Rijiyar burtsatse

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Wata mata a Uganda tana dibar ruwa daga rijiyar burtsatse.
Rijiya da aka tono a Ghana

Rijiyar burtsatse Rijiya ce da ake saka matsai kaitan fayif a cikin ƙasa, ko dai a tsaye ko a kwance. Ana iya gina rijiyar burtsatse don dalilai daban-daban, kamar haƙar ruwa, da ( man fetur ) ko iskar gas (kamar iskar gas ), a matsayin wani ɓangare na binciken kimiyyar ƙasa, kamar wurin muhalli, binciken ma'adinai, ma'aunin zafin jiki, kamar yadda yake. rami na matuƙin jirgi don shigar da ramuka ko abubuwan amfani na ƙarƙashin ƙasa, don shigarwar geothermal, ko don ajiyar ƙasa na abubuwan da ba a so, misali a cikin kamawa da adanawa .

Borewell digging

Muhimmanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rijiyar rijiyar ruwa a cikin rijiyar alli a ƙarƙashin North Downs, Ingila a Albury

Injiniyoyi da masu ba da shawara kan muhalli suna amfani da kalmar rijiyar burtsatse gaba ɗaya don bayyana duk nau'ikan ramukan da aka haƙa a matsayin wani ɓangare na binciken kimiyyar ƙasa ko tantance wuraren muhalli (wanda ake kira Phase II ESA). Wannan ya haɗa da ramukan da aka haɓaka don tattara samfuran ƙasa, samfuran ruwa ko ginshiƙan dutse, don ci gaba a cikin kayan aikin samfur, ko shigar da rijiyoyi ko piezometers . Ana gwada samfuran da aka tattara daga rijiyoyin burtsatse sau da yawa a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje don tantance halayensu na zahiri, ko kuma tantance matakan sinadarai daban-daban ko gurɓatattun abubuwa.

Yawanci, ana kammala rijiyar burtsatse da ake amfani da ita azaman rijiyar ruwa ta hanyar sanya bututu a tsaye (casing) da allon rijiyar don kiyaye rijiyar daga rami. Wannan kuma yana taimakawa hana gurɓataccen ƙasa shiga cikin rijiyar burtsatse kuma yana kare duk wani famfo da aka girka daga zana cikin yashi da laka. Ana kammala rijiyoyin mai da iskar iskar gas iri ɗaya, kodayake yawanci sun fi rikitarwa.

Kamar yadda aka yi dalla-dalla a cikin wakili (yanayin yanayi), ma'aunin zafin jiki na rijiyar a jerin zurfafa daban-daban na iya zama " juyawa " (ƙa'idar lissafi don warware ma'aunin matrix) don taimakawa ƙimanta yanayin zafi na tarihi.

Za a iya amfani da gungu na ƙananan rijiyoyin burtsatse masu sanye da masu musayar zafi da aka yi da bututun PEX don adana zafi ko sanyi tsakanin yanayi masu gaba da juna a cikin tarin dutse na asali. Ana kiran dabarar ajiyar makamashi ta yanayi na yanayi . Kafofin watsa labaru da za a iya amfani da su don wannan fasaha sun fito ne daga tsakuwa zuwa gado. Ana iya samun ƴan zuwa ɗaruruwan rijiyoyin burtsatse, kuma a aikace, zurfin ya kai ƙafa 150 zuwa 1000. [1] [2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aikin haƙar rijiyoyin burtsatse yana da dogon tarihi. Aƙalla daular Han (202 BC - 220 AD), Sinawa sun yi amfani da haƙo rijiya mai zurfi don haƙar ma'adinai da sauran ayyuka. Masanin ilimin sinadarai na Biritaniya kuma masanin tarihi Michael Loewe ya ce wuraren rijiyoyin burtsatse na iya kaiwa zurfin 600. m (2000 ft). [3] KS Tom ya bayyana aikin hakar ma'adinan: "Hanyar haƙowa mai zurfi ta ƙasar Sin ta samu ne ta hanyar gungun maza masu tsalle-tsalle don yin tasiri a kan haƙowar yayin da bahaya da shanu ke jujjuya kayan aiki masu ban sha'awa." [4] Wannan ita ce hanyar da aka yi amfani da ita don haƙar mai a California a cikin shekarun 1860 (watau "Kicking her Down"). [4] Wani katafaren ginin daular Han ta Yamma da aka gano a Xinglong, Hebei yana da ramukan haƙar ma'adinai kusa da ya kai zurfin 100. m (328 ft) tare da faffadan wuraren hakar ma'adinai; An cika sanduna da ɗakunan da katako, da tsani, da kayan aikin ƙarfe. [5] [6] A karni na farko BC, masu sana'a na ƙasar Sin sun yi aikin haƙo ƙarfe kuma masu aikin haƙowar sun sami damar haƙo rijiyoyin burtsatse har zuwa zurfin ƙafa 4800 (m1500). Ya zuwa ƙarni na sha ɗaya miladiyya, Sinawa sun iya haƙo rijiyoyin burtsatse har tsawon ƙafa 3000. Aikin haƙo rijiyoyin burtsatse ya ɗauki lokaci mai tsawo. Kamar yadda zurfin ramukan ya bambanta, haƙar rijiya ɗaya na iya ɗaukar kusan shekaru goma cikakku. Sai a ƙarni na 19 ne Turai da Yamma za su ci karo da fafatawa da tsohuwar fasahar haƙar rijiyoyin burtsatse ta ƙasar Sin. [7] [8]

Shekaru da yawa, rijiyar burtsatse mafi tsayi a duniya ita ce Kola Superdeep Borehole a Rasha. Daga 2011 har zuwa Agusta 2012 rikodin yana riƙe da 12,345 metres (40,502 ft) Dogon Sakhalin-I Odoptu OP-11 To, a bakin tekun tsibirin Sakhalin na Rasha. Rijiyar da aka miƙa ta Chayvo Z-44 ta ɗauki taken rijiyar burtsatse mafi tsayi a duniya a ranar 27 ga Agusta 2012. Zurfin ma'aunin Z-44 shine 12,376 m (40,604 ft). Duk da haka, rijiyoyin ERD sun fi na Kola Borehole mara zurfi, saboda babban matsuguni a kwance.

Hanya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Borewell tono

Masu aikin haƙowar na iya nutsar da rijiyar burtsatse ta amfani da na'urar haƙowa ko na'urar da ake sarrafa ta da hannu. Injiniyoyi da dabarun ciyar da rijiyar burtsatse sun bambanta sosai bisa ga masana'anta, yanayin ƙasa, da manufar da aka yi niyya. Don raƙuman haƙowa a cikin teku ana amfani da raka'a masu iyo ko dandamali da ke da goyan bayan belin teku don na'urar haƙowa.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Askam Borehole in Pennsylvania
  • Mai yankan casing
  • Zurfin zubar da rijiyar burtsatse
  • Mabudin rami
  • Zubar da rami a kwance
  • Kola Superdeep Borehole
  • Bayanan sirri na tsaye

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hellström G. (2008). Large-Scale Applications of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Sweden. IEA HP Annex 29 Workshop, Zurich, May 19, 2008.
  2. Stiles L. (1998). Underground Thermal Energy Storage in the US[permanent dead link]. IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter. 16:2:pp.22-23.
  3. Loewe (1968), 194.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Tom (1989), 103.
  5. Loewe (1968), 191.
  6. Wang (1982), 105.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Conner 2005 175
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hobson 2004 215

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]