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Wariyar Jinsi

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wariyar jinsi
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Wariya, prejudice (en) Fassara da attitude (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da Daidaiton jinsi da reverse sexism (en) Fassara
A woman under arrrest walking between two policemen
Kungiyoyin Suffragette sun yi gangamin neman 'yancin mata na kada kuri'a.

Wariyar Jinsi shine son zuciya ko wariya dangane da jima'i ko jinsi. Wariyar Jinsi na iya shafar kowa, amma da farko yana shafar mata da kuma 'yan mata. [1] An danganta shi da stereotypes da matsayin jinsi, kuma yana iya haɗawa da imani cewa jinsi ɗaya ko jinsi ya fi wani. Tsananin wariyar Jinsi na iya haifar da rashin fahimta, cin zarafi, fyade, da sauran nau'ikan cin zarafin jima'i. [2] Wariyar jinsi na iya haɗawa da jima'i. An bayyana wannan kalmar a matsayin nuna wariya ga mutane dangane da asalin jinsinsu ko jinsi ko bambancin jinsi. An bayyana wariyar jinsi musamman ta fuskar rashin daidaiton wurin aiki. Yana iya tasowa daga al'adu da ka'idoji na zamantakewa ko al'adu.

Asalin kalma da ma'anoni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cewar Fred R. Shapiro, kalmar "wariyar Jinsi" an fi dacewa da ita a ranar 18 ga Nuwamba, 1965, ta Pauline M. Leet a lokacin "Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Ƙwararru" a Franklin da Kwalejin Marshall.[3]   ] Musamman, kalmar wariyar Jinsi ta bayyana a cikin gudunmawar dandalin Leet forum contribution "Mata da masu digiri na farko", kuma ta bayyana shi ta hanyar kwatanta shi da wariyar launin fata, yana bayyana a wani bangare (a shafi). 3): "Lokacin da kuke jayayya Tun da yake mata kaɗan ne ke rubuta waƙa mai kyau wannan ya ba da hujjar ƙetare su gaba ɗaya, kuna ɗaukar matsayi mai kama da na wariyar launin fata-Ina iya kiran ku, a wannan yanayin, 'mai jima'i' . . . Dukansu masu nuna wariyar launin fata da masu wariyar Jinsi suna aiki kamar duk abin da ya faru bai taɓa faruwa ba, kuma dukkansu biyun suna yanke shawara kuma suna yanke hukunci game da ƙimar wani ta hanyar yin nuni ga abubuwan da ke cikin duka biyun ba su da mahimmanci."

wannan na nuna rashin nuna wariyar jinsi

Har ila yau, a cewar Shapiro, karo na farko da kalmar "jima'i" ta fito a cikin bugawa shine a cikin jawabin Caroline Bird "Akan Haihuwar Mata", wanda aka buga a ranar 15 ga watan Nuwamba, 1968, a cikin Muhimman Jawabai na Ranar (shafi na 15). 6). A cikin wannan jawabin ta ce a wani bangare: "Akwai amincewa a kasashen waje cewa mu ta hanyoyi da yawa kasa ce ta wariyar Jinsi. Sexism yana hukunta mutane ta hanyar jima'i lokacin wariyar ba kome ba. An yi nufin wariyar Jinsi ne don yin magana da wariyar launin fata."

Ana iya bayyana wariyar jinsi a matsayin akida bisa imani cewa jinsi daya ya fi wani. Wariya ce, son zuciya, ko ra'ayin da ya danganci jinsi, kuma galibi ana bayyana shi ga mata da 'yan mata.[4]

Ilimin zamantakewa ya yi nazarin sexism kamar yadda yake nunawa a kowane mutum da matakin hukuma. A cewar Richard Schaefer, duk manyan cibiyoyin zamantakewa suna ci gaba da yin sexism Masana ilimin zamantakewa sun bayyana kamanceceniya a tsakanin sauran tsarin akida na zalunci kamar wariyar launin fata, wanda kuma ke aiki a matakin mutum da na hukuma. Masana ilimin zamantakewar mata na farko Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ida B. Wells, da Harriet Martineau sun bayyana tsarin rashin daidaituwa na jinsi, amma ba su yi amfani da kalmar sexism ba, wanda aka yi daga baya. Masana ilimin zamantakewa waɗanda suka yi amfani da tsarin aiki, misali Talcott Parsons, ya fahimci rashin daidaiton jinsi a matsayin sakamako na dabi'a na nau'in dimorphic na jinsi.

Masana ilimin halayyar dan adam Mary Crawford da Rhoda Unger sun bayyana wariyar Jinsi a matsayin son zuciya da mutane ke yi wanda ya ƙunshi "halaye marasa kyau da dabi'u game da mata a matsayin rukuni." Peter Glick da Susan Fiske sun kirkiro kalmar wariyar Jinsi mai ban sha'awa don bayyana yadda ra'ayoyin game da mata na iya zama duka masu kyau da kuma mara kyau, da kuma cewa mutane suna rarraba ra'ayoyin da suke da shi a cikin wariyar jinsi mai kyau.

masu San ganim an kawo karshen wariyar jinsi

Ƙwararrun mawallafin mata na mata ya bayyana wariyar jinsi a matsayin tsarin zalunci wanda ke haifar da rashin amfani ga mata. Masanin falsafar mata, Marilyn Frye ta bayyana jima'i a matsayin "hadaddiyar ɗabi'a-ra'ayi-fahimta-daidaitacce" na fifikon maza, chauvinism na namiji, da misogyny.

Masanin Falsafa Kate Manne ta bayyana wariyar jinsi a matsayin reshe ɗaya na tsarin oda. A cikin ma'anarta, wariyar jinsi yana daidaitawa da kuma tabbatar da ka'idodin ubangida, da bambanci da misogyny, reshe wanda ke ba da izini da kuma tilasta ka'idodin ubangida. Manne ya ce jima'i sau da yawa yana ƙoƙari ya sa tsarin zamantakewa na ubanni ya zama dabi'a, mai kyau, ko kuma babu makawa don ya zama babu dalilin yin tsayayya da su.[5]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Engraving of a woman preparing to self-immolate with her husband's corpse
Sati, ko kashe kansa da gwauraye suka mutu, ya zama ruwan dare a cikin al'ummar Hindu har zuwa farkon karni na 19.
  1. There is a clear and broad consensus among academic scholars in multiple fields that sexism refers primarily to discrimination against women, and primarily affects women. See, for example:
  2. Forcible Rape Institutionalized Sexism in the Criminal Justice System| Gerald D. Robin Division of Criminal Justice, University of New Haven
  3. "Feminism Friday: The origins of the word "sexism"". Finallyfeminism101.wordpress.com. October 19, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  4. Schaefer, Richard T. (2009). Sociology: A Brief Introduction (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 274–275. ISBN 9780073404264. OCLC 243941681.
  5. Manne, Kate (2019). Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny. Ithaca, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 9780190604981.