Oncology

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

 

Oncology wani reshe ne na likitanci wanda ke hulɗar nazarin, jiyya, ganewar asali da rigakafin ciwon daji . Kwararren likita wanda ke yin aikin oncologist oncology shine likitan ciwon daji . [1] Asalin asalin sunan sunan shine kalmar Helenanci ὄγκος ( ónkos ), ma'ana "tumor", "girma" ko "taro". [2] Oncology yana damuwa da:

  • Fahimtar kowane ciwon daji a cikin mutum (pathology)
  • Therapy (misali tiyata, chemotherapy, radiotherapy da sauran sauran hanyoyin)
  • Bibiyar marasa lafiya da ciwon daji bayan nasarar magani
  • Kula da marasa lafiya tare tare da malignancies na ƙarshe
  • Tambayoyin ɗabi'a game da kula da ciwon daji wato cancer
  • Ƙoƙarin dubawa :
    • na yawan jama'a, ko
    • na dangin marasa lafiya (a cikin nau'ikan ciwon daji waɗanda ake ttunanin suna da tushen gado, kamar ciwon nono )

Bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihinn likita ya kasance kayan aiki mai mahimmanci: yanayinn gunaguni da alamun bayyanar cututtuka (irin su gajiya, asarar nauyi, [3] anemia maras kyau, [4] zazzabi na asalin da ba a sani ba, abubuwan ban mamaki na paraneoplastic da sauran alamun) na iya ba da garantin ƙarin bincike don malignancy. . Wani lokaci, jarrabawar jiki na iya gano wurin da rashin lafiya ya kasance.

Diagnostic methods include:

  • Biopsy ko resection ; Waɗannan su ne hanyoyin da za a iya cire ci gaban neoplastic da aake tuhuma a wani I ɓangare ko gaba ɗaya, kuma a kimantawa da likitan ilimin cututtuka don sanin malignancy. Wannan a halin yanzu shine ma'aunin zinare don gano cutar kansa kuma yana da mahimmanci wajen jagorantar mataki na gaba a cikin cikin gudanarwa (bincike mai aiki, tiyata, maganin radiation, chemotherapy ko haɗin waɗannan)
  • Endoscopy, ko dai babba ko ƙananan ciki, cystoscopy, bronchoscopy, ko nasendoscopy; don gano wuraren da ake tuhuma ga malignancy da biopsy idan ya cancanta.
  • X-haskoki, CT scanning, MRI scanning, duban dan tayi da sauran fasahar rediyoo don ganowa da jagoranci biopsy.
  • Scintigraphy, guda photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) da sauran hanyoyin maganin nukiliya don gano gano wuraren da ake zargi da rashin lafiya.
  • Gwajin jini, ciki har da alamomin ƙari, wanda zai iya karar yawan zato na wasu nau'in ciwon daji.

Baya ga tantancewa, ana amfani da waɗannan hanyoyin nin (musamman hoto ta hanyar CT scanning ) don tantance aiki, watau ko za a iya cire ƙari gaba ɗaya ta hanyar tiyata.

A halin yanzu, ganewar asali na nama (daga biopsy ) ta hanyar likitancin jiki yana da mahimmanci don daidaitaccen nau'in ciwon daji da kuma jagorantarr mataki na gaba na jiyya. A lokuta masu wuyar gaske lokacin da hakan ba zai yiwu ba, ana iya yin la'akari da "maganin gwaji" (ba tare da ainihin ganewar asali ba), dangane da shaidar da ake da su (misali tarihi, x-ray da kuma dubawa). )

A lokatai da ba kasafai ba, ba ana samun dunƙulewar ƙwayar cuta ko kumburin ƙwayar cuta (yawanci a cikin wuyansa) wanda ba za a iya samun ƙari na farko ba. Duk da haka, alamomin immunohistochemical sukan ba da alama mai ƙarfi na rashin lafiya na farko. Ana kiran wannan yanayin a matsayin " maganin farko wanda ba a san shi ba ", kuma kuma, jiyya yana da ƙarfi bisa gogewar da ta gabata na mafi kusantar asali.

Jiyya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dangane da ciwon daji da aka gano, za a gudanar da bibiya da kula da lafiyar jiki a lokacin. Wasu cututtuka (kamar ALL ko AML ) zasu buƙacii shigar da su nan da nan da chemotherapy, yayin da wasu kuma za a bi su da gwajin jiki akai-akai da gwajin jini .

Sau da yawa, ana ƙoƙarin yin tiyata don cire ƙwayar cuta gaba ɗaya. Wannan yana yiwuwa ne kawai idan aka samu sami ɗan tabbaci cewa a zahiri za a iya cire ƙari. Lokacin da ya tabbata cewa sassan za su kasance, tiyatar warkewa sau da yawa ba zai yiwu ba, misali lokacin da akwai metastases a wani wuri , ko lokacin da ƙari ya mamaye tsarin da ba za a iya yin aiki da shi ba tare da haɗarin rayuwar majiyyaci ba. Wani lokaci tiyata na iya gc inganta rayuwa ko da ba a cire duk ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta ba; Ana kiran hanyar da "debulking" (watau rage yawan adadin ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta). Hakanan ana amfani da tiyata don magance wasu cututtukan daji, don kawar da toshewar biliary, ko kuma magance matsalolin da ke tattare da wasu ciwace-ciwacen kwakwalwa. Dole ne a auna haɗarin tiyata da fa'idodin.

Chemotherapy da radiotherapy ana amfani da su azaman jiyya na farko-farko a cikin wasu cututtuka masu yawa. Ana kuma amfani da su don maganin adjuvant, watau lokacin da aka riga an an cire ƙwayar macroscopic gaba ɗaya ta hanyar tiyata amma akwai haɗarin ƙididdiga mai ma'ana cewa zai sake dawowa. Chemotherapy da radiotherapy yawanci ana amfani da su don jin daɗi, inda cutar ba ta iya warkewa a fili: a cikin wannan yanayin manufar ita ce inganta yanayin rayuwa da tsawaita ta.

Hormone manipulation an kafa shi da kyau, musamman a maganin ciwon nono da prostate.

A halin yanzu akwai saurinb haɓakawa a cikin amfani da magungunan rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta na monoclonal, musamman ga lymphoma ( Rituximab ) da ciwon nono ( Trastuzumab ).

Alurar riga kafi da sauran magungunan rigakafi sune batun bincike mai zurfi.

Kulawa mai jin daɗi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kusan kashi 50 a cikin 100 na duk cututtukan da suka kamu da cutar daji a yammacin duniya ana iya bi da su zuwa ga gafara da tsattsauran ra'ayi. Ga marasa lafiya na yara, wannan lambar ya fi girma. Yawancin masu fama da ciwon daji za su mutu daga cutar, kuma yawancin marasa lafiya da ke fama da ciwon daji ba za su mutu ba saboda wasu dalilai. Ana iya samun batutuwa masu gudana tare da kula da alamun da ke hade da ciwon daji na ci gaba, da kuma tare da maganin cutar. Wadannan matsalolin na iya haɗawa da ciwo, tashin zuciya, rashin jin daɗi, gajiya, rashin motsi, da damuwa . Ba duk batutuwa ba ne ta zahiri ta zahiri: ana iya shafar mutuncin mutum. Al’amura na ɗabi’a da na ruhaniya su ma suna da muhimmanci.

Duk da yake yawancin waɗannan matsalolin sun faɗi a cikin ƙwararrun likitan ilimin likitancin mutum, kulawar jinya ta balaga zuwa wani ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararru don magance matsalolin da ke da alaƙa da ci-gaba cuta. Kulawa da jin daɗi wani muhimmin ɓangare ne na ƙungiyar kula da kansar da yawa. Ayyukan kula da jin daɗi na iya zama ƙasa da da tushen asibiti fiye da ilimin oncology, tare da ma'aikatan jinya da likitoci waɗanda ke iya ziyartar majiyyaci a gida.

Batutuwan da'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai tambayoyi da yawa na ɗabi'a da yawa da rikice-rikice a cikin aikin oncology. Waɗannan sun sun haɗa da:

  • Menene bayanin da za a ba majiyyaci game da girman cutar / ci gaba / tsinkaya .
  • Shiga cikin gwaje-gwaje na asibiti, musamman ma a fuskar rashin lafiya mai ƙarewa .
  • Janye jiyya mai aiki.
  • " Kada a sake farfadowa " umarni da sauran batutuwawan ƙarshen rayuwa.

Waɗannan batutuwan suna da alaƙa ta kut da kut da halayen marasa lafiya, addini, al'adu, da rayuwar iyali. Ko da yake waɗannan batutuwan batutuwan suna da sarƙaƙiya kuma suna da motsin rai, majiyyaci suna samun amsoshin sau da yawa ta wurin neman shawara daga amintattun abokai da masu ba da shawara. Yana buƙatar digiri na hankali da kyakkyawar sadarwa daga ɓangaren ƙungiyar oncology don magance waɗannan matsalolin da kyau kyau.

Ci gaba da bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai ɗimbin bincike da ake gudanarwa akan duk iyakokin ilimin cututtukan daji, kama daga ilmin halitta na ƙwayoyin cuta, maganin radiation zuwa tsarin maganin chemotherapy da mafi kyawun kulawa da jin zafi . A cikin shekaru goma 10 da suka gabata, zuwan tsararrun tsararraki na gaba da tsarin tsarin halittar gabaɗaya ya canza gaba ɗaya fahimtar mu game da ciwon daji. Gano sabbin alamomin kwayoyin halitta / kwayoyin halitta zai canza sosai yadda muke gano cutar kansa Kansa da kuma magance cutar kansa, wanda zai ba da hanyar samun magani na musamman.

Gwajin warkewa yakan haɗa da marasa lafiya daga asibitoci daban-daban a wani yanki. A cikin Burtaniya, sau da yawa ana yin rajistar marasa lafiya a cikin manyan binciken da aka haɗa ta Cibiyar Nazarin Ciwon daji ta UK (CRUK), [5] Majalisar Binciken Kiwon Lafiya (MRC), [6] Ƙungiyar Bincike da Kula da Ciwon daji ta Turai (EORTC) [7] ko Cibiyar Nazarin Ciwon Kankara ta Kasa (NCRN).

Musamman[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Manyan sassa guda hudu:
    • Likita Oncology: mayar da hankali kan maganin ciwon daji tare da chemotherapy, maganin da aka yi niyya, immunotherapy, da maganin hormonal . [8]
    • Surgical Oncology : mayar da hankali kan maganin ciwon daji tare da tiyata.
    • Radiation Oncology : mayar da hankali kan maganin ciwon daji tare da radiation. [9]
    • Clinical Oncology: yana mai da hankali kan maganin ciwon daji tare da duka hanyoyin kwantar da hankali da radiation.
  • Sub-Specialities in Oncology:
    • Neuro-oncology : yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji na kwakwalwa.
    • Ocular Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji na ido.
    • Head & Neck Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji na kogon baka, kogon hanci, oropharynx, hypopharyx da larynx. [10]
    • Thoracic Oncology: yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji na huhu, mediastinum, esophagus da pleura.
    • Oncology na nono : yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji na nono
    • Gastrointestinal Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji na ciki, hanji, dubura, canal canal, hanta, gallbladder, pancreas. [11]
    • Kashi & Musculoskeletal Oncology: mayar da hankali kan ciwon daji na kasusuwa da nama mai laushi. [12]
    • dermatological Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan likitanci da aikin tiyata na fata, gashi, glandon gumi, da kansar ƙusa.
    • Genitourinary oncology: yana mai da hankali kan cututtukan daji na al'aura da tsarin urinary.
    • Gynecologic Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan cututtukan daji na tsarin haihuwa na mata. [13]
    • Pediatric Oncology : damuwa da maganin ciwon daji a cikin yara. [14]
    • Matasa da matasa (AYA) Oncology . [15]
    • Hemato Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji na jini da dashen kwayar halitta
    • Preventive Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan ilimin cututtuka & rigakafin cutar kansa. [16]
    • Geriatric Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan ciwon daji a cikin tsofaffi. [17]
    • Pain & Palliative Oncology: mayar da hankali kan maganin ciwon daji na ƙarshen mataki don taimakawa rage zafi da wahala. [18]
    • Molecular Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan hanyoyin gano ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin Oncology.
    • Magungunan Nuclear Oncology: yana mai da hankali kan ganewar asali da maganin ciwon daji tare da radiopharmaceuticals.
    • Psycho-oncology : yana mai da hankali kan al'amurran da suka shafi psychosocial akan ganewar asali da kuma kula da marasa lafiya na ciwon daji.
    • Veterinary Oncology : yana mai da hankali kan maganin ciwon daji a cikin dabbobi. [19]
  • Ƙwarewa masu tasowa:
    • Cardiooncology wani reshe ne na ilimin zuciya wanda ke magance tasirin cututtukan zuciya na ciwon daji da magungunansa [20]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Ƙungiyoyi 

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Maureen McCutcheon. Where Have My Eyebrows Gone?. Cengage Learning, 2001. ISBN 0766839346. Page 5.
  2. Types of Oncologists, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO).
  3. Alfred E. Chang & authors. Oncology: An Evidence-Based Approach. Springer Science & Business Media, 2007. ISBN 0387310568. Page 1488.
  4. Alice Villalobos, Laurie Kaplan. Canine and Feline Geriatric Oncology: Honoring the Human-Animal Bond. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. ISBN 0470344075. Page 77.
  5. Cancer Research UK
  6. Home - Medical Research Council
  7. EORTC
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Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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