Murmansk

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Globe icon.svgMurmansk
Мурманск (ru)
RUS Murmansk COA.svg
Arctic Liberation.jpg

Wuri
 68°58′00″N 33°05′00″E / 68.9667°N 33.0833°E / 68.9667; 33.0833
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaRasha
Oblasts of Russia (en) FassaraMurmansk Oblast (en) Fassara
Babban birnin
Murmansk Oblast (en) Fassara (1938–)
Murmansk Okrug (en) Fassara (1927–1938)
Murmansk Governorate (en) Fassara (1921–1927)
Kolsky Uyezd (en) Fassara (1910s–1921)
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 298,096 (2017)
• Yawan mutane 1,930.67 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 154.4 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 50 m
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 4 Oktoba 1916
Tsarin Siyasa
• Shugaban gwamnati Andrey Sysoyev (en) Fassara
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Lambar aika saƙo 183000
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
UTC+03:00 (en) Fassara
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho 8152
OKTMO ID (en) Fassara 47701000001
OKATO ID (en) Fassara 47401000000
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo citymurmansk.ru
Duba garin.
Tashar Murmansk.
Tashar Murmansk da tashar jirgin ƙasa.
Tituna a Murmansk.
Sassaka sassaka.
Gashi na makamai

Murmansk ( Rashanci : Му́рманск) birni ne mai tashar jiragen ruwa a arewa maso yammacin Rasha . Tana cikin yankin Murmansk . Ya zuwa 2019, garin yana da yawan mutane 292,465.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa Murmansk a cikin 1915. An kafa shi'a a lokacin yakin duniya na haka Rasha ta masõya iya aika kayayyaki zuwa tashar jiragen ruwa da aka ba katange da kankara. [1] Wurin ba da daɗewa ba yana da tashar jirgin ruwa da tashar jirgin ruwa. Yankin ya zama birni na hukuma a cikin 1916, kuma ana kiran shi Romanov-on-Murman ( Rashanci : Рома́нов-на-Му́рмане, Romanov-na-Murmane). An ba birni sunansa na yanzu a ranar 16 ga Afrilu 1917. [2]

Daga 1918 zuwa 1920, a lokacin yaƙin basasa na Rasha , sojojin White da Triple Entente suka mamaye garin.

A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, garin ya kasance babbar hanyar haɗi zuwa Yammacin Turai don Tarayyar Soviet . Sun yi ciniki da kayayyaki yayin yakin. A cikin 1941, sojojin Jamus da na Finnish suka ƙaddamar da Operation Silver Fox da nufin kame Murmansk. Soviet ta fatattaki maharan, amma Murmansk ya sha wahala mai yawa.

Murmansk ita ce hedikwatar rundunar sojojin ruwa ta Rasha. A lokacin Yaƙin Cacar Baki ya kasance cibiyar ayyukan jirgin ruwan Soviet.

A cikin 1974, an gina babban abin tarihi mai tsawon mita 36 (ƙafa 118) a cikin birni. Ana kiranta da Alamar Alyosha . An gina shi ne don tunawa da duk waɗanda suka yi yaƙi da Murmansk a Yaƙin Duniya na II. A ranar 6 ga Mayu 1985, a hukumance ana kiran Murmansk Jarumi Jarumi (wanda take ne da aka bayar ga biranen Tarayyar Soviet wanda ya yi fice a lokacin yaƙi na WW2).

Otal ɗin Arctic ya buɗe a 1984, kuma ya zama mafi tsayi gini sama da Arctic Circle.

Tattalin arziƙi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manyan masana'antu a Murmansk sune kamun kifi, safarar teku, jirgin ƙasa da jigilar hanya, ilimin ƙasa, da dai sauransu.

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan jama'ar garin yana raguwa tun daga 1992. Lokacin da ya kai ƙololuwa, garin yana da kusan mutane 489,000 a cikin 1989. Tsakanin 1989 da 1992, sama da mutane 28,000 suka bar garin. Wannan ya faru ne saboda lalacewar kwatsam cikin yanayin tattalin arziki.

Dangane da ƙidayar jama'a a shekarar 2010, tsarin ƙabilun shine:

  • Rashanci : 89.6%
  • Ukrainian : 4.6%
  • Belarusiya : 1.6%
  • Tatar : 0.8%
  • wasu : 3.4%

A shekarar 2016, kaso 16.5% na mutanen ƙasa da shekaru 15, yayin da 54.7% tsakanin 16 da 56, kuma kashi 28.7% na mutanen sun girmi 56. Wannan yana nufin cewa garin yana da tsofaffin mutane idan aka kwatanta da duk Murmansk Oblast .

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Murmansk yana da yanayin sauyin yanayi . Wannan yana nufin cewa garin yana da dogon lokacin sanyi da gajere, lokacin sanyi. Murmansk yana sama da da'irar duwatsu, don haka garin yana fuskantar darewar dare .

Climate data for Murmansk
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
6.6
(43.9)
9.0
(48.2)
16.9
(62.4)
29.4
(84.9)
30.8
(87.4)
32.9
(91.2)
29.1
(84.4)
24.2
(75.6)
15.0
(59.0)
9.6
(49.3)
7.2
(45.0)
32.9
(91.2)
Average high °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−6.7
(19.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.6
(36.7)
7.6
(45.7)
13.6
(56.5)
17.3
(63.1)
14.9
(58.8)
10.0
(50.0)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.8
(38.8)
Average low °C (°F) −12.8
(9.0)
−12.8
(9.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
−3.8
(25.2)
1.1
(34.0)
5.7
(42.3)
9.2
(48.6)
8.0
(46.4)
4.5
(40.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7.1
(19.2)
−11.2
(11.8)
−2.4
(27.7)
Record low °C (°F) −39.4
(−38.9)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−32.6
(−26.7)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−10.4
(13.3)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.2
(28.0)
−5.4
(22.3)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−35.0
(−31.0)
−39.4
(−38.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30
(1.18)
22
(0.87)
23
(0.91)
24
(0.94)
36
(1.42)
53
(2.09)
70
(2.76)
61
(2.40)
52
(2.05)
51
(2.01)
38
(1.50)
34
(1.34)
494
(19.45)
Average rainy days 0.1 0.3 0.7 3 9 17 20 21 19 8 1 0.4 99.5
Average snowy days 23 21 20 14 7 0.5 0 0 0.5 9 19 24 138
Mean monthly sunshine hours 3 33 122 182 192 228 236 154 89 47 7 0 1,293
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[3]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[4]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauran yanar gizo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, p. 24
  2. Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, pp. 60–63
  3. "Климат Мурманска". Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  4. "Murmansk Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 12 February 2016.