Jump to content

Yaren Jala

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Yaren Jala
Default
  • Yaren Jala
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3


Jalaa (autonym: bàsàrə̀n dà jàlààbè̩</link> ), wanda kuma aka fi sani da Cèntûm, [1] [1] Centúúm or Cen Tuum, is an extinct language of northeastern Nigeria (Loojaa settlement in Balanga Local Government Area, Gombe State), of uncertain origins, apparently a language isolate. The Jalabe (as descendants of speakers of the language are called) speak the Bwilim dialect of the Dikaka language. It is possible (but unconfirmed) that some remembered words have been retained for religious ceremonies, but in 1992 only a few elders remember words that their parents had used, and by 2010 there may not even remain any such rememberers.[2]Centúúm ko Cen Tuum, wani yare ne da ba a taɓa gani ba a arewa maso gabashin Najeriya (Loojaa mazaunin karamar hukumar Balanga, a jihar Gombe ), wanda ba a tabbatar da asalinsa ba, da alama ya keɓe . Jalabe (kamar yadda ake kiran zuriyar masu magana da harshen) suna magana da yaren Bwilim na yaren Dikaka . Yana yiwuwa (amma ba a tabbatar ba) an ajiye wasu kalmomin da aka tuna don bukukuwan addini, amma a shekara ta 1992 wasu dattawa kaɗan ne kawai suke tunawa da kalmomin da iyayensu suka yi amfani da su, kuma a shekara ta 2010 ba za a sami masu tuna irin wannan ba.

An ce Jalabe sun zo Loojaa ne daga wani yanki mai tazarar mil a kudu a cikin tsaunin Muri, inda suka yi matsuguni da dangin Tso da Kwa. (Sunan wannan mazaunin, Cèntûm ko Cùntûm, ana amfani da su azaman sunan harshen a wasu wurare. Dattawan Jalaa sun bambanta a ko sun yarda Jalaa ko Centum/Cuntum shine ainihin sunan su ga kansu.) Daga baya, a cikin karni na sha tara. Dikaka sun isa yankin, suna gujewa hare-hare daga babbar Waja zuwa arewa; Cham ya yi aure da Jalabe, sai Jalabe ya fara amfani da harshen Dikaka.

Masana harshe Jala'a kamar haka. [1]

Consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar /



</br> Palatal
Velar Labial-velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
M /



</br> Haɗin kai
mara murya p t t͡ʃ k kp
<small id="mwWQ">murya</small> b d d͡ʒ g
Mai sassautawa f s h
Kusanci l j w
Trill r
Wasula
Gaba Tsakiya Baya
Kusa i u
Kusa-kusa ɪ ʊ
Kusa-tsakiyar e ɘ o
Bude-tsakiyar ɛ ɔ
Bude a

Lexicon[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamus na Jalaa shima Dikaka ya yi tasiri sosai (wanda shi kuma ya yi tasiri); Hakanan ana samun wasu kamanceceniya tare da Tso na kusa. Duk da haka, yawancin ƙamus ɗinsa ba sabon abu bane. A cikin kalmomin Kleinewillinghöfer, "Babban ɓangaren ƙamus yana da alama ya bambanta gaba ɗaya daga duk harsunan da ke kewaye, waɗanda kansu ke wakiltar iyalai daban-daban na harshe."

Dikaka da Tso a al'adance sun guji yin amfani da sunayen matattu. Lokacin da waɗannan sunaye su ma kalmomi ne na harshe, kamar yadda sau da yawa ya faru, wannan ya tilasta musu canza kalmar, wani lokaci ta hanyar maye gurbinta da kalma daga harshen makwabta. Kleinewillinghöfer ya ɗauki wannan a matsayin abin ƙarfafawa ga wasu lokuta na aro daga Jalaa zuwa Dikaka.

Lambobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lambobin 1-6 a Jalaa sune:

  1. násán
  2. tiyú, tə́só
  3. tətáá, bwànbí
  4. təbwár, ŋbár
  5. (tə)nó
  6. tənúkùn

Sama da 5, lambobin sun kusan kama da Dikaka. Lambobin 2 zuwa 5 sun kusan kama da Tso, yayin da "ɗaya" ba shi da cikakkun bayanai.

Ilimin Halitta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Halin halittar Jalaa (aƙalla a halin yanzu) yana kusan kama da na Cham . Babban bambance-bambance a tsarin ajin suna su ne nau'i biyu na jam'i: Jalaa -ta</link> da Cham -te̩</link> da (ga mutane) Jalaa -bo</link> , -ba</link> da Cham -b(e̩)</link> .

Halin halittar sunan suna kama da na Cham, amma tare da wasu bambance-bambance. Wasu nau'ikan sunaye guda ɗaya da jam'i a cikin Jalaa da Cham:

Gloss Jalla, sg. Jalla, pl. Kama, sg. Kama, pl.
baki bɔɔ bɔɔní ɲii ɲiini
itace gwììràŋ gwììtɛ̀ riyaŋ riitɛ
nama lìbò lìbòté nàm nàmtɛ
rami suroŋ suroŋte
hanci yamər yaməta ʤʊ̀r ʤʊ̀tɛ
kafa kobər kobta
kifi fui fuuta
mata ʧùwì ʧùùbó
mutum nətâ nətaaba nii nə̀b
kada kùlɔŋ kùlɔ̀ŋtɛ
kulli fúbər fúbtɛ
kare ʤɔil ʤɔɔtɛ
baƙo (nii) fui fùbɛ

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Harshen Bung
  • Yaren Komta

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  •  

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Blench2014" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Kleine2010