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Yaren Garre

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Yaren Garre
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 gex
Glottolog garr1259[1]

Garre (wanda aka fi sani da Af-Garre) yare ne na Afro-Asiatic wanda mutanen Garre da ke zaune a kudancin Somaliya, Habasha da arewacin Kenya ke magana. Yana cikin reshen Cushitic na asali, kuma yana da kimanin masu magana 50,000 a Somalia a cikin 1992, 57,500 a cikin 2006 da 86,000 a cikin 2020. Adadin masu magana a Kenya da Somalia an kiyasta su 685,600 a cikin 2019. yana cikin rarrabawar Digil na yarukan Somaliya. Harshen Garre yana sauƙin fahimta ga masu magana da Digil, saboda yana da alaƙa da Af-Maay da Af-Boon.

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sun kasance masu ɗaukar dangin pre-Hawiya: "Sun faru a cikin manyan ƙungiyoyi huɗu masu cin gashin kansu: a ƙananan Shebelle a cikin Gundumar Audegle, a kusa da Dolo a saman Juba, tsakanin Webi Gesiro da Webi Mana a cikin hulɗa kuma har zuwa wani lokaci sun haɗu da Arussi Galla, kuma zuwa kudu maso yamma tsakanin Ajuran da Digodia Somali da Boran Galla na Lardin Arewacin Kenya. Ƙungiyar da ke arewacin da ke kusa da Galla Arussi sun sami wasu siffofi na al'adun Galla; Galla da Somaliya duka ana magana da su. Garuruwan Gala Arussi sun haɗu da na Gerra (wanda Bottego ke kira Gurra) amma an raba su da na Somaliya. Gerra na wannan yankin suna da al'adun da suka yi kama da na sauran ƙungiyar Garre.

An raba su ne kawai zuwa ƙungiyoyi biyu, Garre Tuuf da Garre Koranyow . [2] Alkur'aniyow yana tasiri sosai daga Maay kuma sun yi iƙirarin cewa yaren Tuuf shine Af-Garre mai tsabta. Wannan [3] tabbatar da cewa yayin da yarukan biyu ba su da alaƙa da yankuna daban-daban, yaren Garre "ɗaya daga cikin yarukan da suka fi dacewa da Somaliya", misali asarar prefix conjugation tsakanin Garre a Yankin Baydhaba, kamar yadda yake a Maay, harshen da ya fi dacewa a yankin, tare da kiyaye shi tsakanin Garre na Qoryooley da Buurhakaba.

Harshen Garre yana cikin rarrabawar Digil na yarukan Somaliya, wasu yarukan Digil Somaliya sune; Af-Tunni, Af Dabarre da Af-Jiddu . Harsunan Digil sune mafi yawan yaren da aka fi sani da su a duk Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Somaliya kuma tabbas yana da shakku, ko sun kafa rukuni ɗaya, ko kuma kowane yaren Digil ya zama rukuni na daban. [4] bai shafi Tunni da Dabarre ba amma ya shafi Garre. Muna tsammanin shakku game da halattacciyar hada Garre zuwa yarukan Digil, duka bisa la'akari da agnatic (Garre ba Digil ba ne kwata-kwata, ko Sab, amma kafin Hawiya) [1] da harshe: halaye da ke haɗa Garre zuwa harsunan yankin kogi sune ainihin phonological (alal misali, rashin pharyngeals), syntactic (alama ta tambaya da aka haɗa da aikatau, a wani ɓangare tsarin nuna mayar da hankali), lexical da morphology

Rarraba Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Don sake gi[5] ƙungiyoyin tarihi na af-Garre wanda ya sanya asalinsa a cikin yankin Interfluvial, watakila kusa da saman Kogin Juba, yaren ya bayyana wanda Garre (musamman Tuuf) na Basso Shabeelle ke magana: garre na wannan yanki zai zama kawai waɗanda ke kula da yarensu na musamman a gare su; Kofar yadda Garre na Mandera yankin "A kusa da Dolo a kan saman Juba" [1] kuma, gaba da yamma, harshe ne da Garreyaryaryar da Garre a c

Ana magana da Af-Garre a gundumomin Baydhaba, Dhiinsor, Buurhakaba da Qoryooley yana ɗaya daga cikin yaren Somaliya; a zahiri, wasu yarukan Garreh (waɗanda ke Buurhakaba Da Qoryooley) sun, alal misali, adana haɗin tare da prefixes har zuwa yau, yayin da wasu (waɗannan Baydhaba) sun riga sun ba da shi. ila yau, an maye gurbin nau'in Digil na yau da kullun - tə a wasu yarukan Garre (musamman a cikin wadanda ke kusa da Baydhaba) ta hanyar nau'in kudancin Somaliya - yaal .l.

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Garre yana da sautin sautin 22.

Garre consonant phonemes iri-iri
Biyuwa Laboral Dental Alveolar Bayan alveolar Palatal Palato

alveolar

Velar Rashin ƙarfi Gishiri
Plosive murya b d ɖ g ɢ
ba tare da murya ba t k ʔ
fashewa Sanya
Rashin lafiya murya t͡ʃ
Rashin jituwa ba tare da murya ba f s ʃ x~χ h
Hanci m n ɲ ŋ
Ruwa l
Mai motsi r
Semivowels w da kuma

Harshen da ba a sani ba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Addu'a da kuma hanawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ƙarshen kalma, muryar murya ta tsaya b, d an cire su: E1: b, d → p, t / __≠

  • /karab/[karap] 'kafarta'
  • /heed/ → [shafi] 'ya yi rashin lafiya'

A cikin wannan matsayi, sabili da haka, adawar murya ta /d/ da /t/ an hana ta.

A ƙarshen kalma, /g/ ya zama tsayawa mai ƙanshi: E2: g → ʔ/__

  • /maʔag/[maʔaʔ] 'sunan'

Sau da yawa, a matsayi na ƙarshe na kalma da kalma ta biyo baya da kalma da ta fara a cikin ma'ana, ba a sashi ma'anar ba.

E3: OCCL → OCCL'/__≠ C__≠

(OCCL': ba a amfani da occlusive)

Wannan yana faruwa musamman idan kalmomin biyu suna da haɗin kai, kamar yadda yake a cikin siffofin magana:

(3) usu wa ara[g]šrə 'yana siyarwa' (yawanci).

A gefe guda, spirantization na murya tsayawa a cikin matsayi na intervocalic, kamar yadda yake a Dabarte, kamar yadda ya faru a Garre. - aƙalla daga cikin yaren tuuf iri-iri na Qoryooley - [6]

w-redirect cx-link" data-linkid="252" href="./Spirantization" id="mwAVM" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Spirantization">spirantization da kuma wucewar b zuwa w suna da yawa a cikin jerin kalmomin Garres, misali.

  • hawar = magana 'mace'
  • taweel = tabla 'iska'

Wannan alama ce ta yaren Garre da ake magana a yankin Baydhaba. Irin w[7] tsari yana faruwa a cikin yaren Maay na wannan yankin.

/ʄ/ kasancewar implosive /ī/, ba a taɓa yin amfani da post-veolar /ɖ/ ba.

q[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daga muryarmu [G] (ƙaddamar da murya), gabaɗaya kumaSʁ a cikin matsayi na intervocalic; fricativization a cikin [ʁ] na iya zama samo asali daga yaren Qoryoley; an ba mu nau'i-nau'i kamar sii[G]a (T.) ~ sii[ʁ]a (Q.) "dust".

A cikin 'yan lokuta, duk da haka, ana ci gaba da fahimtar [ʁ] a cikin matsayi na intervocalic, kamar a cikin ho[ʁ]al "".

As in the other dialects of the region, in final q and realized ʔ:

(4) duq → [duʔ] __≠ "tsofaffi

A cikin matsayi na farko na magana, a gaban wasula kuma wani lokacin ya fahimci ɓoyewar ƙuƙwalwa, musamman a farkon jumla ko kuma a cikin yanayin da aka jaddada kalmar da ake tambaya: amma a mafi yawan lokuta wannan ɓoyewar ba za a iya ɓoyewa ba [bincike rubutun]. Koyaya, mun yi imanin cewa ʔ yana cikin Phonologically a cikin dukkan kalmomin K. "farawa a cikin wasali" - saboda haka, duk kalmomin K. suna farawa A cikin sauti a cikin ma'ana. An ba da tabbacin kasancewar ʔ na farko game da halin yanzu na aikatau na huɗu ta hanyar ƙaddamar da halin yanzu tare da prefixes na "zama" zuwa taken:

Za a sanya taken aikatau (na kasance), a gabansa za a halicci taken hanci na Ƙarshen ɳ, wato, kamar yadda yake a gaban ma'anar da ke da ma'anar Bayani (alal misali, a gaban maɓallin namiji, halin yanzu na wiin "zama mai girma", da wiiɳahay.Yã da wani hakki.

Hakan" data-linkid="288" href="./Voiced_dental,_alveolar_and_postalveolar_nasals" id="mwAZY" rel="mw:WikiLink" title="Voiced dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals">n ana iya jayayya cewa a cikin wannan nau'in "n" ya wuce zuwa "ɳ" tunda an adana kalmar iyaka tsakanin "wiin da__ilo____ilo____ilo__" - wato, "n" za a samu a cikin wani mahallin da aka halicci "ɳ". Amma irin wannan gardama lalace ta hanyar nazarin wasu nau'ikan wannan tsarin, wanda ke da alaƙa tsakanin ma'anar ƙarshe na taken da ma'anar farko na ma'anar "kasancewa"; saboda haka, wiinahay ne, wanda ya samo asali daga wiin +ati.

Don haka tilasta mu zabi tsakanin hanyoyi guda biyu masu yuwuwa: phonemic, la'akari na musamman, kasancewar ʔ na farko - amma a wannan yanayin zai zama da wahala a bayyana yiwuwar faruwarsa a wasu mahallin ga duk kalmomin "farawa a cikin wasali"; ko, kuma shine madadin da muke bayarwa, sanya ʔ phonological ga duk kalmomin da za su fara a cikin wasalai - kuma saboda haka galibi ana rubuta su da irin wannan madadin kuma sun dace, tare da irin wannan muhawara, ta Hayward a cikin bayanin Arbore.

Koyaya, kasancewar ana iya hango su gaba ɗaya, ba mu nuna wannan ʔ na farko a cikin rubutun ba.

ʔ kuma ya bayyana a cikin matsayi na tsakiya, amma da alama a cikin amma koyaushe yana da ma'ana - tare da fifiko ga Tsarin -a? a- - kuma haɗuwa da wasu ƙamus an cire su (waɗanda a maimakon haka an ba da izini tare da ƙayyadaddun):

5) maʔag="sunan"

naʔas = "'ƙashin"

toWaʔdii = "tsuntsu" (towaʔ + -tii anaphoric determinant:)

ʔ kuma ya bayyana a ƙarshen kalma:

(6) Karaʔ = "Rashin da aka yi amfani da shi don sawa / saka kirjin raƙumi"

suusaʔ "Milk curds of raƙumi"

Kubaʔ = "Thunder"

ila yau, an tabbatar da sautin ʔ a ƙarshen ta hanyar maganin namiji k na labarin, wanda ya faɗi bayan ʔas bayan sauran ƙamus.

Cutar cin abinci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abin/ʄ/ kawai yake da ma'anar Glotalized shine palatal implosive /ī/ . Ba a samun shi a ƙarshen kalma ba. Misalan a matsayi na farko:

  • Za'a iya jin daɗi
  • Za'a iya yin amfani da shi a matsayin 'slash'

Misalan da ke tsakiyar matsayi:

  • Za a yi amfani da shi a matsayin mai girma
  • /ʄeʄab/ 'yan wasa'

Rashin jituwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani murya mara murya /x/ ya bayyana a cikin kalmomi kaɗan, wasu a bayyane suke aro, watau //taxtar/ / 'doctor' (S.St takhtar), amma kuma, alal misali, a cikin //xonton/ / 'shida', inda mutum zai sa ran Konton. (pharyngeal fricative /ħ/, an rubuta x a cikin Rubutun Somaliya, ba ya cikin Garre.)

Rashin murya /h/ ya bayyana duka a matsayin farko

  • hamal 'shafi'
  • hedid 'tushen'
  • hebiin 'dare'

kuma a matsakaici:

  • deheb 'zinariya'
  • ahsaan 'gafara, na gode'
  • Bahall 'macijin'

A matsayi na ƙarshe, yana da alama yana canzawa tare da [ʔ]:

  • lih ~ liʔ 'shida'
  • ɖeh ~ gurbin "Di" (opp. ɖehnə "jama'a" gurbin)

Wannan sauyawa ba ya da alama ya kai ga kalmomin da suka ƙare a cikin /ʔ/ (misali Kubaʔ 'thunder', S.ST. gugac). Canjin / h / ~ / ʔ / sabili da haka yana da alama ya zama abin da ke faruwa a yankin ba takamaiman yaren ba.

Hanci na hanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin sauti da sauti na gaba ɗaya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanci suna ƙarƙashin matakai da ƙuntatawa da yawa

na faruwa a wasu matsayi. Duk da yake ƙididdigar sauti na hanci na bilabial 'm' da na hakora 'n' kuma, har zuwa iyakantaccen matakin, na 'p' na baki, ba su haifar da matsaloli ba, daban shine yanayin velar 'ɳ'. Da farko dai, a cikin mahallin da yawa An ƙaddara fasalin hanci ta hanyar sauti mai zuwa, wanda aka daidaita hanci a wurin fasalin. Akasin haka, bi da bi, bilabial, dental da velar (ko haɗin baya), wani nau'in hanci & mai yiwuwa

E5: N → m/__b

(watau: hanci yana b a matsayin bilabial a gaban b).

E6: N → n/__d,t

(wato: han yana bayyana n a gaban ƙuƙwalwar haƙori).

E7: N → ɳ/__g,k,q ʔ

(wato: hanci yana bayyana a matsayin mayafi a gaban wani ɓoyewa tare da velar ko kuma mafi yawan maɓallin baya).

Har ila yau, hanci, an bayyana shi 4 a ƙarshen kalma:≠

E8: N → ɳ/__≠

kuma ya wuce zuwa "n" a gaban muryar murya ta baki y:

E9: N → ɳ/__y

Wadannan dokoki suna aiki, da kuma cikin batun, a cikin saiti mai mahimmanci na ƙayyadaddun kalmomi da maganganu. Amma ga abubuwan haɗin gwiwa musamman, Baya ga dokokin da muka bayar, babu wasu ƙuntatawa akan faruwar a kowane matsayi na "m da n" '. Halin p da β ya bambanta.

A cikin kayan da aka tattara, hanci na baki bai taɓa bayyana a matsayin kalma ta ƙarshe ba. Da farko yana faruwa ne kawai a cikin ɲuuq "ƙaramin; ƙarami" kuma a cikin videophone "goye!" " (tare da ma'anar ɲ za a iya ƙaddamar da shi: ʔɲaa, muna kuma buƙatar j-a); yana da kyau a haɗa wannan nau'in zuwa mahimmancin "ci" a cikin Oromo: nyaaddhu. .

A lokuta da yawa kasancewar "ɲ" a cikin matsayi na tsakiya an ƙayyade shi ta hanyar aikace-aikacen E7 a cikin gamuwa tsakanin taken a cikin hanci da ƙayyadaddun; misali, wiin +__hau____hau____hau__→ wiiɲahay "shi ne mai girma", lan + yaw ~ laɲaw "oh sunan!" (vocative).

Koyaya, "ɲ" ya bayyana a cikin ƙamus, duk da cewa zuwa iyakantaccen matakin; misali a cikin:

(11) maaɲo "tashi"

gaɲuuf "saha"

mapaʔ "Milk a matakin farko na acidity"

Idan aka ba da yiwuwar samun waɗannan shari'o'in ʔ daga aikace-aikacen tsarin sauti na gaba ɗaya, ina la'akari da ɲphonemic a cikin K.

Matsayin 'ŋ' a cikin Garre yana da rikitarwa: an cire shi a cikin matsayi na farko kuma ya bayyana ne kawai a cikin kalmomi kaɗan a matsayi na tsakiya, misali a cikin haŋuur "'abinci" da foŋor "ƙetare (na tukunya) ". A cikin waɗannan siffofin wani vel ko uvular an daidaita shi gaba ɗaya da hanci na baya:

Gwada yaren hunguri fonqor na yaren Qoryoley . - nau'in ƙarshe wanda aka samo ta hanyar dissimilation daga + foggorr: Ali (1985: 345: n, 59} ya ba da rahoton faqqar (gloss tukunya rasa ɓangarorin), Yana da siffar iri ɗaya da faŋar.

Kamar yadda muka gani (E8), "ŋ" ya bayyana a matsayi na ƙarshe, inda yake da alama shine kawai hanci mai yiwuwa {daidai a Maay, cf. Saced (1982: 5) ]. Amma ana kuma yin hanci na ƙarshe ŋ a cikin matsayi na intervocalic, kuma daidai loka da aka sanya wani labarin ko mai mallaka a cikin sunan namiji na hanci, abubuwan da ke ƙayyadewa wanda morpheme na namiji & falls, haɗin kalmar "uomo" da na (maza) labarin "ka" don haka zai ba da "laga".

A cikin K. - aƙalla a cikin yaren T. - wani tsari yana aiki wanda ke warware haɗin hanci + velar ta hanyar daidaita ƙarshen zuwa hanci, wanda ya zama velarized a cikin 'ŋ'; wannan tsari an ƙaddara shi da ƙayyadaddun kalmomi, saboda haka tare da wasu ƙayyadadden (anaphoric da ba a ƙaddara ba / tambaya) an adana haɗin haɗin (a zahiri an fahimci [ŋ k], E7); amma kuma yana iya dogara da saurin jumla (mafi yawa tare da saurin sauri da salon al'ada).

Za mu rasa:

Bayyanawa ta hanyar sauti

/ian/ + /ka/ lankaLanka [Rightka]

[laŋa]

Daga cikin wakilcin phonetic, na farko & bayanai daga aikace-aikacen E7 (N → ŋ / __k), na biyu daga aikace-shiryen (ƙaddamar da kalmomi) tsarin ƙuduri na hanyar haɗi nk.

Akasin haka, tare da sunayen mata za mu sami:

Bayyanawa ta hanyar sauti

/islaan / + / ta / islaanta [isiaanta]tsibirin [isiaanta]

[Island]

[Island]

Ana ba da wakilcin phonetic na farko ta hanyar aikace-aikacen E6 (N ~ n / _t), na biyu daga daidaitawar hakora zuwa hanci, wanda za'a iya ƙayyade shi daga baya (ba da [islaana]).

Sakamakon haka, n da ŋ sau da yawa suna rarrabewa, a cikin matsayi na intervocalic, jinsi na sunan. Bisa ga yiwuwar faruwarsa a cikin matsayi na intervocalic - inda sauran hanci kuma an ba da izini - mun gane matsayin phonemic na ŋ. A zahiri, wakilcin sauti kamar lanka da islaanta ba zai kasance kawai da nisa daga siffofin phonetic laŋa da islaana ba, amma na ƙarshe. ba su ma da alaƙa da wakilcin su na phonological ta hanyar matakai na gaba ɗaya (kuma ba a ƙayyade su ba ko kuma ba a ƙayyadaddun su ba),

S kawai a cikin matsayi na tsakiya ['ŋ'] za a rubuta ŋ a cikin ƙarshe - saboda cikakkiyar tsinkaya - za mu rubuta n.

1.2. Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin wasula na Garre. da alama ya haɗa da 11 phonemes gabaɗaya: 6 gajere da 5 tsawo; rashin daidaituwa a cikin yawan phonemes na ƙananan tsarin biyu na dogon da gajeren wasula an ba shi ta wurin kasancewar, tsakanin gajerun wasula, na ə

Abubuwan da aka tattara ba su ba da damar tabbatar da kasancewar adawa tsakanin wasula masu ci gaba (V) da wasula (V), kamar yadda aka bayyana ga arewa maso tsakiyar Somaliya (amma ba ga yarukan yankin kogi ba),

tsarin wasula na Garre. Saboda haka ana iya wakilta shi kamar haka:

Tsawon da gajeren wasali

1.2.1. "ə" da matsalar tsawon wasali a ƙarshen kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matsayin sauti na 'ə' da matsala da halin da ake ciki a Garre. ya bayyana a hanyoyi da yawa kama da na Maay da Saeed ya bayyana (1982; 7). Musamman, tambayar ita ce ko ya kamata a yi la'akari da ə a matsayin phoneme ko kuma sakamakon ka'idojin rage sautin gajeren lokaci. Ba tare da shakku ba, za mu yi la'akari da "e" - a tarihi an samo shi ne daga rage gajerun wasula - a matsayin sauti a cikin

Wadannan za a yi la'akari da gudummawa mai sauƙi ga matsalar, ba mafita ga ita ba.

Bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren Garre". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Lamberti 1984, 182
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :1
  5. Lewis (1955: 27)
  6. Lamberti: 1980: 5
  7. Saeed: 1982: 4

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]