Yaren Manchu

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Yaren Manchu
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ
'Yan asalin magana
20 (2007)
Manchu alphabet (en) Fassara da Mongolian (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-2 mnc
ISO 639-3 mnc
Glottolog manc1252[1]

Manchu (Manchu: </br> , Romanization: manju gisun ) yaren Tungusic na Gabashin Asiya ne da ke cikin hatsarin gaske wanda ya fito daga yankin tarihi na Manchuria a arewa maso gabashin China . A matsayin harshen asali na Manchus na gargajiya, ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin harsunan hukuma na daular Qing (1636-1912) na kasar Sin, kodayake a yau yawancin Manchus suna magana da Sinanci na Mandarin kawai. Dubban mutane za su iya magana da Manchu a matsayin yare na biyu ta hanyar ilimin firamare na gwamnati ko azuzuwan kyauta ga manya a azuzuwa ko kan layi

.

Harshen Manchu na da kimar tarihi ga masana tarihi na kasar Sin, musamman ga daular Qing. Rubuce-rubucen harshen Manchu suna ba da bayanan da babu su cikin Sinanci, kuma lokacin da nau'ikan Manchu da Sinanci na wani rubutu suka wanzu suna ba da iko don fahimtar Sinanci. [7]

Kamar yawancin harsunan Siberiya, Manchu harshe ne mai ban sha'awa wanda ke nuna iyakancewar jituwa . An nuna cewa an samo shi ne daga harshen Jurchen ko da yake akwai kalmomin lamuni da yawa daga Mongolian da Sinanci . Rubutunsa an rubuta shi a tsaye kuma an ɗauko shi daga rubutun Mongolian (wanda kuma ya samo asali daga Aramaic ta hanyar Uyghur da Sogdian ). Ko da yake Manchu ba shi da nau'in jinsin nahawu da ake samu a yawancin harsunan Turai, an bambanta wasu kalmomin jinsi a cikin Manchu da wasula masu tushe daban-daban (wasala), kamar yadda a cikin ama, 'baba', da eme, 'uwa'.

Sunaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daular Qing ta yi amfani da kalaman Mandarin na Sinanci iri-iri don nufin yaren Manchu, kamar "Qingwen" (清文</link> ) da "Qingyu" (清語</link>) ("harshen Qing"). An kuma yi amfani da kalmar "ƙasa" don rubutawa a cikin Manchu, kamar yadda yake cikin Guowen (國文</link>), ban da Guoyu (國語</link>) ("harshen ƙasa"), wanda daular da ba ta Hannu a baya suka yi amfani da ita don yin nuni ga harsunansu da kuma, a zamanin yau, zuwa ga daidaitaccen harshen Sinanci . A cikin harshen Manchu na yarjejeniyar Nerchinsk, kalmar "harshen Sinanci" ( Dulimbai gurun i bithe ) yana nufin duk harsunan Sinanci, Manchu, da Mongol guda uku, ba harshe ɗaya ba.

Tarihi da mahimmanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Plaque a birnin da aka haramta a birnin Beijing, na Sinanci (hagu,乾清門; ) da Manchu (dama, kiyan cing men</link> )
Sunan hukuma na kasar Sin a Manchu, yana karantawa a tsaye zuwa kalma ta gaba zuwa dama: "Dulimbai gurun"</link> (Kasar Tsakiya = China ).

Harsunan tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manchu yana kudancin Tungusic . Duk da yake harsunan Tungus na Arewa irin su Evenki suna riƙe da tsarin gargajiya, harshen Sinanci shine tushen babban tasiri akan Manchu, yana canza fasalinsa da ƙamus.

A shekara ta 1635 Hong Taiji ta canza sunan mutanen Jurchen da harshen Jurchen zuwa 'Manchu'. Jurchen su ne kakannin Manchu kuma sun yi mulkin daular Jin daga baya (1115-1234) .

Rashin amfani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manchu ya fara ne a matsayin yaren farko na kotun daular Qing, amma yayin da jami'an Manchu suka tsananta wa mutane da yawa suka fara rasa harshen. Ƙoƙarin kiyaye sunan Manchu, gwamnatin daular ta kafa azuzuwan yaren Manchu da jarrabawa ga bannermen, tana ba da lada ga waɗanda suka yi fice a yaren. An fassara litattafan almara da almara na Sinanci zuwa cikin Manchu kuma an tara tarin wallafe-wallafen Manchu . [13] Kamar yadda Sarkin Yongzheng (ya yi mulki 1722-1735) ya bayyana,

"Idan ba a ba da wasu ƙarfafawa na musamman ba, ba za a ba da harshen kakanni ba kuma a koya."

Duk da haka, yin amfani da harshe a tsakanin bannermen ya ƙi a cikin 1700s. Bayanan tarihi sun ruwaito cewa tun a shekara ta 1776, Sarkin Qianlong ya yi mamakin ganin wani jami'in Manchu Guo'ermin, bai fahimci abin da sarki yake gaya masa ba a Manchu, duk da cewa ya fito daga birnin Shengjing na Manchu (yanzu Shenyang ). A karni na 19 hatta kotun daular ta yi hasarar yare. Sarkin Jiaqing (wanda ya yi sarauta a 1796-1820) ya koka da cewa jami'ansa ba su da kwarewa wajen fahimta ko rubuta Manchu. Samfuri:Tungusic languages

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren Manchu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.