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Prehistory

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Prehistory
Lokaci, historical period (en) Fassara da periodization (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na archaeological culture (en) Fassara
Ta biyo baya ancient history (en) Fassara
Karatun ta prehistory and early history (en) Fassara da prehistoric archaeology (en) Fassara

Prehistory: wanda kuma aka sani da tarihin adabi, [1] shine lokaci na tarihin ɗan adam tsakanin zamanin amfani da dutse wajen sarrafe sarrafe na hominins c. shekaru miliyan 3.3 da suka gabata da kuma lokacin da aka fara rubuta tarihin tare da ƙirƙirar tsarin rubutu. Dan Adam ya fara amfani da alamomi, tambura, da hotuna daga farko, amma tsarin rubutun da aka sani na farko ya bayyana c. shekaru 5000 da suka gabata. An dauki dubban shekaru kafin tsarin rubutu ya fara karbuwa sosai, tare da yada rubuce-rubuce zuwa kusan dukkan al'adu a karni na 19. Ƙarshen tarihi ya zo a lokuta daban-daban a wurare daban-daban, kuma ba a cika amfani da kalmar ba wajen tattaunawa a cikin al'ummomi inda tarihi ya ƙare kwanan nan.

Prehistory

A farkon shekarun Bronze, Sumer a Mesopotamiya, Indus Valley Civilization, da kuma tsohuwar Misira sune farkon wayewar da suka bunkasa rubutun nasu da kuma kiyaye bayanan tarihi, tare da makwabta masu biyo baya. Yawancin sauran wayewa sun kai ƙarshen tarihi a lokacin zamanin Iron Age mai zuwa. Sashe na shekaru uku na prehistory zuwa Stone Age, Bronze Age, da Iron Age ya kasance ana amfani da shi da yawancin Eurasia da Arewacin Afirka, amma ba a yi amfani da su ba a waɗancan sassan duniya inda the working of hard metals ya isa ba zato ba tsammani daga hulɗa da su. Al'adun Eurasian, irin su Oceania, Australasia, da yawa na yankin kudu da hamadar sahara, da wasu sassan Amurka. Tare da wasu keɓancewa a cikin wayewar zamanin Columbia a cikin Amurka, waɗannan yankuna ba su haɓaka tsarin rubuce-rubuce masu sarƙaƙƙiya ba kafin zuwan Eurasia, don haka kafin tarihinsu ya kai ɗan lokaci kaɗan; misali, 1788 yawanci ana ɗaukarsa azaman ƙarshen prehistory na Ostiraliya.

Lokacin da al'ada ke rubutawa da wasu, amma ba ta inganta tsarin rubutunta ba, yawanci ana kiranta da tarihin al'ada. Ta hanyar ma'anarsa, babu rubuce-rubucen rubuce-rubuce daga tarihin ɗan adam, waɗanda za mu iya sani kawai daga bayanan kayan tarihi na kayan tarihi da na ɗan adam: kayan tarihi da ragowar ɗan adam. An fara fahimtar waɗannan ta hanyar tarin tatsuniyoyi da kwatanci tare da al'ummomin da suka riga sun fara karatu da aka gani a zamanin yau. Babban mataki don fahimtar shaidar da ta gabata shine haduwa, kuma amintattun dabarun haduwa sun ci gaba a hankali tun ƙarni na sha tara. [2] Ƙarin shaida ya zo daga sake gina tsoffin harsunan magana. Dabarun na baya-bayan nan sun haɗa da binciken sinadarai na bincike don bayyana amfani da ingancin kayan, da nazarin kwayoyin halitta na ƙasusuwa don tantance dangi da halayen jiki na mutanen zamanin da.

Manyan ginshiƙan dutse a Göbekli Tepe, a kudu maso gabashin Turkiyya, waɗanda farkon mutanen Neolithic suka gina don amfani da su shekaru 11,000 da suka wuce.
Zane na farko da ke tunanin balagagge da matashi daga zamanin da suka rigaya suna yin kayan aikin dutse
Tunanin ƙarni na goma sha tara na mutanen farko a cikin jeji

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. McCall, Daniel F.; Struever, Stuart; Van Der Merwe, Nicolaas J.; Roe, Derek (1973). "Prehistory as a Kind of History". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 3 (4): 733–739. doi:10.2307/202691. JSTOR 202691.Empty citation (help)
  2. Graslund, Bo. 1987. The birth of prehistoric chronology. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.