Yanar Gizo na Duniya

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Wikidata.svgYanar Gizo na Duniya
information system (en) Fassara da hypertext system (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na service on internet (en) Fassara da digital media (en) Fassara
Farawa Disamba 1990 da 12 ga Maris, 1989
Gajeren suna WWW da TTT
Public domain date (en) Fassara 30 ga Afirilu, 1993
Influenced by (en) Fassara ENQUIRE (en) Fassara, The Interactive Encyclopedia System (en) Fassara da HyperCard (en) Fassara
Significant event (en) Fassara 30th anniversary of the World Wide Web (en) Fassara
Yana haddasa decline of newspapers (en) Fassara
Discoverer or inventor (en) Fassara Tim Berners-Lee (en) Fassara da Robert Cailliau (en) Fassara
Time of discovery or invention (en) Fassara 1990
Tarihin maudu'i history of the World Wide Web (en) Fassara
ACM Classification Code (2012) (en) Fassara 10003260
Shafin yanar gizo da aka nuna a cikin burauzar yanar gizo
Taswirar duniya na ƙididdigar gidan yanar gizo don ƙasashe a cikin 2014

Gidan yanar gizo na duniya ( WWW ),ya kasan ce shi ne wanda akafi sani da yanar gizo, kuma tsari ne na bayanai inda ake gano takardu da sauran kayan yanar gizo ta Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, kamar su https://example.com/ ), wanda zai iya haɗawa da hyperlinks, kuma ana samun damar ta Intanet.[1][2]Ana tura albarkatun Gidan yanar gizon ta hanyar Hanyar Canza Hanyar Hypertext (HTTP), mai yuwuwar samun damar ta hanyar aikace-aikacen software da ake kira burauzar yanar gizo, kuma ana wallafa su ta hanyar wata manhaja da ake kira sabar yanar gizo . Gidan yanar gizo ba daidai yake da Intanet ba, wanda ya riga ya tsara gidan yanar gizon ta wata hanyar ta sama da shekaru 20 kuma akan fasahar da aka gina Gidan yanar gizon.

Wani Masanin kimiyyar Ingilishi Tim Berners-Lee ne ya kirkiro Yanar Gizon Duniya a shekarar 1989. Ya rubuta gidan yanar gizo na farko a cikin 1990 yayin aiki a CERN kusa da Geneva, Switzerland.[3][4] An saki mai binciken ne a wajen CERN zuwa wasu cibiyoyin bincike wanda ya fara a watan Janairun 1991, sannan ga sauran jama'a a watan Agusta 1991. Yanar gizo ta fara amfani da yau da kullun a cikin 1993-4, lokacin da rukunin yanar gizo don amfanin gaba ɗaya suka fara samuwa.[5] Gidan yanar gizon Duniya ya kasan ce tushen ci gaban Zamanin Bayanai ne, kuma shi ne babban kayan aikin biliyoyin mutane da suke amfani da su don mu'amala da Intanet.[6][7][8][9][10]

Albarkatun gidan yanar gizo na iya zama kowane irin saukakkun kafofin watsa labarai, amma a shafukan yanar gizo rubutattun takardu ne wadanda aka tsara a cikin Harshen Markup watau (HTML).[11] Special HTML ginin kalma nuni saka hyperlinks da URLs wanda izni masu amfani don Kewaya zuwa wasu yanar gizo albarkatu. Bugu da kari ga rubutu, shafukan yanar gizo na iya ƙunsar nassoshi images, video, audio, da kuma software aka gyara wanda ake ko dai a nuna ko ƙ kashe a cikin mai amfani da yanar gizo browser to sa shafukan ko kõguna na multimedia content.

Yawancin albarkatun yanar gizo tare da jigo ɗaya kuma yawanci suna yanki ɗaya, suna yin rukunin yanar gizo . Ana adana shafukan yanar gizo a cikin kwamfutocin da ke gudanar da sabar yanar gizo, wanda shine shiri wanda ke amsa buƙatun da aka yi ta Intanet daga masu binciken yanar gizo da ke aiki a kwamfutar mai amfani. Ana iya samar da abun cikin gidan yanar gizo ta hanyar mai bugawa, ko ta hanyar mu'amala daga abubuwan da mai amfani ya samar . An kuma samar da rukunin yanar gizo don dunbin dalilai na bayanai, nishaɗi, kasuwanci, da kuma dalilai na gwamnati.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

NeXT Computer da Tim Berners-Lee yayi amfani da ita a CERN
Hanyar da aka haife WWW (ko yanar gizo ta duniya). CERN, kasan ginin No.1

Tunanin da ake amfani da shi na hypertexttext ya samo asali ne daga ayyukan da suka gabata daga shekarun 1960, kamar Hypertext Editing System (HES) a Jami'ar Brown, Ted Nelson 's Project Xanadu, da Douglas Engelbart 's oN-Line System (NLS). Dukansu Nelson kuma Engelbart sun bi da bi wahayi zuwa gare ta Vannevar Bush 's microfilm tushen memex, wanda aka bayyana a cikin shekarar 1945 muqala " Kamar yadda Muka yi zaton "[12] Hangen nesa na Tim Berners-Lee game da tsarin haɗin yanar gizo wanda ya haɗu ya zama mai yuwuwa a rabin rabin 1980s.[13] Zuwa 1985, Intanet na duniya ya fara yaduwa a Turai kuma Tsarin suna (wanda aka gina Uniform Resource Locator akansa ) ya kasance. A cikin 1988 farkon haɗin IP kai tsaye tsakanin Turai da Arewacin Amurka aka yi kuma Berners-Lee ya fara tattaunawa a fili game da yiwuwar tsarin yanar gizo a CERN.[14]

Yayin da yake aiki a CERN, Berners-Lee ya zama mai takaici da rashin iya aiki da matsalolin da ake fuskanta ta hanyar nemo bayanan da aka adana akan kwamfutoci daban-daban.[15] A ranar 12 ga Maris din 1989, ya gabatar da wata takarda, mai taken "Gudanar da Bayani: Ba da Shawara"[16] ga gudanarwa a CERN na wani tsarin da ake kira "Mesh" wanda ya yi nuni da INQUIRE, aikin samar da bayanai da kayan aikin software da ya gina a 1980, wanda sun yi amfani da kalmar "yanar gizo" kuma sun bayyana ingantaccen tsarin sarrafa bayanai dangane da hanyoyin da aka saka a matsayin rubutu: "Ka yi tunanin, abubuwan nassoshi a cikin wannan daftarin duk suna da alaƙa da adireshin hanyar sadarwar abin da suka ambata, don haka yayin karatun wannan takaddar, za ku iya tsallake zuwa gare su ta hanyar danna linzamin kwamfuta. " Irin wannan tsarin, in ji shi, ana iya komawa zuwa ga amfani da ɗayan ma'anar kalmar hypertext, kalmar da ya ce an ƙirƙira ta a cikin shekarun 1950. Babu wani dalili, shawarar ta ci gaba, me yasa irin waɗannan hanyoyin haɗin hypertext ɗin ba za su iya haɗa da takardun multimedia ba har da zane-zane, magana da bidiyo, don haka Berners-Lee ya ci gaba da amfani da kalmar hypermedia.[17]

Tare da taimako daga abokin aikinsa kuma dan uwansa mai son karin bayani Robert Cailliau ya wallafa wani tsari na yau da kullun a ranar 12 ga Nuwamba 1990 don gina "aikin Hypertext" da ake kira "WorldWideWeb" (kalma ɗaya, da aka taƙaita 'W3') a matsayin "yanar gizo" na "takardun hypertext "da" masu bincike "za su kalla ta amfani da tsarin gine-ginen abokin ciniki.[18][19] A wannan lokacin HTML da HTTP sun riga sun kasance cikin ci gaba na kimanin watanni biyu kuma sabar gidan yanar gizo ta farko ta yi kusan wata ɗaya daga kammala gwajin farko na nasara. Wannan shawarar ta kiyasta cewa za a samar da yanar gizo mai karantarwa cikin watanni uku kuma zai dauki watanni shida kafin a cimma "kirkirar sabbin hanyoyin yanar gizo da masu karatu, don haka marubucin ya zama na duniya" da kuma "kai tsaye sanarwar mai karatu lokacin da aka samu wadatar sabbin kayan masarufi a gare shi ". Duk da yake burin da aka karanta kawai ya cika, samun damar rubutun kayan yanar gizo ya dau tsawon lokaci kafin ya girma, tare da ra'ayin wiki , WebDAV, shafukan yanar gizo, Yanar gizo 2.0 da RSS / Atom.[20]

Cibiyar bayanai ta CERN a cikin 2010 ta gina wasu sabar WWW

An tsara shawarar ne bayan mai karanta SGML Dynatext ta hanyar Litattafan Litattafan Lantarki, tazarar da aka samu daga Cibiyar Bincike kan Bayanai da Sanin Karatu a Jami'ar Brown . Tsarin Dynatext, wanda CERN ke da lasisi, ya kasance babban mahimmin dan wasa a fadada SGML ISO 8879: 1986 zuwa Hypermedia a cikin HyTime, amma ana ganin yayi tsada sosai kuma yana da manufofin lasisin da bai dace ba don amfani dashi a cikin al'umman babban kimiyyar lissafi, watau a Kudin kowane takardu da kowane canjin takardu.[ana buƙatar hujja] NEXT Computer ne Berners-Lee yayi amfani dashi azaman sabar gidan yanar gizo ta farko sannan kuma ya rubuta farkon burauzar yanar gizo a 1990. Zuwa Kirsimeti 1990, Berners-Lee ya gina duk kayan aikin da ake buƙata don Gidan yanar gizo mai aiki:[21] gidan yanar gizo na farko ( WorldWideWeb, wanda kuma editan yanar gizo ne ) da kuma sabar gidan yanar gizo ta farko. Shafin farko,[22] wanda ya bayyana aikin kansa, an buga shi ne a ranar 20 ga watan Disamba 1990.[23]

Shafin yanar gizon farko na iya ɓacewa, amma Paul Jones na UNC-Chapel Hill a North Carolina ya sanar a cikin Mayu 2013 cewa Berners-Lee ya ba shi abin da ya ce shi ne mafi shahararren shafin yanar gizon yayin ziyarar UNC a 1991. Jones ya adana shi a kan babbar masarrafar ido da a kan kwamfutarsa ta Gaba.[24] A ranar 6 ga watan Agusta 1991, Berners-Lee ya wallafa taƙaitaccen taƙaitaccen aikin Yanar Gizon onaukacin Yanar Gizon a kan gungun labaran alt.hypertext.[25] Wannan kwanan wata yana rikicewa tare da wadatar jama'a na sabobin yanar gizo na farko, wanda ya faru watanni da suka gabata. A matsayin wani misali na irin wannan rudanin, kafofin yada labarai da dama sun ruwaito cewa hoto na farko a Yanar gizo Berners-Lee ne ya buga shi a 1992, hoton kungiyar gidan CERN Les Horribles Cernettes da Silvano de Gennaro ya dauka; Gennaro ya karyata wannan labarin, inda ya rubuta cewa kafofin yada labarai suna "gurbata maganarmu kwata-kwata saboda tsabar rashi"[26]

An girka sabar farko a wajen Turai a watan Disambar 1991 a Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a Palo Alto, California, don karɓar bayanan SPIERS -HEP.[27][28][29][30]

Ci gaban Berners-Lee shine ya auri hypertext ga Intanit. A cikin littafin saƙa yanar gizo, ya bayyana cewa ya sha ba da shawara ga mambobin bangarorin fasaha guda biyu cewa mai yiwuwa a yi aure tsakanin fasahohin biyu. Amma, lokacin da babu wanda ya ɗauki gayyatarsa, daga ƙarshe ya ɗauki aikin da kansa. A cikin hakan, ya haɓaka fasahohi masu mahimmanci guda uku:

  • wani tsarin ganowa na musamman na duniya don albarkatu akan Yanar gizo da sauran wurare, mai gano takaddun duniya (UDI), wanda daga baya aka sani da mai gano kayan aiki daidai (URL) da mai gano kayan aiki daidai (URI);
  • Harshen bugawa Harshen Harshen Harshe (HTML);
  • da Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).[31]

Yanar Gizon Duniya yana da bambance-bambance da yawa daga wasu tsarin hypertext da ake da su a lokacin. Gidan yanar gizon yana buƙatar haɗin haɗin unidirectional ne kawai maimakon na biyun hanya, yana ba da damar wani ya danganta zuwa wata hanyar ba tare da mai shi ba. Hakanan ya rage wahalar aiwatar da sabar yanar gizo da masu bincike (in aka kwatanta da tsarin da ya gabata), amma kuma ya gabatar da matsalar rashin tabbas na lalacewar mahada . Ba kamar magabata ba kamar HyperCard, Gidan yanar gizo na Duniya ba mallaki bane, yana ba da damar haɓaka sabobin da abokan ciniki da kansu kuma ƙara ƙari ba tare da ƙuntatawa lasisi ba. A ranar 30 ga Afrilu 1993, CERN ta ba da sanarwar cewa Yanar Gizon Duniya zai kasance kyauta ga kowa, ba tare da biyan kuɗi ba.[32]Watanni biyu masu zuwa bayan sanarwar cewa aiwatar da sabar ta Gopher yarjejeniya bata da 'yanci yin amfani da ita, wannan ya haifar da saurin sauyawa daga Gopher da zuwa Gidan yanar gizo. Wani shahararren mai binciken gidan yanar gizo da wuri shine ViolaWWW don Unix da Tsarin Window na X.

Kasashen duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ayyukan W3C na Internationalization yana tabbatar da cewa fasahar yanar gizo tana aiki a cikin duk yaruka, rubutu, da al'adu.[33] Wanda ya fara daga 2004 ko 2005, Unicode ya sami ƙasa kuma a ƙarshe a cikin Disamba 2007 ya zarce duka ASCII da Yammacin Turai kamar yadda ake amfani da tsarin sau da yawa halin yanar gizo. [34] Asali  ba da izinin albarkatu ta hanyar URI a cikin rukunin US-ASCII. RFC 3987 yana ba da damar ƙarin haruffa - kowane hali a cikin thea'idodin Universalaukacin Duniya - kuma yanzu IRI zata iya gano albarkatu a cikin kowane yare.[35]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

    • Berners-Lee, Tim; Bray, Tim; Connolly, Dan; Cotton, Paul; Fielding, Roy; Jeckle, Mario; Lilley, Chris; Mendelsohn, Noah; Orchard, David; Walsh, Norman; Williams, Stuart (15 December 2004). "Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One". Version 20041215. W3C. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    • Berners-Lee, Tim (August 1996). "The World Wide Web: Past, Present and Future". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    • Brügger, Niels, ed, Web25: Histories from the first 25 years of the World Wide Web (Peter Lang, 2017).
    • Fielding, R.; Gettys, J.; Mogul, J.; Frystyk, H.; Masinter, L.; Leach, P.; Berners-Lee, T. (June 1999). "Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1". Request For Comments 2616. Information Sciences Institute. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    • Niels Brügger, ed. Web History (2010) 362 pages; Historical perspective on the World Wide Web, including issues of culture, content, and preservation.
    • Polo, Luciano (2003). "World Wide Web Technology Architecture: A Conceptual Analysis". New Devices.
    • Skau, H.O. (March 1990). "The World Wide Web and Health Information". New Devices.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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