Sharar gida mai haɗari

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sharar gida mai haɗari ita ce sharar gida da ke da haɗari ko haɗari ga lafiyar jama'a ko muhalli .

  • Halayen sharar fage abubuwa ne waɗanda aka sani ko aka gwada su don nuna ɗaya ko fiye daga cikin halaye masu haɗari masu zuwa:
    • Rashin wuta.
    • Reactivity
    • Lalata
    • Guba
  • Sharar da aka jera sune kayan da hukumomin hukuma ke jera su a matsayin sharar gida mai haɗari waɗanda ke fitowa daga tushe marasa takamaiman tushe, takamaiman tushe, ko samfuran sinadarai da aka jefar . [1]

Za a iya samun sharar gida mai haɗari a cikin gurare daban-daban na zahiri kamar gas, ruwa, ko daskararru. Sharar da ke da haɗari wani nau'in sharar gida ne na musamman domin ba za a iya zubar da shi ta hanyoyin gama gari kamar sauran samfuran rayuwarmu ta yau da kullun ba. Dangane da yanayin jiki na sharar gida, ana iya buƙatar magani da matakan ƙarfafawa.

Kasashen duniya sun ayyana kula da datti da sinadarai masu hatsari a matsayin wani muhimmin bangare na bunkasa tattalin arziki mai dorewa, tare da ci gaba mai dorewa har kimanin 12 . Manufar 12.4 tana auna alamomi guda biyu don "cimma nasarar sarrafa ingantaccen muhalli na sinadarai da duk sharar gida a tsawon rayuwarsu". [2] [3]

Kasashe a ƙalla 199 ne suka rattaba hannu kan Yarjejeniyar Basel kan Kula da Motsin Kan Iyakoki na Barazana masu haɗari da zubar da su kuma ta fara aiki a shekara ta 1992. An saka filastik a cikin taron a shekarata 2019.

A duk duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A duk duniya, Hukumar Kula da Muhalli ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNEP) ta kiyasta cewa sama da tan miliyan 400 na sharar fage ne ake samarwa a duk duniya a kowace shekara, galibi daga kasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu (Schmit, 1999). Kimanin kashi 1 cikin 100 na wannan ana jigilar su ne ta iyakokin kasa da kasa, tare da yawancin abubuwan da ke faruwa tsakanin kasashe a cikin Kungiyar Hadin Kan Tattalin Arziki da Ci Gaba (OECD) (Krueger, 1999). Daya daga cikin dalilan da ya sa kasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu ke jigilar dattin datti zuwa kasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu don zubar da su shi ne hauhawar farashin zubar da shara a cikin gida. [4]

Kasashe kimanin 199 ne suka rattaba hannu kan Yarjejeniyar Basel kan Kula da Motsin Kan Iyakoki na Barazana masu haɗari da zubar da su kuma ta fara aiki a shekara ta 1992. An saka filastik a cikin taron a 2019.

Tarihin tsari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dokar Kare Albarkatu da Farfadowa (RCRA)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sharar gida mai haɗari sharar gida ce da ke da kaddarorin da ke sanya su haɗari ko mai yuwuwar cutar da lafiyar ɗan adam ko muhalli. Sharar gida masu haɗari na iya zama ruwaye, daskararru, iskar gas, ko sludges. Zasu iya zama samfuran samfuran masana'antu ko samfuran kasuwanci kawai da aka watsar, kamar tsabtace ruwa ko magungunan kashe qwari. A cikin sharuɗɗan tsari, sharar gida mai haɗari na RCRA sharar gida ce da ke bayyana akan ɗaya daga cikin jerin sharar ƙasa huɗu (F-list, K-list, P-list, ko U-list), ko nuna aƙalla ɗaya daga cikin halaye huɗu masu zuwa; ignitability, lalata, reactivity, ko guba. a cikin Amurka, ana tsara sharar fage masu haɗari a ƙarƙashin Dokar Kare Albarkatu da Farfaɗowa (RCRA), Subtitle C. [5]

Ta hanyar ma'anar, EPA ta ƙaddara cewa wasu takamaiman sharar gida suna da haɗari. Ana shigar da waɗannan sharar gida cikin lissafin da Hukumar ta buga. An tsara waɗannan jerin sunayen zuwa nau'i uku: F-jeri (ba ƙayyadaddun sharar gida ba) da aka samo a cikin ƙa'idodi a 40 CFR 261.31, K-list (sharar gida na musamman) da aka samu a cikin ƙa'idodin a 40 CFR 261.32, da P-list da kuma U-list (kayayyakin sinadarai da aka jefar) da aka samu a cikin ƙa'idodi a 40 CFR 261.33.

Tsarin rikodi na RCRA yana taimakawa wajen bin tsarin rayuwar sharar da ke da haɗari kuma yana rage adadin sharar da aka zubar ba bisa ka'ida ba, Ko sharadi.

Cikakken Martanin Muhalli, Ramuwa, da Dokar Alhaki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ƙaddamar da cikakkiyar Amsar Muhalli, Ramuwa, da Dokar Lamuni (CERCLA) a cikin shekarata 1980. Gudunmawar farko ta CERCLA ita ce ƙirƙirar " Superfund " da samar da tsaftacewa da gyara wuraren sharar da aka yi watsi da su. CERCLA tana magance abubuwan da aka fitar na tarihi na abubuwan haɗari, amma ba ta sarrafa sharar fage na musamman.

Sharar gida mai haɗari a cikin Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ƙasar Amurka, ana tsara magani, adanawa, da zubar da sharar gida a ƙarƙashin Dokar Kare Albarkatu da Farfaɗowa (RCRA). An bayyana sharar haɗari a ƙarƙashin RCRA a cikin 40 CFR 261 inda aka raba su zuwa manyan nau'i biyu: sharar gida da kuma jera sharar gida. [6]

Bukatun RCRA sun shafi duk kamfanonin da ke haifar da sharar gida da kuma kamfanonin da ke adanawa ko zubar da sharar gida a Amurka. Yawancin nau'ikan kasuwancin suna haifar da sharar gida mai haɗari. Busassun shara, shagunan gyaran mota, asibitoci, masu kashe wuta, da wuraren sarrafa hotuna na iya haifar da sharar gida mai haɗari. Wasu masu samar da shara masu haɗari sune manyan kamfanoni kamar masana'antun sinadarai, kamfanonin lantarki, da matatun mai .

Cibiyar Amurka da ke kula, adanawa, ko zubar da sharar gida dole ne ta sami izini don yin hakan a ƙarƙashin RCRA. Masu janareta da masu jigilar sharar gida dole ne su cika takamaiman buƙatu don sarrafawa, sarrafawa, da bin diddigin sharar. Ta hanyar RCRA, Majalisa ta umurci Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) don ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodi don sarrafa sharar gida mai haɗari. A karkashin wannan wa'adin, EPA ta ɓullo da ƙaƙƙarfan buƙatu don duk abubuwan sarrafa sharar da suka haɗa da jiyya, adanawa, da zubar da sharar gida mai haɗari. Baya ga waɗannan buƙatun tarayya, jihohi na iya haɓaka ƙaƙƙarfan buƙatu waɗanda suka fi girma fiye da ƙa'idodin tarayya. Bugu da ƙari kuma, RCRA tana ba wa jihohi damar haɓaka shirye-shiryen tsarawa waɗanda aƙalla ke da ƙarfi kamar RCRA kuma, bayan EPA ta sake dubawa, jihohi na iya ɗaukar alhakin aiwatar da buƙatun ƙarƙashin RCRA. Yawancin jihohi suna amfani da wannan hukuma, suna aiwatar da nasu shirye-shiryen sharar gida masu haɗari waɗanda aƙalla suna da ƙarfi, kuma a wasu lokuta sun fi tsarin tarayya da gamayya ƙarfi.

Tsarukan Taswirorin Sharar Sharar gida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Amurka tana ba da kayan aiki da yawa don yin taswirar tarkace masu haɗari zuwa takamaiman wurare. Waɗannan kayan aikin kuma suna ba mai amfani damar duba ƙarin bayani.

  • TOXMAP sabis ne na Tsarin Bayanai na Geographic (GIS) daga Sashen Sabis na Sabis na Musamman na Laburare na Magunguna na Amurka (NLM) wanda ya yi amfani da taswirorin Amurka don taimakawa masu amfani su gano bayanan gani daga Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka . EPA _ Gwamnatin Tarayyar Amurka ce ta dauki nauyin wannan albarkatun. An ɗauko bayanan sinadarai na TOXMAP da bayanan lafiyar muhalli daga NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET), PubMed, da sauran tushe masu ƙarfi.
  • Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) "Inda kuke Rayuwa" [1] tana ba masu amfani damar zaɓar yanki daga taswira don nemo bayanai game da rukunin yanar gizo na Superfund a wannan yankin ko ɓangaren.

Sharar gida na duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sharar gida na duniya wani nau'i ne na musamman na sharar gida masu haɗari waɗanda (a cikin Amurka ):

  • gabaɗaya suna haifar da ƙarancin barazanar dangi da sauran sharar gida masu haɗari suna ko'ina kuma ana samarwa da yawa da yawa ta babban adadin janareta.

Wasu daga cikin "sharar gida" na yau da kullun sune: kwararan fitila mai kyalli, wasu batura na musamman (misali lithium ko gubar mai ɗauke da batura), bututun ray na cathode, da na'urori masu ɗauke da mercury.

Sharar gida na duniya suna ƙarƙashin ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan buƙatun tsari. Ana iya rarraba ƙananan janareta na sharar duniya a matsayin "masu keɓanta ƙananan janareta na sharaɗi" (CESQGs) waɗanda ke sakin su daga wasu ƙa'idodin ƙa'idodi don sarrafawa da adana datti masu haɗari.

Dole ne a zubar da sharar duniya yadda ya kamata. (Don ƙarin bayani, duba Bayyani na Bukatun don Keɓance Ƙananan Ƙirar Ƙirar Ƙirar Ƙarya )

Sharar gida mai haɗari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sharar gida mai haɗari ta rabu don zubar da kyau
Manya-manyan tarkace tari kusa da tarin PAD na 'Haɗarin Gida' na EPA

Sharar gida mai haɗari (HHW), wanda kuma ake kira sharar gida mai haɗari ko kayan gida na musamman, sharar gida ce da ake samarwa daga gidajen zama. HHW ya shafi sharar gida ne kawai da ke fitowa daga amfani da kayan da aka yiwa lakabi da siyarwa don "amfanin gida". Sharar da kamfani ke samarwa ko a wurin masana'antu ba HHW ba ne.

Jeri mai zuwa ya ƙunshi nau'ikan da ake yawan amfani da su ga HHW. Yana da mahimmanci a lura cewa yawancin waɗannan nau'ikan sun mamaye kuma yawancin sharar gida na iya faɗuwa zuwa nau'i-nau'i da yawa:

  • Paints da sauran ƙarfi
  • Sharar gida (amfani da man mota, maganin daskarewa, da sauransu. )
  • Maganin kashe kwari ( kwari, herbicides, fungicides, da dai sauransu). )
  • Mercury - wanda ke ƙunshe da sharar gida (ma'aunin zafi da sanyio, masu sauyawa, hasken walƙiya, da sauransu. )
  • Electronics ( kwamfutoci, talabijin, wayoyin hannu )
  • Aerosols / propane cylinders
  • Ma'aikatan Caustics / Tsaftacewa
  • Refrigerant - kayan aikin da ya ƙunshi
  • Wasu ƙwararrun batura (misali lithium, nickel cadmium, ko baturan ƙwayoyin maɓalli)
  • Harsashi
  • Asbestos
  • Batirin mota
  • Sharar gida na rediyoaktif (wasu na'urorin gano hayaki na gida ana rarraba su azaman sharar rediyo saboda suna ɗauke da ƙaramin adadin isotope americium na rediyoaktif - duba: Zubar da Gano Hayaki ).
  • Hayaki daga bututun hayaki

Zubar da datti mai haɗari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A tarihi, ana zubar da wasu tarkace masu haɗari a wuraren zubar da ƙasa na yau da kullun. Wannan ya haifar da rashin jin daɗi na abubuwa masu haɗari da ke shiga cikin ƙasa. Waɗannan sinadarai daga ƙarshe sun shiga tsarin tsarin ruwa na halitta. Yawancin wuraren zubar da ƙasa a yanzu suna buƙatar matakan kariya daga gurɓacewar ruwan ƙasa. Alal misali, dole ne a shigar da shinge tare da harsashin ginin don ya ƙunshi abubuwa masu haɗari waɗanda za su iya zama a cikin sharar da aka zubar. A halin yanzu, sharar gida masu haɗari dole ne a sau da yawa a daidaita su kuma ƙarfafa su don shiga wurin zubar da ƙasa kuma dole ne a yi musu magani daban-daban don daidaitawa da zubar da su. Yawancin kayan da za a iya kunna wuta za a iya sake yin fa'ida su zama man masana'antu. Ana iya sake yin amfani da wasu kayan da ke da abubuwa masu haɗari, kamar batirin gubar acid.

Sake yin amfani da su[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Recycling video

Ana iya sake yin amfani da wasu tarkace masu haɗari zuwa sabbin samfura. Misalai na iya haɗawa da batirin gubar-acid ko allunan kewayawa na lantarki . Lokacin da ƙarfe masu nauyi a cikin irin waɗannan nau'ikan toka suka bi hanyar da ta dace, za su iya ɗaure su da wasu gurɓatattun abubuwa kuma su mayar da su cikin daskararrun da za a iya zubar da su cikin sauƙi, ko kuma ana iya amfani da su azaman cikar pavement. Irin waɗannan jiyya suna rage matakin barazanar sinadarai masu cutarwa, kamar kuda da toka na ƙasa ,[ana buƙatar hujja] yayin da ake sake yin amfani da amintaccen samfurin. Akwai wurin sake yin amfani da su a Oxnard, CA. Birnin baya cajin duk wani abu mai haɗari da ake zubarwa, amma akwai iyaka ga nawa zaka iya kawowa kowane wata. Wato a Baya ga sharar gida mai haɗari, birnin kuma yana ba ku damar zubar da sharar lantarki, fitilu, da batura. [7]

Konawa, lalacewa da sharar gida-makamashi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sharar gida mai haɗari na iya "lalata". Misali, ta hanyar ƙona su a yanayin zafi mai zafi, ana iya kona sharar da ake iya ƙonewa a wasu lokuta azaman tushen makamashi. Alal misali, dakunan dakunan siminti da yawa suna ƙone datti masu haɗari kamar mai da aka yi amfani da su ko sauran ƙauye. A yau, maganin ƙonawa ba wai kawai rage adadin datti mai haɗari ba, har ma yana samar da makamashi daga iskar gas da aka fitar a cikin tsari. An san cewa wannan maganin sharar gida na musamman yana fitar da iskar gas mai guba da ake samarwa ta hanyar konewar samfuran ko wasu kayan da za su iya shafar muhalli. Duk da haka, a yanzun fasahar zamani ta samar da ingantattun raka'a na ƙonawa waɗanda ke sarrafa waɗannan hayaki har zuwa lokacin da ake ɗaukar wannan magani a matsayin zaɓi mafi fa'ida. Akwai nau'ikan incinerators daban-daban waɗanda suka bambanta dangane da halayen sharar gida. Dan haka yasa Ƙunnawar iska wata hanya ce da ake amfani da ita don magance datti masu haɗari. Kamar dai a cikin ƙonawa na kowa, ƙonewa yana faruwa, duk da haka sarrafa adadin iskar oxygen da aka yarda ya tabbatar da cewa yana da mahimmanci don rage adadin abubuwan da aka haifar. Konawar iskar da ake fama da yunwa wani ci gaba ne na masu ƙonewa na gargajiya ta fuskar gurɓacewar iska. Yin amfani da wannan fasaha, yana yiwuwa a sarrafa yawan konewa na sharar gida don haka rage gurɓataccen iska da aka samar a cikin tsari.

Rushewar shara mai haɗari (sequestering, ware, da sauransu. )[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana iya ajiye sharar haɗari a cikin wurin zubar da shara mai haɗari ko wurin zubar da su na dindindin. "Ta fuskar sharar da ke da hatsari, ana bayyana wurin zubar da shara a matsayin wurin zubar da ruwa ko kuma wani bangare na wurin da ake sanya sharar hadari ko a kasa wanda kuma ba tudu ba ne, wurin kula da kasa, dagewa sama, rijiyar allura ta karkashin kasa, Samuwar kubba na gishiri, samuwar gadon gishiri, ma'adanan karkashin kasa, kogo, ramuka, ko sashin kula da aikin gyara (40 CFR 260.10)." [8] [9]

Pyrolysis[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙona katako na itace, yana nuna matakai daban-daban na pyrolysis wanda ya biyo baya konewa

Ana iya kawar da wasu nau'ikan sharar gida masu haɗari ta amfani da pyrolysis a cikin matsanancin zafin jiki ba lallai ba ne ta hanyar baka na lantarki amma yunwar iskar oxygen don guje wa konewa. Koyaya, lokacin da aka yi amfani da baka na lantarki don samar da zafin da ake buƙata (fiye da zafin jiki na digiri 3000) duk kayan (sharar gida) da aka gabatar a cikin tsari za su narke su zama narkakken slag kuma ana kiran wannan fasaha Plasma ba pyrolysis ba. Fasahar Plasma tana samar da kayan da ba su da amfani kuma idan an sanyaya su suna da ƙarfi su zama dutse kamar abu. Waɗannan hanyoyin jiyya suna da tsada sosai amma ana iya fin fin ƙonawa mai zafi a wasu yanayi kamar lalata nau'ikan sharar kwayoyin halitta, gami da PCBs, magungunan kashe qwari da sauran hanyoyi ko abubuwan gurɓatattun ƙwayoyin halitta.

Duba sauran abubuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 40 CFR, 261.31 through .33
  2. United Nations (2017) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/71/313)
  3. List of Sustainable Development Goal targets and indicators#Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Orloff, Kenneth 2003
  5. Horinko, Marianne, Cathryn Courtin. “Waste Management: A Half Century of Progress.” EPA Alumni Association. March 2016.
  6. 40 CFR 261
  7. “Government.” City Of Oxnard, www.oxnard.org/household-hazardous-waste/.
  8. Hazardous Waste Landfills
  9. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste