Hakki zuwa lafiyayyen muhalli

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Hakki zuwa lafiyayyen muhalli
Hakkokin Yan-adam
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Alaƙanta da Hakkin Dan'adam Na Ruwa Da Tsafta

Haƙƙin lafiyayyen muhalli ko yancin samun yanayi mai dorewa da lafiya, haƙƙin ɗan adam ne da ƙungiyoyin kare haƙƙin ɗan adam da ƙungiyoyin kare muhalli ke ba da shawara don kare tsarin muhallin da ke ba da lafiyar ɗan adam. Hukumar kare hakkin dan Adam ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da wannan hakki yayin zamanta na 48 a watan Oktoban shekarar 2021, a cikin HRC/RES/48/13. Dama sau da yawa shine tushen kare haƙƙin ɗan adam daga masu kare muhalli, kamar masu kare ƙasa, masu kare ruwa da masu fafutukar kare haƙƙin ƴan asalin ƙasar.

Haƙƙin yana da alaƙa da sauran haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam da suka mai da hankali kan kiwon lafiya, kamar haƙƙin ruwa da tsaftar muhalli, haƙƙin abinci da haƙƙin lafiya. Haƙƙin samun ingantaccen muhalli yana amfani da tsarin haƙƙin ɗan adam don kare ingancin muhalli; wannan hanyar tana magance tasirin cutar da muhalli ga ɗaiɗaikun mutane, sabanin tsarin al'ada na ka'idojin muhalli wanda ke mai da hankali kan tasirin wasu jihohi ko muhallin kansa. Har ila yau, wata hanya ta kare muhalli ita ce haƙƙoƙin yanayi wanda ke ƙoƙarin faɗaɗa haƙƙoƙin da mutane da kamfanoni ke morewa ga yanayi.

Yanke saren gandun daji da kone kurmus a yankin Rio Xingu, Brazil na barazana ga haƙƙin ƴan asalin ƙasar da kuma babban haƙƙin samun ingantaccen muhalli. Dokar shari'a kamar shari'ar yanayi ta Columbian da ke kare gandun daji na Amazon daga saran gandun daji sun dogara a tarihi akan haƙƙin yanayi da yara, 'yancin samun yanayi mai kyau zai ba da ƙarin kariya.

Matsayin jiha/Rawar da jiha take tawa a bangaren hakkin muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haƙƙin yana haifar da wajibcin ƙasa don tsarawa da aiwatar da dokokin muhalli, sarrafa ƙazanta, da kuma samar da adalci da kariya ga al'ummomin da matsalolin muhalli suka cutar da su. Haƙƙin samun kyakkyawan yanayi ya kasance muhimmiyar haƙƙi don ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin doka na muhalli don ƙarar canjin yanayi da sauran batutuwan muhalli.

Hanyoyi Na Ƙasashen Duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A tarihi, manyan kayan aikin haƙƙin ɗan adam na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya, kamar Yarjejeniya ta Duniya kan Haƙƙin Dan Adam, Yarjejeniyar ƙasa da ƙasa akan Haƙƙin Bil Adama da Siyasa ko Yarjejeniyar ƙasa da ƙasa kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu ba su yarda da haƙƙin samun kyakkyawan yanayi ba. Sanarwar Stockholm ta 1972 ta amince da haƙƙin, amma ba takaddar doka ba ce. Sanarwar Rio ta 1992 ba ta amfani da yaren 'yancin ɗan adam, kodayake ta bayyana cewa mutane za su sami damar samun bayanai game da al'amuran muhalli, shiga cikin yanke shawara, da samun adalci. Kudirin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da aka gabatar a halin yanzu, Yarjejeniyar Muhalli ta Duniya, idan aka amince da ita, zai zama kayan aikin kare hakkin dan Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na farko da ya hada da ‘yancin samun kyakkyawan yanayi.

Fiye da jihohi 150 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya sun amince da 'yancin kansu ta wata hanya ta hanyar doka, shari'a, dokar tsarin mulki, dokar yarjejeniya ko wata ikon doka. Yarjejeniya ta Afirka game da Haƙƙin Dan Adam da Jama'a, Yarjejeniyar Amurka kan 'Yancin Dan Adam, Yarjejeniyar Escazu, Yarjejeniya ta Larabawa kan 'Yancin Dan Adam, da sanarwar ASEAN kan 'yancin ɗan adam kowanne ya haɗa da haƙƙin samun kyakkyawan yanayi. Sauran tsare-tsaren haƙƙin ɗan adam, kamar Yarjejeniya kan Haƙƙin Yara suna magana game da batutuwan muhalli kamar yadda suke da alaƙa da tsarin da aka fi mayar da hankali, a wannan yanayin haƙƙin yara.[1] [2]

Wakilan Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Musamman kan Hakkokin Dan Adam da Muhalli John H. Knox (2012–2018) da David R. Boyd (2018-) sun ba da shawarwari kan yadda za a tsara wadannan hakkoki a dokokin kasa da kasa. Kwamitoci da yawa sun amince da wannan a matakin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, da kuma al'ummomin shari'a na gida kamar Bar New York City Bar, a cikin 2020.

Haƙƙin samun kyakkyawan yanayi shine tushen tsarin kula da haƙƙin ɗan adam da sauyin yanayi na duniya. OHCHR ta gabatar da illolin sauyin yanayi a kan haƙƙin ɗan adam a cikin takaddar gaskiya tare da tambayoyin da aka fi yawan yi akan batun.[3]

Ƙudurin Kwamitin Kare Haƙƙin Dan Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 2021 yayin zamanta na 48, Majalisar Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta zartar da wani kuduri (wanda babbar kungiyar da ta hada da Kosta Rika, Maroko, Slovenia, Switzerland da Maldives suka gabatar, tare da Kosta Rika mai rahusa), tare da sanin "Hakkin dan Adam na muhalli mai tsabta, lafiya da dorewa" wanda ke nuna alamar farko da jiki ya ayyana haƙƙin ɗan adam. Kudurin dai ba ya kan ka'ida, amma zai je gaban babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya domin karin nazari[4]. [5]

Tasiri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yana da wahala a iya tantance tasirin tsarin mulki ko kariyar ƙasa da ƙasa na haƙƙin ingantaccen muhalli. Wakilin Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya na musamman John Knox ya ba da shawarar cewa, daidaita haƙƙin samun yanayi mai kyau a cikin kundin tsarin mulkin ƙasa ko kuma na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya na iya yin tasiri ga ƙoƙarin kare muhalli ta hanyar ƙara harshen yancin ɗan adam; cike gibin dokokin kasa da kasa; ƙarfafa tushen aiwatar da ayyukan ƙasa da ƙasa; da inganta ayyukan muhalli a matakin kasa. Bugu da ƙari, Knox ya ba da shawarar cewa kafa haƙƙin haƙƙin muhalli na iya yin tasiri ga fahimtarmu game da dokokin haƙƙin ɗan adam kanta, saboda haƙƙin ba shine aiwatar da akidar mulkin mallaka na Yamma ba (wanda shine suka ga koyarwar haƙƙin ɗan adam da ake da su), amma shine a maimakon gudummuwar kasa zuwa ga dokar kare hakkin dan adam da ta samo asali daga Kudancin Duniya.[6]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "The Case for a Right to a Healthy Environment". Human Rights Watch. 2018-03-01. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :2
  3. "The Case for a Right to a Healthy Environment". Human Rights Watch. 2018-03-01. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  4. "The Time is Now for the UN to Formally Recognize the Right to a Healthy and Sustainable Environment". Center for International Environmental Law. 2018-10-25. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :6
  6. Knox, John H. (2020-10-13). "Constructing the Human Right to a Healthy Environment". Annual Review of Law and Social Science. 16(1): 79–95. doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-031720-074856. ISSN 1550-3585. S2CID 216476059.