Tsibirin Bougainville

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Tsibirin Bougainville
Bagana Volcano.jpg
island
bangare naSolomon Islands Gyara
farawa Gyara
named afterLouis-Antoine de Bougainville Gyara
demonymBougainvillais, Bougainvillaise Gyara
nahiyaOceania Gyara
ƙasaSabuwar Gini Papuwa Gyara
located in the administrative territorial entityAutonomous Region of Bougainville Gyara
located in or next to body of waterPacific Ocean Gyara
located on terrain featureTsibiran Solomon Gyara
coordinate location6°14′40″S 155°23′2″E Gyara
highest pointMount Balbi Gyara
located in time zoneUTC+10:00 Gyara

Tsibirin Bougainville ( Tok Pisin : Bogenvil ) babban tsibiri ne na Yankin Bougainville a Papua New Guinea, wanda kuma akafi sani da Lardin Bougainville. Wannan shine babban yankin Daular Jamus - wacce ke haɗe da arewacin Solomons . Tare da nisan zango-hudu zuwa ɗari biyar da ta raba tsibirin Buka (c.500)   km 2 ) fadin kasar ta takai 9,300   km 2 (3591 kilomita mil). Yawan jama'ar lardin ya kai 234,280 (ƙididdigar shekarar 2011), wanda ya ƙunshi kananan tsibirai kamar Carterets . Dutsen Balbi a kan babban tsibirin a 2,715m shine mafi tsayi. Buka, duk da sirantarsa, ba shi da gada; duk da haka, jiragen ruwa ke kai kawo yau da kullun suna aiki tsakanin manyan maɓuɓɓuka a kowane ɗayan kuma Garin Buka yana da babban filin jirgin sama / filin jirgin sama na arewacin.

Shi ne mafi girma daga Tsibirin Solomon, mafi yawanci, wanda aka mayar da hankali ne kudu da gabas, suna da ' yanci a siyasance kamar tsibirin Solomon Islands ; daga biyu daga cikin wadannan tsibirin Shortland yana da kasa da 9   km arewa ko arewa maso yamma zuwa Bougainville; su bi da bi kusan 30   km yamma da Choiseul, wani yanki wanda, Poroporo, yana fuskantar Bougainville.

Yawan fita daga Buka shine 175 kilometreகள் (109 mi) daga New Ireland, tsibiri mai girma na gaba na Papua New Guinea.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An fara kafa Bougainville ne kimanin shekaru 28,000 da suka gabata. Shekaru uku zuwa dubu huɗu da suka wuce, jama'ar Austronesia suka iso, tare da kawo su gida, aladu, karnuka, da kayan aikin na 'yan oho . Tattaunawar Turai ta farko da Bougainville ta kasance ne a cikin 1768, lokacin da Bafaransar Faransa Louis Antoine de Bougainville ta zo da sunan babban tsibirin da kansa.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] Jiragen ruwan na Ingila da na Amurka sun ziyarci tsibirin don tanadi, ruwa da katako a ƙarni na 19. Na farko da aka samu shine Roscoe a 1822, na ƙarshe shine Palmetto a 1881.

Masarautar Jamus tayi ikirarin Bougainville a 1899, ta maida shi New Guinea ta Jamus . Kiristocin mishaneri sun isa tsibirin a shekara ta 1902.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ]

Sojojin ruwa a Bougainville a 1943

A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya, Astiraliya ta mamaye da New Guinea ta Jamus, ciki har da Bougainville. Wannan ya zama wani yanki na yankin Australiya na New Guinea a karkashin yarjejeniyar League of Nations mandate a shekarar 1920.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] A cikin 1942, a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, Japan ta mamaye tsibirin, amma sojojin haɗin gwiwa sun ƙaddamar da yakin Bougainville don karɓar ikon tsibirin a cikin 1943. Duk da manyan bama-bamai, sojojin Jafananci suna kan tsibirin har zuwa 1945. Bayan yakin, Territory na New Guinea, ciki har da Bougainville, sun dawo cikin ikon Ostiraliya.

A cikin 1949, Territory na New Guinea, ciki har da Bougainville, sun haɗu tare da Papua na Australiya, suna kafa Territory na Papua da New Guinea, Terungiyar Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a ƙarƙashin gwamnatin Australiya.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] Ran 9 ga Satumba, 1975, majalisar Australiya ta zartar da Dokar 'Yancin Papua New Guinea ta 1975 . Dokar ta sanya 16 Satumba 1975 a matsayin ranar samun 'yanci kuma ta dakatar da ragowar ikon mallaka da kuma majalisun dokoki na Australiya sama da yankin. Bougainville ya kasance wani ɓangare na Papua New Guinea mai zaman kanta. Koyaya, a ranar 11 ga Satumba 1975, a wani yunƙurin neman cin gashin kai, Bougainville ya ayyana kansa a matsayin Republic of the North Solomons . Jamhuriyyar ta gaza samun karbuwa a duk duniya, kuma an cimma matsaya a watan Agusta 1976. Daga nan sai Bougainville ya tsinci kansa cikin siyasa zuwa Papua New Guinea tare da kara karfin mulkin kai.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] Tsakanin 1988 da 1998, yakin basasa na Bougainville ya yi asarar rayuka sama da 15,000. Tattaunawar zaman lafiya da New Zealand ta fara ne a 1997 kuma ya haifar da mulkin kai. Wata kungiya da ke sa ido kan zaman lafiya (PMG) karkashin jagorancin Ostareliya aka tura ta. A shekara ta 2001, an rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya ciki har da alkawarin raba gardama kan 'yancin kai daga Papua New Guinea. An gudanar da wannan kuri’ar ne tsakanin 23 ga Nuwamba zuwa 7 ga Disamba 2019, tare da bayyana sakamakon a ranar 11 ga Disamba. Tambayar raba gardama wani zaɓi ne tsakanin manyan mulkin mallaka a Papua New Guinea, ko cikakken 'yanci. Daga cikin ingantattun kuri’u, kashi 98.31% na goyon bayan cikakken ‘Yanci. Kuri'ar ba ta dauri; Gwamnatin Papua New Guinea ce ke da ƙarshen magana game da matsayin Bougainville.

Taswira[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bougainville ita ce tsibiri mafi girma a tsibirin Solomon Islands. Yana da wani ɓangare na Solomon Islands dazuzzukan kurmi ecoregion . Bougainville da tsibiri na Buka makwabta ƙasa ce da tazarar mai girman mita 300. Tsibirin yana da yanki mai nisan murabba'in kilomita 9000, kuma akwai abubuwa masu yawa da suka yi aiki, dormant ko volcanoes wanda ya tashi zuwa 2400   m. Bagana (1750   m) a arewacin tsakiyar yankin na Bougainville yana aiki da hankali, yana fitar da hayaki wanda yake bayyane tsawon kilomita da yawa. Girgizar asa tayi akai-akai, amma tana haifar da karamin illa.

Ecology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsibirin Bougainville yana da farko a dazuzzuka tare da keɓaɓɓen yanayin yanayin ƙasa. Yin hakar jan karfe a tsibirin ta hanyar aikin haƙo ma'adanan ruwa na Rio-Tinto ya haifar da mummunar illa ga yanayin ƙasa da na ƙasa daga lalacewar gandun daji da baƙin ƙarfe da ke lalata gurɓataccen ma'adanai, lamarin da ya haifar da tashe tashen hankulan 'yan tsibirin don kare ƙasa da kuma tsabtace muhalli. Kwanan nan, gandun daji don ciyar da yawan mutanen da ke ƙaruwa ya shafi kwararar koguna da yawa a tsibirin. Shirin Muhalli na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya ba da damar sauƙaƙe tsabtace ma'adanin na Rio Tinto mallakar Panguna da kuma bincika sake buɗe ma'adinan tare da tsauraran matakan muhalli.

Sauyin yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bougainville yana da mafi girman adon jan ƙarfe na duniya, wanda ke gudana tun daga 1972, amma aka rufe shi a cikin wani sanannen juyin juya halin ga bukatun ma'adinai na ƙasashen waje. Sakamakon wata rundunar Papua New Guinean ta 7 ta rufe tsibirin a yayin juyin juya halin Kwakwa, an yanke tsibirin daga duniyar waje. Wannan matsin lambar ya tilasta wa mazauna tsibirin su samar da tsare-tsare na kai da kansu daga wasu wuraren da aka kubutar da albarkatun gona, gami da samar da wutar lantarki a kauyen, kayan kwakwa na rayuwa, gonakin lambun daji, da kuma maganin gargajiya na gargajiya. Wadannan sabbin dabaru sune suka zama masu maida hankali wajen shirya finafinai mai taken The Revolution Revolution .

Demographics[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafi yawan mutane a Bougainville mabiya addinin kirista ne, an kiyasta cewa kashi 70 cikin dari na zama dan darikar Roman Katolika da kuma masu karamin karfi na Cocin United na Papua New Guinea tun daga 1968. Kusan ba 'yan ƙasa ba ne kamar yadda yawancin waɗanda aka kora sakamakon yaƙin basasa.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ]

Harsuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai yare da yawa na asalin halitta a cikin lardin Bougainville, mallakin iyalai uku ne. Harshen arewacin ƙarshen tsibirin, kuma wasu sun watse ko'ina cikin bakin tekun, mallakar dangin Austronesian ne . Harshen arewaci da tsakiya na Kudancin Bougainville Island suna cikin iyalan Arewa da Kudu Bougainville .   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ]

Maza Buka suna yin wani bikin Buin

Mafi yawan yaren mutanen Austronesia shine Halia da yarenninta, ana magana a tsibirin Buka da yankin Selau na Arewacin Bougainville. Sauran yaruka na Austronesian sun hada da Nehan, Petats, Solos, Saposa (Taiof), Hahon da Tinputz, dukkaninsu anyi magana ne a arewacin kwata Bougainville, Buka da tsibiran da ke kewaye. Waɗannan yarukan suna da alaƙa da juna. Bannoni da Torau yare ne na Austreliya waɗanda ba sa da dangantaka da tsohon, waɗanda ake magana da su a yankunan gabar teku na tsakiya da kudu Bougainville. A Takuu Atoll na kusa ana yin yaren Polynesian, Takuu .

Harshen Papuan suna tsare a babban tsibirin Bougainville. Waɗannan sun haɗa da Rotokas, yaren da ke da ƙananan kayan ƙirar waya, Eivo, Terei, Keriaka, Naasioi (Kieta), Nagovisi, Siwai (Motuna), Baitsi (wani lokacin ana ɗaukar yaren Siwai), Uisai da wasu da yawa. Waɗannan sun ƙunshi iyalan yare biyu, North Bougainville da South Bougainville .   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] Babu wani daga cikin yarukan da fiye da kashi 20% na mutanen suke magana, kuma manyan yaruka irin su Nasioi, Korokoro Motuna, Telei, da Halia sun kasu zuwa yaruka waɗanda ba koyaushe ake fahimtar juna ba. Don sadarwa ta gaba dayawa yawancin 'yan Bougainvilleans suna amfani da Tok Pisin a matsayin harshen Faransanci, kuma aƙalla a cikin yankunan gabar teku Tok Pisin koyaushe yara kan koya a cikin yanayin yare. Turanci da Tok Pisin sune harsunan kasuwancin gwamnati da gwamnati.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ]

Hakkin dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yanke shi daga waje na shekaru da yawa ta hanyar shingen Papua New Guinean a yayin juyin juya halin kwakwa, 'yan tsibirin sun sha fama da asarar rayuka da yawa daga rashin kayan aikin likita.

Wani bincike da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta gudanar a shekara ta 2013 ya nuna maza 843 sun gano cewa 62% (530 wadanda suka amsa) daga cikin wadanda suka yi wa wata yarinya fyade a kalla sau daya ne, tare da kashi 41% (217 wadanda suka amsa) daga mazajen sun bayar da rahoton sun yi fyade da wanda ba abokin tarayya ba, yayin da 14% ( Masu amsa laifuka 74) sun ba da rahoton aikata fyade. Bugu da ƙari, binciken ya kuma gano cewa kashi 8% (67 waɗanda suka ba da amsa) na mazan sun yi wa wasu maza ko maza fyaɗe.

Mashahuran al'ada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Juyin Juya Halin Kabilan, wanda ya kasance rubuce-rubuce game da gwagwarmayar yawan 'yan asalin ƙasa don ceton tsibirin su daga lalata muhalli da samun independenceancin kai, an yi a 1999.

Tsibiri na Evergreen (2000), fim ɗin da masu shirya finafinan Australiya Amanda King da Fabio Cavadini na Filin Frontyard suka nuna ƙima wanda mutanen Bougainvillean suka rayu kusan kusan shekaru goma (1989-1997) ba tare da kasuwanci ko tuntuɓar duniya ta waje ba, saboda na takaddama ta kasuwanci.

Mr. Pip (2012) fim ne wanda daraktan New Zealand Andrew Adamson fim ya dogara da littafin Mister Pip wanda Lloyd Jones ya wallafa .

Sanarwar 'yancin kai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ƙarshen Nuwamba shekarar 2019 an gudanar da ƙuri'ar raba gardama mara ƙuri'a don yanke hukunci kan ko Bougainville yakamata ta kasance ƙasa mai cin gashin kanta daga Papua New Guinea. Sakamakon ya nuna matukar goyon baya ga ikon mallakar tsibirin, inda kashi 98% na kuri'un da ke goyon bayan ballewa.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Hall, R. Cargill (1991). Walƙiya Kan Bougainville: An Sake Kula da Ofishin Jakadancin Yamamoto . Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN   Hall, R. Cargill (1991). Hall, R. Cargill (1991).
  • Gailey, Harry A. (1991). Bougainville, 1943-1945: Gangamin Yafe . Jami'ar Press na Kentucky. ISBN   Gailey, Harry A. (1991). Gailey, Harry A. (1991).
  • Hobbs, J. (2017). Asali na Tarihin Yankin Duniya (na 4 ed.) ). Boston, Massachusetts.

Karin karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Robert Young Pelton, mafarauci Hammer da sama, tafiye-tafiye zuwa Duniya uku sun tafi Mad.   ISBN   1-58574-416-6

Coordinates: 6°14′40″S 155°23′02″E / 6.24444°S 155.38389°E / -6.24444; 155.38389