Wurin sarrafa shara

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Wani shuka mai sharar da kuzari a Saugus, Massachusetts, shuka na farko a Amurka .

Gidan da ake amfani da shi don samar da makamashi wurin sarrafa sharar gida ne wanda ke kona sharar gida don samar da wutar lantarki . Irin wannan tashar wutar lantarki wani lokaci ana kiranta sharar-zuwa makamashi, kona sharar gida, dawo da makamashi, ko injin dawo da albarkatun ƙasa.

Tsare-tsare masu sharar gida na zamani sun sha bamban da injinan kwandon shara waɗanda aka saba amfani da su har zuwa ƴan shekarun da suka gabata. Ba kamar na zamani ba, tsire-tsire ba sa cire abubuwa masu haɗari ko sake yin amfani da su kafin ƙonewa. Wadannan guraben konawa na barazana ga lafiyar ma’aikatan kamfanin da mazauna kusa da su, kuma yawancinsu ba sa samar da wutar lantarki.

Ana ci gaba da kallon samar da wutar lantarki a matsayin wata dabarar samar da makamashi, musamman ma kasar Sweden wacce ta kasance kan gaba wajen samar da makamashin da ba ta dace ba cikin shekaru kimanin 20 da suka gabata. Matsakaicin adadin kuzarin wutar lantarki da ake iya samarwa shine kusan 500 zuwa 600 kWh na wutar lantarki akan kowace tan na sharar da aka ƙone. [1] Don haka, kona kusan tan 2,200 na sharar gida a kowace rana, zai samar da makamashin lantarki kusan MWh 1200.

Aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin tsare-tsqre masu amfani da makamashi suna ƙone datti na birni, amma wasu suna ƙone sharar masana'antu ko sharar haɗari . Na zamani, yadda ya kamata sarrafa shuka-zuwa-makamashi nau'ikan kayan aiki kafin ƙone su kuma yana iya kasancewa tare da sake amfani da su. Abubuwan da aka kona ba za a sake yin amfani da su ba, ta hanyar ƙira ko ta tattalin arziki, kuma ba su da haɗari.

Tsare-tsare masu sharar da kuzari sun yi kama da ƙirarsu da kayan aikinsu tare da sauran masana'antar wutar lantarki ta tururi, musamman tsire-tsire masu biomass . Na farko, an kawo sharar gida a wurin. Sa'an nan, an jera sharar don cire abubuwan da za a sake yin amfani da su da kuma masu haɗari. Sai a adana sharar har sai lokacin kona ya yi. Wasu tsire-tsire suna amfani da iskar gas, amma galibi suna ƙone sharar gida kai tsaye saboda balagagge, fasaha ce mai inganci. Ana iya ƙara sharar gida a cikin tukunyar jirgi akai-akai ko a cikin batches, dangane da ƙirar shuka.

Dangane da girma, tsare-tsare masu sharar gida suna ƙone kimanin kashi 80 zuwa 90 na sharar gida. Wani lokaci, ragowar tokar tana da tsabta da za a yi amfani da ita don wasu dalilai kamar kayan da za a yi amfani da su wajen kera tubalan cinder ko gina hanya. Bugu da ƙari, ana tattara karafa da za a iya kona daga ƙasan tanderun kuma ana sayar da su zuwa wuraren da aka kafa . Wasu tsire-tsire masu ɓata-zuwa-makamashi suna juyar da ruwan gishiri zuwa ruwan sha mai daɗi a matsayin samfuri na tsarin sanyaya.

Farashin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamfanin na yau da kullun wanda ke da karfin samar da makamashin GWh 400 a kowace shekara yana kashe kusan dala kusan miliyan 440 don ginawa. Shuka-zuwa-makamashi na iya samun fa'idar tsadar tsada fiye da zaɓin wutar lantarki na gargajiya, kamar yadda ma'aikacin sharar gida zai iya karɓar kudaden shiga don karɓar sharar a matsayin madadin kuɗin zubar da sharar gida, yawanci ana kiranta da "Kudin tipping" akan kowace ton, sabanin biyan kuɗin man fetur, yayin da farashin mai zai iya ɗaukar kusan kashi 45 na kuɗin da ake kashewa don samar da wutar lantarki a masana'antar kwal, da kashi 75 ko fiye na farashin. a cikin masana'antar iskar gas . Ƙungiyar Kula da Sharar Kaya ta Ƙasa ta ƙiyasta cewa matsakaicin kuɗin tikitin Amurka na a shekarata 2002 shine $33.70 kowace ton.

Gurbacewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsiae-tsare masu sharar gida suna haifar da ƙarancin gurɓataccen iska fiye da tsire-tsire na kwal, amma fiye da tsire-tsire na gas . [2] A lokaci guda, yana da ƙarancin carbon: sarrafa sharar gida zuwa mai yana fitar da ƙarancin carbon da methane a cikin iska fiye da lalata datti a cikin wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa ko tafkin. </ref> At the same time, it is carbon-negative: processing waste into fuel releases considerably less carbon and methane into the air than having waste decay away in landfills or the lake.[3]

Waste-to-energy plants are designed to reduce the emission of air pollutants in the flue gases exhausted to the atmosphere, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and particulates, and to destroy pollutants already present in the waste, using pollution control measures such as baghouses, scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators. High temperature, efficient combustion, and effective scrubbing and controls can significantly reduce air pollution outputs.

Kona sharar gari yana haifar da iskar dioxin da furotin [4] zuwa sararin samaniya idan aka kwatanta da ƙaramin adadin da ake samu ta hanyar kona gawayi ko iskar gas. Dioxins da furans mutane da yawa suna ɗauka a matsayin babban haɗari ga lafiya. Duk da haka, ci gaban da aka samu a cikin ƙirar sarrafa hayaƙi da sabbin ƙa'idoji masu tsauri na gwamnati, da kuma adawar da jama'a suka yi ga masu tona shara na ƙaramar hukuma, sun haifar da raguwar adadin dioxins da furotin da tsire-tsire masu sharar gida ke samarwa.

Tsare-tsare masu sharar gida suna samar da tokar ƙuda da tokar ƙasa kamar yadda yake faruwa idan aka kone gawayi. Jimlar adadin tokar da tsire-tsire masu sharar gida ke samarwa ya bambanta daga kashi 15% zuwa 25 bisa dari na ainihin adadin sharar, kuma tokar kuda ta kai kusan kashi 10% zuwa 20% na jimlar tokar. [1] Tokar ƙuda, a nisa, ta ƙunshi haɗarin lafiya fiye da toka na ƙasa saboda tokar kuda ta ƙunshi ƙarfe masu guba kamar gubar, cadmium, jan ƙarfe, zinc da ƙananan adadin dioxins da furans. [5] Tokar kasa na iya ko bata ƙunsar mahimman matakan kayan haɗari na lafiya ba. A Amurka, da kuma watakila a wasu kasashe ma, doka ta bukaci a gwada tokar kafin a jefar da ita a wuraren da ake zubar da shara. Idan aka gano cewa tokar tana da haɗari, za a iya zubar da ita ne kawai a cikin wuraren da aka ƙera a hankali don hana gurɓataccen toka shiga cikin magudanan ruwa na ƙarƙashin ƙasa.

Rashin ƙamshi na iya zama matsala lokacin da wurin shuka bai keɓe ba. Wasu tsire-tsire suna adana sharar a cikin wani wuri da aka rufe tare da matsi mara kyau, wanda ke hana wari mara kyau daga tserewa, kuma ana aika iskar da aka zana daga wurin ajiyar ta hanyar tukunyar jirgi ko tacewa. Duk da haka, ba duk tsire-tsire ba ne ke ɗaukar matakan rage warin, wanda ke haifar da gunaguni, Ko abinda ba'a so

Wani batu da ya shafi zamantakewar al'umma shi ne karuwar zirga-zirgar motocin dakon shara don jigilar sharar gari zuwa wuraren da ake amfani da su wajen samar da makamashi. Saboda wannan dalili, yawancin tsire-tsire masu sharar gida suna cikin wuraren masana'antu.

Landfill gas, which contains about 50% methane, and 50% carbon dioxide, is contaminated with a small amount of pollutants. Unlike at waste-to-energy plants, there are little or no pollution controls on the burning of landfill gas. The gas is usually flared or used to run a reciprocating engine or microturbine, especially in digester gas power plants. Cleaning up the landfill gas is usually not cost effective because natural gas, which it substitutes for, is relatively cheap.

Misali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • SVZ Schwarze Pumpe GmbH a Jamus yana sarrafa nau'ikan sharar gida da yawa ta hanyar iskar gas zuwa zafi, wutar lantarki da syngas . Syngas yana canzawa zuwa methanol da formaldehyde .

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Konawa
  • Gudanar da sharar #Incineration

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "The ABC of Integrated Waste Management". Archived from the original on 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2022-03-09.
  2. Waste-to-Energy Compared to Fossil Fuels for Equal Amounts of Energy Archived 2012-02-08 at the Wayback Machine (Delaware Solid Waste Authority)
  3. "Energy from Waste: Greenhouse Gas Winner or Pollution Loser?". www.powermag.com. July 2016. Retrieved 2019-06-02.
  4. Beychok, M.R., A data base of dioxin and furan emissions from municipal refuse incinerators, Atmospheric Environment, Elsevier B.V., January 1987
  5. University of Toronto, PhD Thesis Chan, C.C., Behaviour of metals in MSW fly ash during roasting with chlorinating agents, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 1997.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]