Datti da sharar gida

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[[File:Mixed_municipal_waste.JPG|right|thumb| Mixed sharar gida, Hiriya, Sharar gida ( MSW ), wanda aka fi sani da sharar gida ko datti a Amurka da kuma shara a Biritaniya, nau'in sharar gida ne da ke kunshe da abubuwan yau da kullun da jama'a ke zubarwa. "Sharar" kuma na iya nufin musamman ga sharar abinci, kamar yadda a cikin zubar da datti ; su biyun wani lokaci ana tattara su daban. A cikin Tarayyar Turai, ma'anar ma'anar ita ce 'haɗe-haɗe da sharar gari,' da aka ba da lambar sharar gida mai lamba 20 03 01 a cikin ƙasidar shara ta Turai. Ko da yake sharar na iya samo asali ne daga wurare da yawa waɗanda ba su da alaƙa da gundumomi, rawar da ƙananan hukumomi ke takawa wajen tattarawa da sarrafa irin waɗannan sharar sun haifar da ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idodi na birni.

Abun ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da ke tattare da sharar gida sun bambanta sosai daga gundumomi zuwa gundumomi, kuma yana canzawa sosai da lokaci. A cikin ƙananan hukumomi waɗanda ke da ingantaccen tsarin sake amfani da sharar, ruwan sharar ya ƙunshi sharar da ba za a iya jurewa ba kamar fim ɗin filastik da kayan marufi da ba za a iya sake yin amfani da su ba. A farkon karni na 20, yawancin sharar gida (53%) a cikin Burtaniya sun ƙunshi tokar kwal daga bude wuta. A cikin yankunan da suka ci gaba ba tare da gagarumin aikin sake yin amfani da su ba, galibi sun haɗa da sharar abinci, sharar kasuwa, sharar gida, kwantena na filastik da kayan marufi, da sauran tarkace daban-daban daga wuraren zama, kasuwanci, cibiyoyi, da masana'antu. [1] Yawancin ma'anar ƙaƙƙarfan sharar gari ba su haɗa da sharar masana'antu, sharar aikin gona, sharar aikin gona, sharar rediyo, sharar rediyo ko sludge na najasa . Gundumar tana gudanar da tattara shara a cikin wani yanki da aka bayar. Kalmar sharar gida tana da alaƙa da sharar da aka bari daga tushen gida mai ɗauke da kayan da ba a raba ko aika don sarrafa su ba. Ana iya rarraba sharar gida ta hanyoyi da yawa, amma jeri mai zuwa yana wakiltar rarrabuwa na yau da kullun: Kamar haka

  • Sharar da za a iya lalacewa : abinci da sharar kicin, sharar kore, takarda (mafi yawan za a iya sake yin fa'ida, kodayake ana iya cire wasu abubuwan da ke da wuyar takin shuka )
  • Recyclable kayan: takarda, kwali, gilashin, kwalabe, kwalba, gwangwani gwangwani, aluminum gwangwani, aluminum tsare, karafa, wasu robobi, textiles, tufafi, taya, batura, da dai sauransu.
  • Sharar gida mara aiki: sharar gini da rushewa, datti, duwatsu, tarkace
  • Sharar gida da lantarki ( WEEE ) - kayan lantarki, fitilu fitilu, injin wanki, TV, kwamfuta, fuska, wayar hannu, agogon ƙararrawa, agogo , da dai sauransu.
  • Sharar gida: kayan sharar gida, Tetra Kunshin abinci da kwandunan sha, robobin sharar gida kamar kayan wasan yara da kayan lambu na filastik
  • Sharar gida mai haɗari ciki har da mafi yawan fenti, sinadarai, taya, batura, kwararan fitila, na'urorin lantarki, fitilu masu kyalli, gwangwani aerosol, da taki .
  • Sharar gida mai guba ciki har da magungunan kashe qwari, herbicides, da fungicides
  • Sharar lafiyar kwayoyin halitta, magungunan magunguna da suka ƙare, da sauransu.

Misali, sharar gida na yau da kullun a cikin kasar Sin yana kunshe da ragowar abinci kimanin 55.9%, takarda 8.5%, robobi 11.2%, yadi 3.2%, sharar itace 2.9%, roba 0.8%, da 18.4% wadanda ba sa konewa.

Abubuwan da ake amfani da su na sarrafa shara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bins don tattara takarda, aluminum, gilashin, kwalabe na PET da sharar da ba za a iya cinyewa ba.

Masana'antar datti na birni tana da abubuwa huɗu: sake yin amfani da su, takin gargajiya, zubarwa, da sharar-zuwa makamashi ta hanyar ƙonewa. Babu wata hanya ɗaya da za a iya amfani da ita wajen sarrafa duk magudanan sharar gida, don haka Hukumar Kare Muhalli, wata hukumar gwamnatin tarayya ta Amurka, ta ƙirƙiro dabarun matsayi na manyan sharar gida. Matsayin kula da sharar ya ƙunshi matakai huɗu da aka ba da umarnin daga mafi fifiko zuwa mafi ƙarancin hanyoyin da aka fi so dangane da ingancin muhallinsu: Rage tushe da sake amfanida su, ko sauya su; sannan subsake yin amfani da su ko takin gargajiya; dawo da makamashi ; magani da zubarwa.

Tarin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da ke aiki na tarin sun haɗa da ba wai kawai tattara datti da kayan da za a iya sake yin amfani da su ba, har ma da jigilar waɗannan kayan, bayan tattarawa, zuwa wurin da aka kwashe abin hawa. Wannan wurin yana iya zama wurin sarrafa kayan, tashar canja wuri ko wurin zubar da shara ko tarkace.

Gudanar da sharar gida da rabuwa, ajiya da sarrafawa a tushen[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gudanar da sharar gida da rabuwa sun haɗa da ayyukan da ke da alaƙa da sarrafa sharar har sai an sanya sharar a cikin kwantena don tarawa. Har ila yau, kulawa ya ƙunshi motsin kwantena masu lodi zuwa wurin tattarawa. Rarraba nau'ikan abubuwan sharar gida daban-daban wani muhimmin mataki ne a cikin kulawa da adana datti a tushen tarin.

Rarrabewa da sarrafawa da kuma canza shekar datti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nau'o'in hanyoyi da wuraren da ake amfani da su a yanzu don dawo da kayan sharar da aka raba a tushen sun haɗa da wuraren tattarawa ('kerbyside' a cikin Burtaniya), wuraren ajiyewa da kuma sayayya. Rabewa da sarrafa sharar da aka raba a madogararsa da kuma raba dazuzzuka yakan faru ne a wurin dawo da kayan aiki, tashoshin canja wuri, wuraren kone-kone da kuma cibiyoyin magani.

Canja wuri da sufuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan kashi ya ƙunshi manyan matakai guda biyu (2). Na farko, ana canja wurin sharar daga ƙaramin abin hawa zuwa manyan kayan sufuri. Daga nan ana jigilar sharar, yawanci ta nisa mai nisa, zuwa wurin sarrafawa ko zubarwa.

zubarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yau, zubar da sharar gida ta hanyar cika ƙasa ko shimfida ƙasa shine ƙarshen ƙarshen duk ƙaƙƙarfan sharar gida, ko sharar gida ne da aka tattara kuma ana kai su kai tsaye zuwa wurin sharar gida, ragowar kayan daga wuraren dawo da kayan (MRFs), ragowar daga konewar datti, takin, ko wasu abubuwa daga wurare daban-daban na sarrafa shara. Wurin tsafta na zamani ba juji ba ne; wani injin injiniya ne da ake amfani da shi don zubar da datti a cikin ƙasa ba tare da haifar da lahani ko haɗari ga lafiyar jama'a ko aminci ba, kamar matsalolin kwari da gurɓataccen ruwan ƙasa .

Sake amfani da shi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 'yan shekarun nan ƙungiyoyi masu fafutukar muhalli, irin su Freegle ko Freecycle Network, suna samun karɓuwa don sake amfani da hanyoyin sadarwar su na kan layi. Waɗannan cibiyoyin sadarwa suna ba da rajistar kan layi na abubuwan da ba a so waɗanda ba za a jefar da su ba, don daidaikun mutane da ƙungiyoyin sa-kai don sake amfani da su ko sake yin fa'ida. Don haka, wannan sabis na tushen Intanet kyauta yana rage gurɓataccen ƙasa kuma yana haɓaka tattalin arzikin kyauta .

Wuraren shara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana yin zubar da ƙasa ta hanyar zubar da ƙasa. Hanyoyin zubar da ƙasa sun bambanta, galibi ya haɗa da zubar da shara da yawa zuwa wani wuri da aka keɓe, yawanci rami ko tudu. Bayan an zubar da sharar, sai a hada shi da manyan injuna. Lokacin da tantanin da ake zubarwa ya cika, sai a “rufe shi” da takardar filastik kuma a rufe shi da datti da yawa. Wannan ita ce hanyar farko ta jibgewa a cikin Amurka saboda ƙarancin farashi da yalwar ƙasar da ba a yi amfani da ita a Arewacin ƙasar Amurka. Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta ke tsara wuraren kissar ƙasa a cikin Amurka, wanda ke aiwatar da ƙa'idodin da aka bayar a cikin Dokar Kula da Albarkatun Albarkatun ƙasa, kamar buƙatun layin da ruwa na ƙasa. [2] Wannan shi ne saboda zubar da ƙasa yana haifar da barazanar ƙazanta kuma yana iya gurɓata ruwan ƙasa. Kamfanoni masu zubar da ruwa suna rufe alamun gurɓatawa yadda ya kamata kuma galibi yana da wuya a ga wata shaida. Galibi wuraren zubar da ƙasa suna kewaye da manyan bango ko shingen da ke ɓoye tudun tarkace. Ana fesa adadin warin sinadari mai yawa a cikin iskar da ke kewaye da wuraren ajiyar ƙasa don ɓoye shaidar ruɓewar da ke cikin shukar.

Ƙarfafa makamashi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Za a iya amfani da dattin na birni don samar da makamashi saboda abun ciki na lipid da ke cikinsa. Yawancin samfuran MSW za a iya canza su zuwa makamashi mai tsabta idan ana iya isa ga abun ciki na lipid da amfani. An haɓaka fasahohi da yawa waɗanda ke sa aikin MSW don samar da makamashi ya zama mafi tsabta kuma mafi tattalin arziƙi fiye da kowane lokaci, gami da kama iskar gas, konewa, pyrolysis, gasification, da iskar gas <i id="mwsw">na</i> plasma .[3]

Yayin da tsofaffin tsare-tsare masu ƙona sharar suka fitar da gurɓataccen abu, sauye-sauyen tsari na kwanan nan da sabbin fasahohi sun rage wannan damuwa sosai.[4] Dokokin Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) a cikin shekarun 1995 da 2000 karkashin Dokar Tsabtace Tsabtace sun yi nasarar rage fitar da dioxins daga wuraren sharar gida zuwa makamashi da fiye da kashi 99 cikin 100 a kasa da matakan a shekarata 1990, yayin da hayakin mercury ya ragu da sama da 90. kashi dari. web|url=http://www.eesi.org/files/eesi_msw_issuebrief_072109.pdf%7Ctitle=Environmental and Energy Study Institute Issue Brief}}</ref> EPA ta lura da waɗannan haɓakawa a cikin shekarar 2003, suna ambaton sharar gida-zuwa makamashi a matsayin tushen wutar lantarki "tare da ƙarancin tasirin muhalli fiye da kowane tushen wutar lantarki ". [5] [6][7]

Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content The EPA noted these improvements in 2003, citing waste-to-energy as a power source "with less environmental impact than almost any other source of electricity".[8]

Duba sauran abubuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Category: Sharar gida
  • Garbology (nazarin sharar zamani da shara)
  • Jerin gajerun sarrafa shara
  • MSW/LFG (sharar gida da iskar gas )
  • Methanol man #Tarihi da samarwa
  • Najasa
  • Gudanar da sharar gida
  • Rage sharar gida
  • Kasuwancin sharar duniya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Non-hazardous Waste U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Municipal Solid Waste
  2. Horinko, Marianne, Cathryn Courtin. “Waste Management: A Half Century of Progress.” EPA Alumni Association. March 2016.
  3. Caircross, Richard (1 January 2018). "Longitudinal Study of Wastewater Greases and Their Potential for the Production of Biofuels". Energy and Fuels. 32. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b03550. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  4. "Environmental and Energy Study Institute Issue Brief" (PDF).
  5. Caircross, Richard (1 January 2018). "Longitudinal Study of Wastewater Greases and Their Potential for the Production of Biofuels". Energy and Fuels. 32. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b03550. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  6. "Environmental and Energy Study Institute Issue Brief" (PDF).
  7. Agaton, Casper Boongaling; Guno, Charmaine Samala; Villanueva, Resy Ordona; Villanueva, Riza Ordona (2020-10-01). "Economic analysis of waste-to-energy investment in the Philippines: A real options approach". Applied Energy (in Turanci). 275: 115265. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115265. ISSN 0306-2619.
  8. U.S. EPA Letter to Maria Zannes, President, Integrated Waste Services Association Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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