Talauci

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Talauci
status (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na state (en) Fassara da social issue (en) Fassara
Karatun ta sociology of poverty (en) Fassara
Has cause (en) Fassara urban decay (en) Fassara
Yana haddasa people in poverty (en) Fassara da Yunwa
Contributing factor of (en) Fassara homelessness (en) Fassara
Alaƙanta da feminization of poverty (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da arziƙi
Handled, mitigated, or managed by (en) Fassara poverty reduction (en) Fassara
ICPC 2 ID (en) Fassara Z01

Talauci shine yanayi na samun ƴan abubuwan abin duniya kaɗan. Talauci na iya samun dalilai da tasiri daban-daban na zamantakewa, tattalin arziki da siyasa . Lokacin kimanta talauci a kididdiga ko tattalin arziki akwai manyan matakai guda biyu: cikakken talauci yana kwatanta kudaden shiga da adadin da ake buƙata don biyan bukatun mutum na yau da kullun, kamar abinci, sutura, da matsuguni ; ma'aunin talaucin dangi lokacin da mutum ba zai iya cika ƙaramin bukata na rayuwa ba, idan aka kwatanta da wasu a lokaci ɗaya da kuma guri. Ma'anar talaucin dangi ya bambanta daga wannan ƙasa zuwa wata, ko daga wannan al'umma zuwa waccan. [1][2]


A kididdiga, a shekarar 2019 , yawancin al'ummar duniya suna rayuwa cikin talauci: a cikin dalar PPP, 85% na mutane suna rayuwa a kasa da $ 30 a kowace rana, kashi biyu cikin uku suna rayuwa a kasa da $ 10 kowace rana, 10% suna rayuwa a kasa da $ 1.90 a kowace rana (matsanancin talauci). ). A cewar kungiyar Bankin Duniya a shekarar 2020, sama da kashi 40% na talakawa suna rayuwa ne a kasashen da ke fama da rikici. Ko da a lokacin da ƙasashe suka sami ci gaban tattalin arziki, ƴan ƙasa mafi talauci na ƙasashe masu matsakaicin ra'ayi akai-akai ba sa samun isasshen kaso na karuwar arzikin ƙasashensu don barin talauci. [3] Gwamnatoci da kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu sun gwada wasu manufofi da tsare-tsare daban-daban don kawar da talauci, kamar samar da wutar lantarki a yankunan karkara ko manufofin farko na gidaje a cikin birane. Tsarin manufofin kasa da kasa don kawar da fatara, wanda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta kafa a cikin 2015, an taƙaita su a cikin Manufar Ci gaba mai dorewa 1: "Babu Talauci" .

Ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa, irin su jinsi, nakasa, nuna banbancin launin fata da kabilanci, na iya kara tsananta al'amuran talauci - tare da mata, yara da 'yan tsiraru akai-akai suna ɗaukar nauyin talauci marasa daidaituwa. Haka kuma, mutane marasa galihu sun fi fuskantar illa ga tasirin wasu al'amuran zamantakewa, kamar tasirin muhalli na masana'antu ko tasirin sauyin yanayi ko wasu bala'o'i na yanayi ko matsanancin yanayi . Talauci kuma na iya kara dagula sauran matsalolin zamantakewa ; Matsalolin tattalin arziki a kan al'ummomin da ke fama da talauci akai-akai suna taka rawa wajen sare dazuzzuka, asarar rayukan halittu da rikicin kabilanci . Don haka ne, manufofin ci gaba mai dorewa na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da sauran shirye-shiryen manufofin kasa da kasa, kamar farfadowar kasa da kasa daga COVID-19, sun jaddada alakar kawar da talauci da sauran manufofin al'umma.

Ma'anoni da ilmin dabi'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar talauci ta fito daga tsohuwar (Norman) kalmar Faransanci poverté (Faransanci na zamani: pauvreté), daga Latin paupertās daga matalauta (talakawa).

Akwai ma’anoni da dama na talauci dangane da yanayin da aka sanya shi a ciki, kuma galibi yana nuni ne ga wata jiha ko yanayin da mutum ko al’umma ba su da albarkatun kuɗi da abubuwan da suka dace don wani salon rayuwa.

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya : Ainihin, talauci shine hana zabi da dama, cin mutuncin dan adam. Yana nufin rashin iya aiki yadda ya kamata a cikin al'umma. Yana nufin rashin wadatar abinci da tufatar da iyali, rashin samun makaranta ko asibitin da za a je, rashin samun filin da za a noma abinci ko aikin da za a yi don samun abin rayuwa, rashin samun bashi. Yana nufin rashin tsaro, rashin ƙarfi da keɓance mutane, gidaje da al'umma. Yana nufin mai sauƙi ga tashin hankali, kuma sau da yawa yana nuna rayuwa a cikin ƙananan wurare ko kuma maras ƙarfi, ba tare da samun ruwa mai tsabta ko tsaftar muhalli ba.

Bankin Duniya : Talauci ana bayyana rashi a cikin walwala, kuma ya ƙunshi abubuwa da yawa . Ya haɗa da ƙananan kuɗi da rashin iya siyan kayayyaki na yau da kullun da ayyuka masu mahimmanci don rayuwa tare da mutunci. Talauci ya kuma kunshi karancin lafiya da ilimi, rashin samun ruwa mai tsafta da tsaftar muhalli, rashin isasshen tsaro na jiki, rashin murya, da rashin isashen samun damar inganta rayuwar mutum.

Tarayyar Turai (EU): Ma'anar talauci a Tarayyar Turai ya sha bamban da ma'anar a sauran sassan duniya, don haka matakan da aka bullo da su na yaki da talauci a kasashen EU su ma sun sha bamban da matakan da ake dauka a sauran kasashe. Ana auna talauci dangane da rabon kudin shiga a kowace kasa memba ta amfani da layin talauci na samun kudin shiga. Ƙididdigar talauci na dangi a cikin EU an haɗa su ta hanyar Eurostat, mai kula da daidaitawa, tarawa, da yada kididdigar ƙasashe ta hanyar amfani da binciken Ƙungiyar Tarayyar Turai na Kuɗi da Yanayin Rayuwa (EU-SILC). [4]

Auna talauci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Ma'aikatan ƙaura na zamanin baƙin ciki, Arizona, Amurka, 1937

Cikakken talauci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Cikakken talauci, sau da yawa yana kama da 'matsananciyar talauci' ko 'ƙananan talauci', yana nufin ƙayyadaddun lokaci a tsakanin ƙasashe. Wannan ƙayyadaddun yanayin yana nufin “yanayin da ke tattare da matsanancin rashin buƙatun ɗan adam, gami da abinci, tsaftataccen ruwan sha, wurare tsaftatacce, lafiya, matsuguni, ilimi da bayanai. Ya dogara ba kawai ga samun kudin shiga ba har ma da samun damar yin amfani da sabis." [5] Samun kuɗin shiga ƙasa kasa da poverty line, wanda aka ayyana azaman kudin shiga da ake buƙata don siyan buƙatun yau da kullun, ana kuma magana da shi a matsayin ainihin gaskiya .

An fara bullo da layin talauci na "dala a rana" a shekara ta 1990 a matsayin ma'auni don cimma irin wadannan matakan rayuwa. Ga al'ummomin da ba sa amfani da dalar Amurka a matsayin kuɗi, "dala a rana" ba ta fassara zuwa rayuwa a yini akan daidai adadin kuɗin gida kamar yadda farashin canji ya ƙaddara . Maimakon haka, ana ƙayyade ƙimar ikon siye, wanda zai duba nawa ake buƙatar kuɗin gida don siyan abubuwan da dala za ta iya saya a Amurka. [6] Yawancin lokaci, wannan zai fassara zuwa samun ƙarancin kuɗin gida fiye da idan an yi amfani da kuɗin musanya kamar yadda Amurka ta kasance ƙasa mafi tsada. [6]

Daga 1993 zuwa 2005, Bankin Duniya ya ayyana cikakken talauci a matsayin $1.08 a rana akan irin wannan daidaiton ikon siye, bayan daidaita farashin zuwa dalar Amurka a 1993 [7] kuma a cikin 2008, an sabunta shi azaman $1.25 a rana (daidai da $1.00) rana a cikin farashin Amurka na 1996) [8] kuma a cikin 2015, an sabunta shi azaman rayuwa akan ƙasa da dalar Amurka 1.90 kowace rana, da matsakaicin talauci kamar ƙasa da $2 ko $5 a rana. Hakazalika, 'matsananciyar talauci' an bayyana shi ta wani rahoto na 2007 da Cibiyar Nazarin Manufofin Abinci ta Duniya ta fitar a matsayin rayuwa akan kasa da cents 54 a kowace rana. Matsakaicin layin talauci na $1.90 a kowace rana, kamar yadda bankin duniya ya tsara, yana da cece-kuce. Kowace al'umma tana da nata kofa ga cikakken layin talauci; a Amurka, alal misali, cikakken layin talauci ya kasance dalar Amurka 15.15 a kowace rana a shekara ta 2010 (US $ 22,000 a kowace shekara ga dangin mutane hudu), yayin da a Indiya ya kasance $ 1.0 kowace rana kuma a China cikakken layin talauci ya kasance dalar Amurka 0.55 kowace rana, kowanne akan tsarin PPP a 2010. Waɗannan layukan talauci daban-daban suna sa kwatanta bayanai tsakanin rahotannin kowace ƙasa da wahala sosai. Wasu malaman suna jayayya cewa hanyar Bankin Duniya ya sanya shingen da ya wuce gona da iri, wasu kuma suna jayayya cewa ba ta da yawa.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named unesco.org
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200909130506/https://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/poverty/
  3. B. Milanovic, Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization (Harvard Univ. Press, 2016).
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named researchgate.net
  5. UN declaration at World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in 1995
  6. 6.0 6.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named dollar
  7. amp. Missing or empty |title= (help); Missing or empty |url= (help)
  8. Empty citation (help)

[1]

  1. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/poverty/

[1]

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_World_in_Data