Adalcin Muhalli

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Adalci muhalli wani yunƙuri ne na zamantakewa don magance fallasa rashin adalci na al'ummomin matalauta da marasa galihu ga illolin da ke tattare da hakar albarkatu, sharar fage, da sauran amfanin ƙasa. [1] Motsin ya haifar da ɗaruruwan karatu waɗanda ke kafa wannan tsarin rashin daidaituwar bayyanar da cutarwar muhalli, da kuma babban ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗabi'a na wallafe-wallafen ilimin zamantakewa wanda ya haɗa da ka'idodin yanayi da adalci, dokokin muhalli da manufofin, dorewa, da ilimin kimiyyar siyasa . . [1][2] Yunkurin adalci na muhalli ya fara ne a cikin Amurka a cikin 1980s kuma ƙungiyar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam ta Amurka ta yi tasiri sosai.

Tunanin asali na adalci na muhalli a cikin 1980s ya mayar da hankali kan cutarwa ga wasu wariyar launin fata a cikin ƙasashe masu arziki kamar Amurka. Daga baya aka faɗaɗa ƙungiyar don yin la'akari da jinsi gaba ɗaya, wariyar muhalli ta ƙasa da ƙasa, da rashin daidaito tsakanin ƙungiyoyi masu rauni. Yayin da yunkurin ya samu wasu nasarori a kasashe masu tasowa da masu wadata, an mayar da nauyin muhalli zuwa Kudancin Duniya . Yunƙurin tabbatar da adalci a muhalli ya zama mafi girma a duniya, tare da wasu manufofinsa yanzu Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ta bayyana .

Ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masana ƙa'idar siyasa galibi sun ayyana adalcin muhalli a matsayin daidaitaccen rarraba kasada da fa'idojin muhalli . Sauran masana ilimin tunani sun yi ƙoƙari su wuce wannan ma'anar don gano hanyoyin da ke haifar da rarraba kasada da fa'idodi marasa daidaituwa. Waɗannan faɗoɗin ma'anoni suna nuna gaskiya da ma'ana shiga cikin yanke shawara; amincewa da zalunci da bambanci a cikin al'ummomin da abin ya shafa; da kuma karfin da jama'a ke da shi na mayar da kayayyakin zamantakewar al'umma zuwa al'umma mai ci gaba a matsayin karin ma'auni na al'umma mai adalci. [1] [3][3]

Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka ta bayyana adalcin muhalli da:

daidaitaccen kulawa da shigar da ma'ana na duk mutane ba tare da la'akari da launin fata, launi, asalin ƙasa, ko samun kuɗin shiga ba, dangane da haɓakawa, aiwatarwa, da aiwatar da dokokin muhalli, ƙa'idodi, da manufofi.

Tarihi da iyaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon motsin adalci na muhalli ana danganta shi da zanga-zangar 1982 North Carolina PCB a Warren County, NC.[4][5] Zubar da gurbatacciyar ƙasa ta PCB a cikin al'ummar Baƙar fata na Afton ya haifar da gagarumar zanga-zanga, kuma an kama sama da mutane 500. Wannan ya haifar da binciken da ke nuna cewa kabilanci shine mafi mahimmancin al'amari don hasashen sanya wuraren sharar gida masu haɗari a cikin Amurka, kuma an tsara adalcin muhalli a matsayin wariyar launin fata . Waɗannan karatun sun biyo bayan ƙin yarda da kuma ƙararraki game da zubar da shara masu haɗari a cikin matalauta, baki ɗaya, al'ummomi. [5] [6] An ƙara soki lamirin ƙungiyoyin muhalli na yau da kullun saboda manyan ƴan mazaɓar arziƙin farar fata, suna mai da hankali kan kiyayewa, da rashin magance waɗannan matsalolin daidaiton zamantakewa.

A cikin shekarun 1970s da 80s, ƙungiyoyin jama'a da ƙungiyoyin muhalli sun haɓaka ƙa'idodin muhalli waɗanda suka ƙaru farashin zubar da shara masu haɗari a cikin Amurka da sauran ƙasashe masu arzikin masana'antu. Fitar da sharar fage daga waɗannan ƙasashe zuwa Kudancin Duniya ya ƙaru a shekarun 1980 da 1990. A duniya baki ɗaya, zubar da shara mai guba, da rabon kasa, da hakar albarkatu na haifar da take hakkin bil'adama da kuma kafa tushe na yunkurin tabbatar da kare muhalli na duniya.[7]

Haɗin kai na kasa da kasa game da adalcin muhalli ya fara ne da Babban Taron Shugabancin Muhalli na Jama'a na Farko a 1991. An gudanar da wannan taron ne a birnin Washington, DC, kuma ya samu halartar wakilai sama da 650 daga kowace jiha ta Amurka, Mexico, Chile, da sauran ƙasashe.[5][6] Wakilai sun amince da ka'idoji 17 na adalci na muhalli wadanda aka yada a taron kolin Duniya na 1992 a Rio. Ƙa'ida ta 10 na sanarwar Rio game da Muhalli da Ci gaba ta bayyana cewa mutane za su sami damar samun bayanai game da al'amuran muhalli, shiga cikin yanke shawara, da samun damar yin adalci.[8][9]

Kafin taron ƙoli na jagoranci a 1991, fagagen fafutukar tabbatar da shari'ar muhalli sun yi magana da farko game da maganin guba da cutarwa ga wasu wariyar launin fata a cikin ƙasashe masu arziki; A yayin taron, an fadada shi zuwa ga lafiyar jama'a, kare lafiyar ma'aikata, amfani da filaye, sufuri, da dai sauransu. [10] Daga baya aka fadada wannan yunkuri don la'akari da jinsi gaba daya, rashin adalci na duniya, da rashin daidaito tsakanin kungiyoyi marasa galihu. Adalci na muhalli ya zama motsi mai fa'ida a duniya, kuma ya ba da gudummawar ra'ayoyi da yawa ga ilimin kimiyyar siyasa waɗanda aka ɗauka ko aka tsara su a cikin adabin ilimi. Waɗannan ra'ayoyin sun haɗa da bashi na muhalli, wariyar launin fata, adalcin yanayi, ikon mallakar abinci, lissafin kamfanoni, ecocide, yankunan sadaukarwa, muhalli na matalauta, da sauransu.

Adalci na muhalli yana ƙoƙarin faɗaɗa fa'idar dokar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam wacce a baya ta gaza kula da dangantakar da ke tsakanin muhalli da haƙƙin ɗan adam. Yawancin yarjejeniyoyin haƙƙin ɗan adam ba su da tanadin muhalli a sarari. Ƙoƙarin haɗa kariyar muhalli tare da dokokin haƙƙin ɗan adam sun haɗa da daidaita haƙƙin ɗan adam zuwa yanayi mai kyau . Haɗa kariyar muhalli cikin dokokin haƙƙin ɗan adam yana da matsala, musamman a yanayin adalci. [11]

Malamai irin su Kyle Powys Whyte da Dina Gilio-Whitaker sun tsawaita jawaban shari'ar muhalli dangane da ƴan asali da kuma ' yan mulkin mallaka . Gilio-Whitaker ya yi nuni da cewa adalcin rarraba yana ɗaukar haƙƙin haƙƙin jari-hujja na ƙasar wanda bai dace da ra'ayin ƴan asalin duniya ba. Whyte yayi magana game da adalcin muhalli dangane da sauye-sauyen bala'i da mulkin mallaka ya kawo wa muhallin da ƴan asalin ƙasar suka dogara da su tsawon shekaru aru-aru don ci gaba da rayuwa da kuma asalinsu.

Wariya na muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar adalci ta muhalli na neman magance wariyar muhalli da ke da alaƙa da zubar da shara masu haɗari, hakar albarkatu, rabon ƙasa, da sauran ayyuka. Wannan wariyar muhalli yana haifar da asarar al'adu da tattalin arziƙi na tushen ƙasa, tashin hankali na makamai (musamman ga mata da ƴan asalin ƙasa), da kuma lalata muhalli.[12]

Akwai rarrabuwa da yawa waɗanda rarraba nauyin mahalli na rashin adalci zai iya faɗi. A cikin Amurka, launin fata shine mafi mahimmancin ƙayyadaddun rashin adalci na muhalli.[13][14] A wasu ƙasashe, talauci ko ƙabilanci (Indiya) sune mahimman bayanai. Har ila yau, alaƙar ƙabilanci yana da mahimmanci a wasu ƙasashe. [4] Masana harkokin shari'a na muhalli Laura Pulido da David Pellow sun yi iƙirarin cewa amincewa da wariyar launin fata a matsayin wani abu da ya samo asali daga tushen tsarin jari-hujja na launin fata yana da mahimmanci ga motsi, tare da fifikon farar fata yana ci gaba da tsara dangantakar ɗan adam da yanayi da aiki.[15][16][17]


Sharar gida mai haɗari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin da ƙungiyoyin kare muhalli suka kara samun nasara a kasashen da suka ci gaba kamar Amurka, an karkata nauyin samar da kayayyaki a duniya zuwa Kudancin Duniya inda tsauraran dokoki na iya sa zubar da shara cikin sauki. Fitar da datti daga Amurka ya karu a cikin shekarun 1980 da 1990. Yawancin ƙasashen da abin ya shafa ba su da isasshen tsarin zubar da wannan sharar, kuma ba a sanar da al'ummomin da abin ya shafa game da hadurran da ake fuskanta. [18]

Lamarin zubar da sharar <i id="mwqQ">tekun Khian</i> ya kasance babban misali na al'amurran da suka shafi shari'ar muhalli da suka taso daga motsi na kasa da kasa na sharar guba. Ƴan kwangilar da ke zubar da toka daga wuraren tona shara a birnin Philadelphia na jihar Pennsylvania ba bisa ka'ida ba sun zubar da sharar a gabar tekun Haiti bayan wasu kasashe da dama sun ki karbar sharar. Bayan fiye da shekaru goma na muhawara, an mayar da sharar gida a Pennsylvania. [18] Lamarin ya ba da gudummawa wajen ƙirƙirar Yarjejeniyar Basel da ke tsara zirga-zirgar sharar guba a duniya.

Kasadar Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙasashe a Kudancin Duniya suna ɗaukar nauyin muhalli na abubuwan da ake samarwa a duniya da kuma tsadar cin abinci fiye da kima a cikin al'ummomin Yammacin Turai. Wannan nauyi ya ta'azzara ta hanyar sauye-sauyen amfani da filaye wanda ke kawar da filaye da yawa daga iyali da noman rayuwa zuwa saka hannun jari na kasa da kasa da yawa a hasashen filaye, noma, hakar ma'adinai, ko kiyayewa. An haifar da kwace filaye a Kudancin Duniya ta hanyar akidar neoliberal da bambance-bambance a cikin tsarin shari'a, farashin filaye, da ayyukan ka'idoji waɗanda ke sa ƙasashe a Kudancin Duniya suka yi sha'awar saka hannun jari na waje. [10] Waɗannan ƙasa suna jefa rayuwar ƴan asalin cikin haɗari da ci gaba da ayyukan zamantakewa, al'adu da na ruhaniya. Juriya ga rabon ƙasa ta hanyar aiwatar da ayyukan zamantakewa kuma yana da wahala ta hanyar rashin daidaito da rashi na zamantakewar da aka rigaya; al'ummomin da abin ya shafa galibi suna kokawa don biyan bukatunsu na yau da kullun.

Cire albarkatun[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ɗaruruwan bincike sun nuna cewa al'ummomin da aka ware suna fuskantar nauyi daidai gwargwado sakamakon illar muhalli na haƙar albarkatu. Al'ummomin da ke kusa da albarkatun kasa masu kima na yawanci suna fama da '' la'anar albarkatu '' inda suke ɗaukar tsadar muhalli na hakowa yayin da ɗan gajeren bunƙasa tattalin arziƙin da masana'antu ke haifarwa yana haifar da tabarbarewar tattalin arziki da kuma talauci. [19] Bambancin wutar lantarki tsakanin masana'antun hakar da kuma al'ummomin da abin ya shafa suna haifar da rashin adalci a cikin tsari wanda al'ummomin yankin ba za su iya shiga cikin ma'ana cikin yanke shawara da za su daidaita rayuwarsu ba.

Har ila yau, bincike ya nuna cewa hakar ma'adanai masu mahimmanci na iya haɗawa da tashin hankali a cikin al'ummomin da ke daukar nauyin aikin hakar ma'adinai. Gwamnatin Kanada ta gano cewa hakar albarkatu yana haifar da bata da kuma kashe mata ƴan asalin a cikin al'ummomin da ma'adanai da ayyukan more rayuwa kamar bututun mai ya shafa. Hakanan ana iya haɗa man fetur da haƙar katako da tashin hankali. [20]

Matsalolin farko ga ƴan tsiraru[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da kishin muhalli ya fara shahara a farkon karni na 20, abin da aka fi mayar da hankali shi ne kariyar daji da kiyaye namun daji. Waɗannan manufofin sun nuna muradun farkon ƙungiyoyin, musamman masu goyon bayan farare na tsakiya da na manya, gami da ta hanyar kiyayewa da kariya ta hanyar ruwan tabarau wanda ya kasa yaba aikin ƙarni na al'ummomin ƴan asalin waɗanda suka rayu ba tare da haifar da nau'ikan lalacewar muhalli ba. wadannan 'yan mulkin mallaka na "masu muhalli" yanzu sun nemi ragewa. Ayyukan ƙungiyoyin muhalli da yawa na yau da kullun suna nuna waɗannan ƙa'idodin farko. [21] Wasu tsiraru masu karamin ƙarfi da yawa suna jin sun ware ko kuma sun yi mummunan tasiri daga yunkurin, wanda aka misalta ta Wasikar Kungiyar Kudu maso Yamma ta Organising Project (SWOP) zuwa rukunin 10, wata wasika da wasu masu fafutukar kare muhalli na gida suka aika zuwa ga manyan kungiyoyin kare muhalli. Wasiƙar ta yi nuni da cewa ƙungiyoyin muhalli sun damu sosai game da tsaftacewa da kiyaye yanayi wanda ya yi watsi da mummunan tasirin da yin hakan ya haifar da al'ummomin da ke kusa, wato ƙarancin haɓaka ayyukan yi. [21] Bugu da ƙari, ƙungiyar NIMBY ta mayar da amfanin gonakin da ba a so a cikin gida (LULUs) daga unguwannin masu matsakaicin ra'ayi zuwa al'ummomi marasa galihu masu yawan 'yan tsiraru. Don haka, al'ummomi masu rauni waɗanda ke da ƙarancin damar siyasa galibi suna fuskantar ɓata mai haɗari da guba. Wannan ya haifar da ƙa'idar PIBBY, ko aƙalla PIMBY (Place-in-minorities'-backyard), kamar yadda ƙungiyar United Church of Christ's binciken ke tallafawa a cikin 1987.

Sakamakon haka, wasu tsiraru sun kalli motsin muhalli a matsayin masu kishin ƙasa. Ilimin muhalli ya bayyana kansa a cikin nau'i uku daban-daban:

  1. Abun tsarawa – Masana muhalli sun fito ne daga matsakaita da babba.
  2. Akida – Sauye-sauyen na amfanar magoya bayan kungiyar amma suna sanya farashi kan wadanda ba su shiga ba.
  3. Tasiri – Sauye-sauyen na da “tasirin zamantakewar koma baya”. Suna amfana da masu muhalli ba tare da misaltuwa ba kuma suna cutar da yawan jama'a.

Magoya bayan ci gaban tattalin arziki sun yi amfani da rashin kulawar da masana muhalli ke yi wa tsiraru. Sun shawo kan shugabannin tsirarun da ke neman inganta al'ummominsu cewa fa'idodin tattalin arziki na masana'antu da karuwar ayyukan yi sun cancanci haɗarin kiwon lafiya. A haƙiƙa, duka 'yan siyasa da 'yan kasuwa sun ma yi barazanar rasa ayyukan yi idan al'ummomi ba su yarda da masana'antu da wurare masu haɗari ba. Ko da yake a yawancin lokuta mazauna yankin ba su sami waɗannan fa'idodin ba, ana amfani da hujjar don rage juriya a cikin al'ummomi tare da guje wa kashe kuɗin da ake amfani da su don tsaftace gurɓataccen gurɓataccen iska da ƙirƙirar yanayin wuraren aiki.

Shingayen tsada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ɗaya daga cikin fitattun abubuwan da ke hana tsiraru shiga harkokin shari'a a muhalli shi ne tsadar farko na kokarin sauya tsarin da hana kamfanoni zubar da shara masu guba da sauran gurbacewar muhalli a wuraren da 'yan tsiraru ke zaune a cikinsu. Akwai manyan kuɗaɗen shari'a da ke cikin yaƙi don tabbatar da adalcin muhalli da ƙoƙarin zubar da wariyar launin fata. Misali, a Burtaniya, akwai ka'ida da mai da'awar zai iya biyan kudaden abokan hamayyarsa, wanda ke kara tsananta duk wata matsala ta tsadar kayayyaki, musamman ma kungiyoyin tsirarun masu ƙaramin ƙarfi; Har ila yau, hanya daya tilo da kungiyoyin kare muhalli za su dora wa kamfanoni alhakin gurbatar muhalli da kuma karya duk wata matsala ta bayar da lasisi kan zubar da shara ita ce su kai karar gwamnati kan rashin aiwatar da dokoki. Wannan zai haifar da haramcin kuɗaɗen doka waɗanda galibi ba za su iya biya ba. Ana iya ganin wannan ta gaskiyar cewa daga cikin shari'o'in nazarin shari'a 210 tsakanin 2005 zuwa 2009, 56% ba su ci gaba ba saboda farashi.

Cin Halaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ganin yadda al'ummominsu ke fama da rashin daidaituwa ta hanyar lalata muhalli da kuma hana yin amfani da ƙungiyoyin da ke da'awar gyara wannan, ƙungiyoyi da yawa ta kuma ga al'ummomin wariyar launin fata da ƙungiyoyi masu karamin karfi sun fara kafawa a cikin shekarun 1970 da 80 don magance rashin adalci na muhalli. Ayyukansu ya zo tare don zama ƙashin bayan ƙungiyar adalci ta muhalli na zamani, waɗanda aka rubuta ƙa'idodin jagororinsu musamman a lokacin taron shugabannin Muhalli na Farko na Ƙasa na Farko a 1991. Mahalarta wannan taron sun kafa wasu ƙa'idodi guda 17 na adalci na muhalli.

Gudunmawar Ƙungiyar Adalci ta Haihuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin masu shiga cikin Ƙungiyar Adalci ta Haihuwa suna ganin gwagwarmayarsu tana da alaƙa da waɗanda ke tabbatar da adalcin muhalli, kuma akasin haka. Loretta Ross ta bayyana tsarin adalci na haihuwa kamar yadda yake magana "ikon kowace mace ta tantance makomarta ta haihuwa" kuma ta yi jayayya cewa wannan yana da alaƙa "kai tsaye ga yanayin da ke cikin al'ummarta - kuma waɗannan sharuɗɗan ba batun zaɓi ne kawai na mutum ba da samun damar shiga. ." Irin waɗannan yanayi sun haɗa da waɗanda ke tsakiyar shari'ar muhalli-ciki har da wurin gurɓataccen gurɓataccen abu da gurɓatar abinci, iska, da hanyoyin ruwa. Ungozoma Mohawk Katsi Cook ta taimaka wajen kwatanta alaƙa guda ɗaya tsakanin adalcin haihuwa da muhalli lokacin da ta yi bayani, "a ƙirjin mata yana gudana dangantakar waɗannan tsararraki ga al'umma da kuma duniyar halitta. Ta haka ƙasa ita ce mahaifiyarmu, in ji kaka. Ta haka mu a matsayinmu na mata ne kasa.” Cook ya kafa aikin Madarar Uwar a cikin shekarun 1980 don magance gurɓataccen gurɓatawar jikin mata ta hanyar fallasa kifaye da ruwa da wani rukunin General Motors Superfund ya gurɓata. Dangane da yadda gurbacewar yanayi ke yin illa ga matan Akwesasne da ƴaƴansu ta hanyar haihuwa da kuma shayar da jarirai, wannan Aikin ya kawo gaba daya daga cikin manyan matsuguni tsakanin adalcin haihuwa da muhalli.

Ƙungiyoyin da abin ya shafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga cikin ƙungiyoyin da abin ya shafa na Adalci na Muhalli, wadanda ke cikin matsanancin talauci da kungiyoyin tsirarun kabilanci sun fi dacewa da cutar da rashin adalcin muhalli. Talakawa suna lissafin sama da kashi 20% na tasirin lafiyar ɗan adam daga fitar da iska mai guba na masana'antu, idan aka kwatanta da kashi 12.9% na yawan jama'a a duk faɗin ƙasar. [22] Wannan baya lissafin rashin adalcin da aka samu a tsakanin ƙungiyoyin tsiraru guda ɗaya. Wasu nazarin da ke gwada ƙididdiga don tasirin ƙabilanci da ƙabilanci, yayin da suke sarrafa samun kuɗin shiga da sauran dalilai, suna ba da ra'ayi na ƙabilanci a cikin fallasa wanda ke ci gaba da kasancewa a duk nau'ikan samun kuɗin shiga.

Jihohi na iya ganin sanya wurare masu guba kusa da ƙauyuka marasa galihu a matsayin fifiko daga hangen nesa na Amfanin Kuɗi (CBA). CBA na iya fifita sanya wani wuri mai guba kusa da birnin matalauta 20,000 fiye da kusa da birnin masu arziki 5,000. [23] Terry Bossert na Range Resources rahotanni sun bayyana cewa da gangan ya kan gano ayyukansa a unguwannin matalauta maimakon wuraren masu arziki da mazauna ke da karin kudade don kalubalantar ayyukansa. [24] Lantarkin Matatar Matatar Gabashin Bay ta Arewacin California misali ne na rarrabuwar kawuna da ke da alaƙa da kabilanci da samun kuɗi da kusanci ga wurare masu guba.

Mata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tasirin sauyin yanayi yana da tasirin da bai dace ba ga mata da ƴan mata. Mata suna fuskantar haɗari mafi girma da kuma nauyi mafi girma na sauyin yanayi, saboda sauyin yanayi ba ya bambanta tsakanin jinsi. Matsanancin yanayi yana da alaƙa da auren wuri, fataucin jima'i, tashin hankalin gida, ƙaura, asarar kuɗi, rashin abinci, ƙarancin ruwa, da matsalolin lafiya. A cikin 2020, guguwar Eta da Iota sun yi ɓarna a jihohin tsakiyar Amurka. Da yawa sun rasa matsugunansu amma mata ne aka fi shafa. Hakazalika, a Indiya, fari ya sa mata suka fi fuskantar rauni idan aka kwatanta da maza.

An yi iƙirarin cewa al'amuran adalci na muhalli gabaɗaya sun fi shafar mata a cikin al'ummomi fiye da yadda suke shafar maza. Mata kuma sukan zama jagorori a ƙungiyoyin fafutukar tabbatar da adalci a muhalli. Don haka, yana girma ya zama babban al'amari na mata. A karkashin tsarin mata na adalci na muhalli, ana kallon al'amuran muhalli da sauyin yanayi ta hanyar ruwan tabarau wanda ke tabbatar da cewa kabilanci, fifikon farar fata, wariyar launin fata, da jari-hujja sune masu ba da gudummawa ga tasirin da sauyin yanayi ke yi ga mata. Irin wannan bincike ga adalcin muhalli yana ba da shawarar dabarun da ke magance tushen rashin daidaito, canza dangantakar iko, da tallafawa ƴancin mata.

Amurkawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amurke da yawa na Adalci na Muhalli ya shafe Ba-Amurkawa. Wani sanannen misali shine yankin " Cancer Alley " na Louisiana. Wannan yanki mai nisan mil 85 na Kogin Mississippi tsakanin Baton Rouge da New Orleans gida ne ga kamfanoni 125 waɗanda ke samar da kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na samfuran sinadaran petrochemical da aka ƙera a Amurka. Hukumar kare haƙƙin jama'a ta Amurka ta yanke shawarar cewa, al'ummar Afirka-Amurka sun kamu da cutar Cancer Alley ba daidai ba, sakamakon tsarin ba da izinin jihar Louisiana a halin yanzu da na gida don wurare masu haɗari, da kuma ƙarancin matsayinsu na zamantakewa da tattalin arziƙi da ƙarancin tasirin siyasa. . [25] Wani abin da ya faru na rashin adalci na muhalli na dogon lokaci ya faru a cikin "West Grove" na Miami, Florida. Daga 1925 zuwa 1970, matalautan da suka fi yawa, mazauna Afirka ta Yamma mazauna yankin "West Grove" sun jimre da mummunan tasirin da ke tattare da hayaki mai guba da kuma fitar da sharar guba daga babban injin incineter mai suna Old Smokey. Duk da amincewar hukuma a matsayin ɓarna ga jama'a, an faɗaɗa aikin incinerator a cikin 1961. Sai da kewayen, yankunan fararen fata galibi suka fara fuskantar mummunan tasiri daga Tsohon Smokey cewa yakin shari'a ya fara rufe gidan wuta.

Ƙungiyoyin Ƴan Asalin Ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyoyin ƴan asalin galibi suna fama da rashin adalci na muhalli. Ƴan asalin ƙasar Amirka sun fuskanci cin zarafi da suka shafi hakar uranium a yammacin Amurka. Churchrock, New Mexico, a yankin Navajo gida ne ga mafi dadewa ci gaba da hakar ma'adanai uranium a kowace ƙasar Navajo. Daga 1954 zuwa 1968, ƙabilar ta ba da hayar fili ga kamfanonin hakar ma'adinai waɗanda ba su sami izini daga dangin Navajo ba ko ba da rahoton duk wani sakamako na ayyukansu. Ba wai kawai masu haƙar ma’adinan sun rage ƙarancin ruwa ba, har ma sun gurɓata abin da ya rage na ruwan Navajo da uranium. Kerr-McGee da United Nuclear Corporation, manyan kamfanonin hakar ma'adinai biyu, sun yi iƙirarin cewa dokar hana gurɓacewar ruwa ta Tarayya ba ta shafe su ba, kuma ta kiyaye cewa ƙasar Amirka ta asali ba ta ƙarƙashin kariyar muhalli. Kotuna ba su tilasta musu bin ƙa'idojin ruwa mai tsabta na Amurka ba har sai 1980. [25]

Yankin Latino[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban misali na rashin adalci na muhalli tsakanin Latinos shine bayyanar da maganin kashe kwari da ma'aikatan gona ke fuskanta. Bayan DDT da sauran chlorinated hydrocarbon magungunan kashe qwari a Amurka a cikin 1972, manoma sun fara amfani da magungunan kashe ƙwari na organophosphate mai guba kamar parathion . Yawancin ma'aikatan gona a Amurka suna aiki a matsayin baƙi ba tare da izini ba, kuma sakamakon rashin lafiyarsu na siyasa, ba sa iya yin zanga-zangar adawa da kamuwa da magungunan kashe qwari a kai a kai ko kuma amfana daga kariyar dokokin Tarayya. [25] Fitar da magungunan kashe ƙwari a masana'antar auduga kuma yana shafar manoma a Indiya da Uzbekistan. An dakatar da shi a ko'ina cikin sauran sassan duniya saboda barazanar da ke tattare da lafiyar dan adam da muhalli, Endosulfan wani sinadari ne mai guba, wanda ba za a iya lamunce amfani da shi ba a yawancin kasashe masu tasowa da ake amfani da su. Endosulfan, kamar DDT, wani organochlorine ne kuma yana dawwama a cikin muhalli tun bayan kashe kwari da aka yi niyya, yana barin gado mai mutuwa ga mutane da namun daji.

Mazauna garuruwan da ke kan iyakar Amurka da Mexico kuma abin ya shafa. Maquiladoras tsire-tsire ne na haɗakarwa da Amurka, Jafananci, da sauran ƙasashen waje ke sarrafawa, waɗanda ke kan iyakar Amurka da Mexico. Maquiladoras suna amfani da arha arha na Mexiko don haɗa abubuwan da aka shigo da su da albarkatun ƙasa, sannan su kwashe samfuran da aka gama zuwa Amurka. Yawancin sharar ta ƙare har ana zubar da su ba bisa ƙa'ida ba a cikin magudanar ruwa, ramuka, ko cikin hamada. Tare da Lower Rio Grande Valley, maquiladoras suna zubar da sharar gida mai guba a cikin kogin wanda kashi 95 na mazauna ke samun ruwan sha. A cikin garuruwan kan iyaka na Brownsville, Texas, da Matamoros, Mexico, adadin anencephaly (jariran da aka haifa ba tare da kwakwalwa ba) ya ninka sau huɗu matsakaicin ƙasa. [26]

Bayyana Tasirin Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al'ummomin masu adalci na muhalli suna fuskantar rashin daidaito ga gurɓatar sinadarai, rage ingancin iska, gurɓataccen tushen ruwa, da raguwar lafiya gaba ɗaya. Rashin yarda da canje-canjen manufofin da ke kewaye da abubuwan da ke tasiri ga lafiyar waɗannan al'ummomi suna haifar da raguwa a cikin muhalli da lafiyar ɗan adam. Ana iya gano al'ummomin adalci na muhalli ta hanyoyi daban-daban kamar: [27]

  • bakin kofa - yankunan yanki
  • al'umma dangane da ganewa
  • yawan nauyi

Duk da yake akwai hanyoyi da yawa don gano al'ummomin adalci na muhalli, bayyanar muhalli gama gari a cikin waɗannan al'ummomin adalcin muhalli sun haɗa da gurɓataccen iska da haɗarin gurɓataccen ruwa. Saboda yawancin al'ummomin adalci na muhalli kasancewar suna da matsayi mafi ƙasƙanci na zamantakewa, yawancin membobin al'ummomin suna aiki a cikin cunkoson ayyuka tare da fallasa masu haɗari kamar ɗakunan ajiya da ma'adinai. Babban hanyoyin fallasa su ne ta hanyar numfashi, sha, da sha. Lokacin da ma'aikata suka bar wurin aiki, mai yiwuwa su ɗauki sinadarai tare da su a kan tufafi, takalma, fata, da gashin kansu. [28] Tafiya na waɗannan sinadarai na iya isa gidajensu kuma su ƙara yin tasiri ga iyalansu, gami da yara. [28] An bayyana yaran waɗannan al'ummomi a matsayin al'umma ta musamman da aka fallasa saboda yadda suke sarrafa gurɓataccen abu daban-daban fiye da manya. [28] Idan aka kwatanta da yara a wasu al'ummomi, yara a cikin al'ummomin adalci na muhalli na iya fuskantar babban matakin gurɓatawa a duk tsawon rayuwarsu, farawa daga mahaifa (ta hanyar mahaifa), jarirai (ta hanyar nono), ƙuruciyar ƙuruciya da kuma bayan. [28] Saboda ƙaruwar bayyanarwa suna cikin haɗari mafi girma ga mummunan tasirin lafiya kamar yanayin numfashi, yanayin gastrointestinal, da yanayin tunani.

Sanya wuraren ɓarke da ayyukan ciyar da dabbobi (CAFOs) a wasu daga cikin waɗannan yankuna kuma manyan masu ba da gudummawa ne ga illolin lafiya da membobin waɗannan al'ummomin ke fuskanta. CAFOs kuma suna fitar da hayaki mai cutarwa a cikin iska (ammoniya, mahaɗan ƙwayoyin halitta masu canzawa, endotoxins, da sauransu) suna rage girman ingancin iska. [29] Hakanan za su iya gurɓata ƙasa da wuraren ruwa na kusa. Wuraren da ke tarwatsewa na iya fitar da hayaki mai guba, musamman methane, wanda kuma ke lalata iska da gurɓata ruwa.

A ma'aunin duniya, bunƙasar da aka samu cikin sauri a cikin 'yan kwanakin nan kuma ta kasance babban fallasa ga haɗarin muhalli a cikin al'ummomin adalci na muhalli saboda saurin kera da zubar da kayayyaki masu yawa. 95% na samar da tufafi yana faruwa ne a cikin ƙananan ƙasashe ko matsakaicin kuɗin shiga inda ma'aikata ba su da wadata. [30] Haɗarin sana'a kamar rashin samun iska na iya haifar da haɗari na numfashi ciki har da barbashi na iska da ƙurar auduga. [30] Rinyen rini na iya haifar da haɗari idan ba a kula da ruwan da aka yi amfani da shi don yin rini ba kafin a shiga cikin tsarin ruwa na gida wanda ke haifar da sakin abubuwa masu guba da ƙananan karafa a cikin ruwan da mazauna ke amfani da su da kuma dabbobi. [30]

Canjin yanayi da adalcin yanayi su ma sun kasance wani ɓangare yayin tattaunawa game da adalcin muhalli da kuma babban tasirin da yake da shi ga al'ummomin adalcin muhalli. Gurbacewar iska da gurbacewar ruwa abubuwa biyu ne ke haifar da sauyin yanayi wanda zai iya haifar da illa kamar tsananin zafi, karuwar hazo, da hawan teku. [31] Saboda haka, al'ummomi sun fi fuskantar matsalolin da suka haɗa da ambaliyar ruwa da fari da ke haifar da ƙarancin abinci da kuma karuwar kamuwa da cututtuka, da abinci, da cututtuka masu alaka da ruwa. [31] [32] An yi hasashen cewa sauyin yanayi zai fi yin tasiri ga masu rauni. [33]

Ayyukan na yanzu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 2019, Jam'iyyar Dimokuradiyya ta gudanar da taron Shugaban kasa na Farko kan Adalci na Muhalli.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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