.

Akasin haka, amfani da kalmomin rikice-rikice a cikin sanarwar gaggawar yanayi da ba ta dauri ba ta yi tasiri ba (har zuwa Satumba 2019) wajen sanya gwamnatoci su “sauya cikin aiki”.

Damuwa game da kalmomin rikici[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu masu sharhi sun rubuta cewa "tsarin gaggawa" na iya samun illoli da yawa. Musamman, irin wannan tsararru na iya ba da fifiko ga sauyin yanayi a fakaice fiye da wasu muhimman batutuwan zamantakewa, ta yadda za su karfafa gasa tsakanin masu fafutuka maimakon hadin kai da kawar da rashin amincewa a cikin yunkurin sauyin yanayi da kansa. Yana iya ba da shawarar buƙatar mafita ta gwamnati, wanda ke ba da ɗorewa na dogon lokaci fiye da yadda jama'a ke yi, wanda kuma za a iya ɗauka a matsayin "wanda aka ɗora kan al'ummar da ba su so". A ƙarshe, yana iya zama mara amfani ta hanyar haifar da kafirci (rashin sakamako mai ban mamaki nan da nan), rashin ƙarfi (a fuskar matsalar da ke da kama da ƙarfi), da janyewa-maimakon samar da ayyuka masu amfani na dogon lokaci.

Tare da irin wannan layi, mai binciken sadarwa game da yanayin Australiya David Holmes ya yi tsokaci game da al'amarin "rashin gajiyawa", wanda gaggawar mayar da martani ga barazanar ke yin hasarar roƙon sa na tsawon lokaci. Holmes ya ce akwai "iyakantaccen kasafin kuɗin ma'ana" don irin wannan harshe, yana mai gargadin cewa zai iya rasa masu sauraro idan lokaci ya wuce ba tare da manufofi masu ma'ana da ke magance matsalar ba.

Wasu sun rubuta cewa, ko "koko don tsoro ya haifar da haɗin gwiwa mai ɗorewa kuma mai ma'ana" a fili lamari ne mai rikitarwa amma cewa amsar ita ce "yawanci ba", tare da masana ilimin halayyar dan adam suna lura da martanin mutane game da haɗari (yaki, tashi, ko daskare) na iya zama rashin lafiya. Yarda da cewa tsoro shi ne "cinyayyen motsawar magana", Sander Van Der Linden, Forvors "Ƙungiyar Kulawar Zango'i, kuma ba ta da cikakkiyar wahala saboda "mutane sun san cewa za a iya guje wa rikice-rikice kuma za a iya magance su".

Masanin kimiyyar yanayi Katharine Hayhoe ya yi gargaɗin a farkon 2019 cewa warware rikicin "yana da tasiri kawai ga waɗanda suka damu da sauyin yanayi, amma rashin gamsuwa game da mafita". Ta ƙara da cewa "har yanzu bai yi tasiri ba" ga waɗanda suke ganin masu fafutukar yanayi "su kasance masu tayar da hankali kaji kananan yara", tana mai cewa "zai ƙara ƙarfafa tunaninsu da suka rigaya - da kuma kuskure".

A watan Yuni 2019, Kamfanin Watsa Labarai na Kanada ya sabunta jagorar yare don karanta cewa kalmar rikicin yanayi "na iya ɗaukar ɓangarorin bayar da shawarwari a cikin wasu bayanan siyasa".

Ƴan jarida biyu na Jamus sun yi gargadin cewa "rikicin" na iya fahimtar kuskuren da ke nuna cewa sauyin yanayi ya kasance "rikici ne" - rikice-rikice "ko dai an warware su ko kuma sun wuce" - ko kuma a matsayin kasa ta wucin gadi kafin komawa ga al'ada wanda a gaskiya ba haka ba ne. mai yiwuwa.

Nazarin ilimin halin ɗan adam da neuroscientific[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani bincike na 2013 (N=224, galibin ɗaliban jami'a) ya binciki martanin mahalarta bayan sun karanta rubuce-rubucen da aka kwaikwayi daban-daban. Binciken ya kammala da cewa " rikicin yanayi ya fi haifar da koma baya na rashin imani da kuma rage hasashe na damuwa, mai yiwuwa saboda hasashe na wuce gona da iri", kuma ya ba da shawarar cewa a maimakon haka ya kamata a kasance da sauran sharuddan ("rikitar yanayi" da "dumamar yanayi"). ana amfani da shi, musamman lokacin sadarwa tare da masu sauraro masu shakka.

Wani farkon binciken kimiyya na 2019 (N = 120, an raba daidai tsakanin ƴan Republican, 'yan Democrat da masu zaman kansu) ta wata hukumar ba da shawara ta talla ta ƙunshi ma'aunin electroencephalography (EEG) da ma'aunin fata na galvanic (GSR). Binciken, auna martani ga sharuɗɗan "rikicin yanayi", "lalacewar muhalli", "rushewar muhalli", "raguwar yanayi", "dumamar yanayi" da "sauyin yanayi", ya gano cewa ƴan jam'iyyar Democrat suna da 60% mafi girma na martani ga " rikicin yanayi" fiye da "canjin yanayi", tare da amsa daidai tsakanin 'yan Republican ninki uku. "Rikicin yanayi" an ce ya "yi aiki mai kyau dangane da martani a cikin bangar siyasa kuma ya haifar da mafi girman martani a cikin masu zaman kansu". Binciken ya kammala da cewa kalmar "rikicin yanayi" ya haifar da martani mai karfi fiye da "tsaka-tsaki" da "garewa" kalmomi kamar "dumamar yanayi" da "canjin yanayi", don haka yana ƙarfafa ma'anar gaggawa - ko da yake ba mai karfi ba ne kamar yadda ya kamata. haifar da rashin fahimta wanda zai sa mutane su haifar da jayayya. Duk da haka, babban jami'in kamfanin da ke gudanar da binciken ya lura gabaɗaya cewa ƙarfin visceral na iya komawa baya, yana ƙayyadad da cewa wani lokaci tare da amsa mai ƙarfi mai ƙarfi, "lalacewar muhalli", "watakila ana ganinsa a matsayin mai faɗakarwa, watakila ma yana nuna zargi, wanda zai iya haifar da jayayya. da turawa."

Magana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  13. Hertsgaard 2019.
  •  
  •   (advertising perspective by a "professional namer")
  •  
  •   (Nature joining Covering Climate Now.)
  •  
  •   Vol. 58 (3).

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