Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyib Erdogan shine shugaban Kasar Turkiya na 12 kuma shugaba maici a yanzu, ya hau karagan mulki tun a shekara ta 2004. An haife shi a ranar 26 ga watan Fabreru shekara ta 1954, shahararren Dan siyasa ne, kafin yazama shugaban kasa shine firayim Minista daga shekarar 2003 zuwa 2014, kuma Mayo na birnin Istanbul daga shekara ta 1994 zuwa 1998. Ya kirkiri Jam'iyar Justice da Development Party (AKP) a shekarar 2001, inda yajagorance ta har tasami nasara a babban zaben Kasar a shekara ta 2002, 2007 da 2011 kafin yabar shugabancin jam'iyar yanemi shugabanci kuma yasamu nasara, yazama shugaban Kasar a shekara ta 2014. Coming from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, he has promoted socially conservative and liberal economic policies in his administration. Under his administration, Turkey has experienced democratic backsliding.
Erdoğan yabuga wasan Kwallon kafa a Kasımpaşa kafin aka zabe shi a 1994 a matsayin Mayor na Istanbul a lake jamiyar Islama ta Welfare Party. A kwace mukaminsa, aka hana shi rike offishin siyasa har abada, kuma aka kaishi gidan kaso na tsawon wata hudu, domin ya karanta wata waka datake nuna mabiyar addini game da gwamnati yayin wani jawabin dayayi a shekarar 1998. Erdoğan yafito yayi watsi da karayin siyasar addini sannan kuma ya Samar da jamiyar AKP a 2001. Bayan nasarar da jamiyar AKP tasamu a 2002, wanda aka kirkira jamiyar dashi Abdullah Gül yazama firayim Minista, har sai da gwamnatinsa ta soke ganin datayi wa Erdoğan akan sake rike offishin siyasa. Erdoğan yazama firayim Minista a watan Maris 2003 bayan nasara a by-election a Siirt.
Gwamnatin Erdoğan tayi kokarin neman negotiations for Turkey's membership in the European Union, an economic recovery following a financial crash in 2001, changes to the constitution via referenda in 2007 and 2010, a Neo-Ottoman foreign policy, and investments in infrastructure including roads, airports, and a high-speed train network, and finally the Turkish currency and debt crisis of 2018. With the help of the Cemaat Movement led by preacher Fethullah Gülen, Erdoğan was able to curb the power of the military through the Sledgehammer and Ergenekon court cases. In late 2012, his government began peace negotiations with the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) to end the ongoing PKK insurgency that began in 1978. The ceasefire broke down in 2015, leading to a renewed escalation in conflict. In 2016, a coup d'état was unsuccessfully attempted against Erdoğan and Turkish state institutions. This was followed by purges and an ongoing state of emergency.
Political scientists no longer consider Turkey as a fully fledged democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections, purges and jailing of opponents, curtailed press freedom, and Erdoğan's efforts to broadening his executive powers and minimize his executive accountability. Widespread 2013 protests broke out against the perceived authoritarianism of Erdoğan's policies; he criticized the protestors and then had them suppressed by police, which killed 22 people, injured numerous others and brought international condemnation from foreign governments and human rights organizations. This stalled negotiations related to EU membership. Following a split with Gülen, Erdoğan promulgated sweeping judicial reforms he insisted were needed to purge Gülen's sympathisers, but which were criticised for threatening judicial independence. A US$100 billion corruption scandal in 2013 led to the arrests of Erdoğan's close allies, and incriminated Erdoğan. His government has since come under fire for alleged human rights violations and crackdown on press and social media, having blocked access to Wikipedia, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube on numerous occasions. Erdoğan's government lifted the bans when directed by court orders, but later reimposed them. In 2016, Turkey under Erdoğan began a crackdown on freedom of the press; in 2016 and 2017, more journalists have been incarcerated in Turkey than in any other country. He was re-elected in the 2018 general election and assumed the role of Executive President and became both the head of state and head of government.
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