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Yaren kudancin Oromo

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Yaren kudancin Oromo
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 gax
Glottolog bora1271[1]
Yaren kudancin Oromo
Default
  • Yaren kudancin Oromo
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3


Kudancin Oromo, ko Borana (bayan daya daga cikin yarukanta), iri-iri ne na Oromo da ake magana a kudancin Habasha da arewacin Kenya da Mutanen Borana. Günther Schlee ya kuma lura cewa yare ne na asali na wasu mutane masu alaƙa, kamar Sakuye .

Harsuna sune Borana daidai (Boran, Borena), mai yiwuwa Arsi (Arussi, Arusi) da Guji (Gujji, Jemjem) a Habasha kuma, a Kenya, Karayu, Salale (Selale), Gabra (Gabbra, Gebra) kuma mai yiwuwa Orma da Waata.  [ana buƙatar hujja][<span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2021)">citation needed</span>]

Harshen yana cikin gida kuma an fi sani da Afaan Borana ("harshe na Borana").  [ana buƙatar hujja][<span title="does this include also the non-Borana dialects? (October 2023)">citation needed</span>]

Boraana Oromo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Boraana Oromo yana ɗaya daga cikin yarukan Oromo da yawa da ake magana tsakanin Habashawa da Kenyawa. Boraana Oromo (Southern Oromo) ya samo asali ne daga dangin yaren Afrosiatic yayin da yake cikin reshen Cushitic. Oromo tana mafi yawan masu magana daga reshen Cushitic a kimanin miliyan 37. [2] cikin masu magana da Oromo miliyan 37 har zuwa miliyan 18 suna magana da Boraana Oromo . [1] Masu magana da Boraana da mutane suna zaune ne kawai a yankin kudancin (Oromia) na Habasha da kuma yankin iyakar arewacin Kenya. Ana iya samun yawancin mutanen Boraana na Kenya a garuruwa kamar Tula, Garba, Isiolo da Marsabit. Matasan Habashawa da suka yi ƙaura zuwa Marsabit suna da masaniya sosai game da yaren Boraana. Boraana babban yaren yaren Oromo ne amma har yanzu ba shi da cikakkun bayanai masu sauƙin samu.

.Yawancin lokaci ana kiran Boraana a cikin gida a matsayin Afaan Borana kuma an rubuta shi kuma an bayyana shi da hanyoyi daban-daban (Borana, Boraana, Borena, Booranaa, Southern Oromo). Gadaa (tsarin ƙididdigar shekaru) wanda aka fi sani da ƙaddamar da ƙarni, mutanen Boraana sun yi shi ba tare da katsewa ba. Wannan aikin Gadaa ana iya samunsa ne kawai a cikin 'yan majalisa masu magana da harshen Cushitic a Habasha. Mutanen Boraana, ayyuka da harshe suna da ban sha'awa kuma har ma a halin yanzu kawai wasu littattafai da aka rubuta suna da cikakken bayani game da batun Boraana Oromo phonology da morhphology (Harry Stroomers Grammar of Boraana Oromo da sauran Nazarin Oromo gabaɗaya).

Yaren Boraana na Oromo yana da matukar muhimmanci ga Kudancin Oromo kuma yana da tsarin musamman wanda ya zama harshen. Kodayake Boraana na musamman ne a cikin tsarin kansa, yana da wasu ka'idojin sauƙaƙewa a cikin ma'anar kalma tare da Orma (wani yaren Oromo na Kudancin). [2] baya B. W. Andrzejewski ya gudanar da nazarin Boraana Oromo musamman a cikin sautin, phonetics, phonology da kuma tsarin jam'i (1957, 1960, 1962, 1972). [1] [2] cikin 1973 Venturino ya rubuta kuma ya buga ƙamus na Boraana mai bayani, Dizionario Borana-Italiano, amma abin takaici ba shi da daidaitattun rubutun. [2] cikin 1978 Ƙungiyar Littafi Mai-Tsarki ta Kenya ta buga Wold'ak'isaa Haraa Afaan Boranatiin T'aafani (Sabon Alkawari a Borana) da Kitaana Uumama, fassarar Farawa ta Boraana. A cikin 1980 da 1982 Owens ya gudanar da bincike mai mahimmanci da mahimmanci kan 'kotu' da 'sauti' a Boraana. Gabaɗaya, 'yan malamai sun ba da gudummawa mai mahimmanci ga rubutun da aka samu gabaɗaya akan Boraana Oromo.

Takaitaccen Tarihin Oromo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oromo yana [2] daraja a matsayin muhimmin yaren Afirka, kuma a cewar Grover Hudson "ɗaya daga cikin manyan harsuna biyar ko shida a Afirka". [3] [2] A baya ana kiran yawan mutanen Oromo "Galla" (kalmar bayanin da ake jayayya) amma sun daidaita sunan kansu Oromo don nuna kansu, ko yin amfani da sunan kabilar su. Oromo sun wuce shekaru 7000 kuma sun samo asali [4] a kudancin Habasha suna fadada da zarar ƙaurawar Oromo ta fara kusa da 1530. [1] Akwai yarukan Oromo 15 tare da yiwuwar ƙarin waɗanda ba a rubuta su ba. Waɗannan yarukan sun kasu kashi uku, Yamma, Gabas da Kudancin. Habasha tana mafi yawan masu magana da Oromo tare da 33.8% ko kusan miliyan 27, [1] yayin da Kenya ke da ƙananan adadin kusan 300,000 da Somalia tare da 45,000. Oromo yana daya daga cikin harsunan hukuma a Habasha amma yana kawo halayen gauraye tsakanin amfani da shi. Kenya ba ta amince da Oromo a matsayin harshen hukuma ba kuma tana ci gaba da nisanta gaba ɗaya. Kodayake tsofaffi 'yan Kenya har yanzu suna amfani da Oromo ƙaramin ƙarni yana aiki ne kawai a kan Swahili da Ingilishi, harsuna biyu da aka amince da su.

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

iya raba Oromo zuwa ƙungiyoyi uku na yare: yammacin tsakiya, gabas, da kudanci.  

Harshen haruffa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da wannan tsari na haruffa a cikin ƙamus na Turanci na Boraana.

Harshen Oromo [2] Kudancin [1]
Wasika Magana ta Misali Fassara
A a abbaa uba; mai shi
B b baana don yin magana, don ce
C c caacii coci
Yana da c'aba don karya
D d daraaraa fure, ganye
Daga d'ak'aba don isa wani wuri, kusa da
E da eesuma kawun mahaifiyarta
F f falfalta don faɗi abubuwa marasa kyau, yi kuskure
G g gummii rukuni na mutane
H h hink'irfad'd'a don yin amfani da shi
I da ideemtuu matafiyi, baƙo
J j jaalala don soyayya, don so
K k kitaaba littafin
K' k' k'at'aamura Hanyar ƙetare, zigzag
L labbaa jariri, ƙaramin yaro
M m maa? menene?
N n naanaa abinci, kayan zaki
Ni ny ny nyaaba Baƙo
Ya o obsaa jami'in
P p pikipiki babur
P' p' -- --
R r rifeensa gashi
S s sookoo kasuwa
Sh sh shambaa gona, lambu
T t tabad'd'a yin wasa, faranta wa kanka rai
Kai' t'unnalee wani nau'in zuma
U u ula tsaftacewa
W w warabeesa hyeena
Kuma da yammoo sanyi, sanyi
Z z -- --

Lambobin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lambobin suna bin sunan. Lambobin Cardinal da na ordinal ba sa ɗaukar suffixes na batun. Bayan sunan a matsayin batun, lambobin cardinal da naordinal suna cikin nau'in tushe".."[2]

Lambar Kaddada[2]
Adadin Kudancin Oromo
1 tokko, tokkoca
2 lamma
3 sadii
4 afuri
5 shani
6 jaa
7 torba
8 saddeeti
9 sagali
10 kud'aani
20 diddamii
30 soddomii
40 afurtama
50 shantama
60 jaatama
70 torbaatama
80 saddeetama
90 sagaltama
100 d'ibba (tokko)
200 d'ibba (lamma)
300 d'ibba (sadii)
400 d'ibba (afuri)

Lokacin ƙidaya sama da lambar 10 dole ne ku haɗa lambar da aka kara wanda ya maye gurbin 0 daga lambobin 1-9 don samar da cikakken lambar kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin jadawalin da ke sama don lambobi 100, 200, 300, 400. Wannan doka ta shafi dukkan lambobi sama da 10.

Abubuwan deicitic kaa (m) da taa (f) suna nuna jinsi a cikin lambobi na taa da kullun. Waɗannan abubuwa wajibi kawai daga 20th zuwa gaba amma don 1st - 19th akwai bambancin yare a cikin amfani da waɗannan abubuwa kaa (m) and taats.[5]

[5] Ordinal [1]
Adadin Kudancin Oromo
Na farko k'araa, kwansaa
Na biyu lammeeso
Na uku sadeesoo
Na huɗu afreesoo
Na biyar shaneesoo
Na 6 jaeesoo
Na 7 torbeesoo
Na 8th saddeesoo, saddeeteesoo
Na 9th sagaleesoo, kud'a(a)neesoo
Na 10 kurneesoo, kud'a(a)neesoo
da dai sauransu.
Na 20 kaa diddamaa
Na 21 kaa diddamii tokkoo

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin harshen Boraana akwai consonants, allophones na consonants، vowels da damuwa. Boraana Oromo yare ne na sauti kuma na musamman ne amma suna da kamanceceniya da wasu yarukan Oromo. Ƙananan ɓangaren sauti mai ma'ana ana kiransu phonemes kuma suna cikin harshen Boraana. Boraana ya ƙunshi masu magana 6 waɗanda zasu iya bambanta a yankuna duk da haka wasu sun haɗu da juna.

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Labari Dental / Alveolar
Palatal Velar Gishiri
Hanci m n ɲ (ŋ)
Dakatar da / Africate
Rashin lafiya
voiceless (p) t t͡ʃ k
voiced b d d͡ʒ
ejective t͡ʃʼ
implosive ɗ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ h
voiced (z)
Rhotic r
Hanyar gefen l
Kusanci w j
  • /k, kʼ/ ana iya jin sa a matsayin fricatives [x, xʼ] lokacin da yake cikin matsayi na intervocalic.
  • /n/ ana iya jin sautin a matsayin [ŋ] lokacin da yake faruwa a gaban sautunan velar.
  • /ɗ/ kuma yana iya samun retroflex allophone [ɖ] kuma ana iya jin sa a matsayin bututun [ɾ] a matsayin intervocalic.
  • [p] da [z] suna faruwa ne kawai a cikin kalmomin aro.

Conso[2] na iya zama gajere ko tsawo (ban da sh, p', ny, da h). [1] Lokacin da ya zo ga rubutun gajerun ƙwayoyin suna amfani da harafin sau ɗaya yayin da aka rubuta dogon ƙwayoyin sau biyu wanda ke haifar da irin wannan kalma don samun ma'ana daban-daban.

[2] (Short vs. Long) [1]
Ƙananan Ma'ana Fassara Tsawon Ma'ana Fassara
boroo gefen baya (na hutun) borroo 1 takamaiman dutse na wuta (wanda ya kunshi duwatsu 3)
daara tsirara, tsirara daarraa toka
d'araa karya d'araa don jira, don tsorata
maaga don yin nadama maagaa tsutsotsi na hanji
obaa aikin shayar da shanu obbaa don a gama

Consonants suna faruwa guda ɗaya a matsayi na farko; intervocalically suna faruwa guda, sau biyu, ko a cikin rukuni na consonants daban-daban guda biyu amma ba sa faruwa a cikin matsayi na ƙarshe. cikin sauti, duk kalmomi sun ƙare a cikin wasali.[2]

Rarraba da Allophones na consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A wasu kalmomi akwai sauyawa kyauta tsakanin b da p'. [2]y lura da wannan tsari na bambancin kyauta tsakanin j da y na farko a wasu lokuta.

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Duk da yake muryar murya c' yana faruwa a matsayi na tsakiya da na farko muryar muryar muryoyin c kawai yana faruwa a matsayin farko da na tsakiya a cikin kalmomin arol c'l c

Farko da rarrabawar matsakaici
Phoneme Farko Tsakanin labarai
c c "parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"[[]]"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAs4" typeof="mw:Transclusion">'' nyeenc "parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"lion"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAtI" typeof="mw:Transclusion">''
c' "parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"to jump"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAts" typeof="mw:Transclusion">'''c{{'}}'''ia"}},"i":0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAtk" title="Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo-language text" typeof="mw:Transclusion">C'ia 'tsalle' "parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"to be elastic/flexible"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAuA" typeof="mw:Transclusion">'''c{{'}}'''aa"}},"i":0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAt4" title="Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo-language text" typeof="mw:Transclusion">hanc'aa 'don zama mai sassauci / mai sassauƙa'
d dubbii "parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"word, thing"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAuk" typeof="mw:Transclusion">', abu' "parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"horse"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAu4" typeof="mw:Transclusion">'''d'''a"}},"i":0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAuw" title="Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo-language text" typeof="mw:Transclusion">farda ''
d' ~ da kuma d"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"small axe"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAvk" typeof="mw:Transclusion">', agaraa ''
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[6]"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"gloss","href":"./Template:Gloss"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"peninsula"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAwk" typeof="mw:Transclusion">', uumma 'ƙauye' [1]

Wasu lokuta na d'' na farko na iya canzawa tare da null. Irin [6][2] bambancin yana faruwa a cikin Wellegga Oromo.

Ƙungiyoyin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin morphemes[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

[2] samo tarin ma'ana a cikin l, m, n, da r. Gabaɗaya, ma'auni tare da l, m. n, ko r a matsayin ma'ana ta biyu suna yiwuwa amma ba su da yawa.

[2] ƙwayoyin cuta [1]
C1
l m n r
C2
b jilba gomboo - arba
c bakalca - k'ancaraa k'arcaasa
d jaldeesa ogomdii gandii ardaa
d mald'ad'd'a - hand'ura bard'adaa
g galgala gamgama hangaafa arga
k halkini - bonkoo harka
k' hilk'aa - k'oonk'oo hak'uuk'a
n - humna nn kurneesoo
p' jalp'aa kulump'aa - surp'up'a
s - domsoo dansaa farsoo
A gaba Tsakiya Komawa
Kusa i iː u uː
Tsakanin eːda kuma o oː
Bude a aː

[2] iya jin sautunan sautin /i, e, a, o/ a matsayin [ɪ, ɛ, ʌ, ɔ]. Sautin na iya zama tsawo ko gajere a matsayi na ƙarshe, na tsakiya da na farko. Duk kalmomin sun ƙare da gajeren wasali ko dogon wasali.


Bambancin matsayi na farko [2]

  • aalaa - wani nau'in ciyawa
  • eelee - gurasa
  • Oola - don ciyar da rana
  • Ummuu - wuyan wuyan amber

Bambancin matsayi na tsakiya [2]

  • fiit'aa - dangi
  • keenna - namu
  • Korree - Samburu (ƙabilar)
  • fuloo - ƙofar, ƙofar

Bambancin matsayi na ƙarshe [2]

  • ciki - ciki
  • beela - yunwa
  • daara - tsirara
  • gari - wani wuri

Gajerun sautin da tsawo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gajeren wasula a Boraana sune i, e, a, o. Duk waɗannan gajerun wasula ana furta su tare da ƙaramin ƙoƙari na tsoka da ke da ƙwarewar sauti. Wannan yana faruwa [2] a gaban ma'anar ma'anar biyu ko rukuni, a gaban maɓallin da kuma gajeren wasali na ƙarshe, da kuma a gaban maɗaukaki ko ma'anar implosive. An cire wasu u saboda an gane shi a matsayin kansa a duk mahalli, saboda haka ba ya canzawa. Lokacin da gajeren wasali yake a ƙarshen kalma ya zama mara murya. Ana yin wannan tsari tare da kalmomi kamar Garin (wuri, gefe) da nad'eeni (mata). [7] (1957) ya ba da bayanin wasula marasa murya a Boraana: "Saboda haka a lokacin da ake magana da waɗannan sautuna harshe da leɓuna suna cikin matsayi ɗaya kamar yadda suke a lokacin da suke magana da wasula, amma an maye gurbin numfashi don murya".[2] wasula sune wasula biyu, ii, ee, aa, oo, uu a cikin matsayi na farko da na tsakiya. Lokaci-lokaci [ɛɛ] zai faru amma babu wani bayani don fassara ko [ɛɛ] allophone ne na dogon wasali ee amma mafi yawan suna ɗaukar hakan daidai saboda rashin ƙarshe a kan batun. Sautu[2] matsayi na ƙarshe suna da gajeren sauti kuma ana gane su azaman sautuna tare da tsayawar ƙashi tare da sautuna mara murya ko kuma azaman gajeren sautuna da sautunan da ba su da murya.

Misalan Long Vowel:

8

  • himbeeka - Na sani, ya sani
  • Kurneesoo - na goma

Wannan kuma lamarin ne ga Orma Oromo

Misali:

  • saddeecaa - eigth
  • nad'eeni - mace

Damuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin rubutun da bayanin da ke biyowa za a nuna damuwa ta hanyar []. [2] [i], [e], [a], [ii], da dai sauransu. Matsi yana aiki azaman dukiyar morphemes kuma azaman dukiya na jumla.

Damuwa a matsayin dukiyar morphemes[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin Boraana Oromo gajerun sunayen wasula suna da damuwa ta ƙarshe ko ta ƙarshe (ban da wasula ta ƙarshe mara murya) dangane da ko suna mata (na ƙarshe) ko namiji (na ƙarshe).

Misalan:

  • intala (f) "yarinya, 'yar"
  • d[u]kana (f) "duhu"
  • h[a]nd'ura (f) "navel, umbilical cord"
  • gal[a]ana (m) "kogin"

Sai dai akwai:

  • [I]bidda (m) "wuta"[2]

[2]"Sunayen da suka ƙare a cikin -ii, -ee, -oo, -uu gabaɗaya mata ne. " Kamar yadda aka lura kafin sunayen mata galibi suna da damuwa ta ƙarshe saboda ƙare a cikin gajeren wasali.

Misalan:

  • k'urt'[u]mmii (f) "kifi"
  • simp'[i]rree (f) "tsuntsu"[2]

Yana da mahimmanci a lura cewa ƙarshen sunan -aa na iya zama namiji ko mace. Wannan kuma lamarin ne ga Orma da Waata Oromo.

Misalan:

  • ag[a]rtaa (f) "ɗalibi na ido"
  • m[a]taam mat[a]a (m) "kai"
  • m[a]k'aa, mak'[a]a (m) "sunan"[2]

[2]"Sunayen da suka ƙare a cikin ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden - (e) esa, - (e" ensa, - (i) ca, suna da damuwa a kan syllable na farko".

Misalan:

  • b[i]neesa - "dabbobi"
  • [o][ko]rbobiisa - " gizo-gizo, crab"
  • d[i]randisa - "tsuntsu na shanu"[2]

[2]"Sunayen da suka ƙare a cikin -ni suna da matsananciyar damuwa ko na ƙarshe a cikin bambancin kyauta. Ba a ƙidaya wasula mara murya na ƙarshe ba. "

Misalan:

  • [a]faani ko af[a]ani - "baki"
  • [i]lkaani ko ilk[a]ani - "hannuwa"[2]

Matsin Tsayawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

samun damuwa mai mahimmanci a kan mai haɗawa, mai haɗawa da -fi, batun da ke nuna alamar -t[i]i da -[i] i, da kuma a cikin jujjuyawar kalma da kuma samo asali (mahimmanci na murya na tsakiya, ƙididdigar ƙididdiga marasa mahimmanci, ƙididdiga masu ƙyama da suka gabata da kuma syllable na farko na maɓallin kalma tare da wasu banbanci).s).[2]

Misalan:

-Linker clitic a cikin aikin asali-

(kalmar da ta gabata ta rasa tsarin damuwa a cikin wannan tsari)

  • f[i]it'ee muk[a]a
  • (f[i]it'ee m[u]ka'[a]a)
  • itacen saman LIN=GEN (Linker clitic aiki a matsayin genitive)

[2]"a saman itacen"

-Jami'a mai juyawa-

(Syllable na farko na maɓallin aikatau sai dai a cikin yanayin manyan sassan da ke tabbatar da aikatau da ke dauke da ma'anar da aka jaddada)

[2] [1]
himb[e]eku Ban sani ba, Ba ya sani
Himb[e]enne cewa ban sani ba, cewa bai sani ba
b[e]eku cewa na sani, cewa ya sani
d'[a]gai ji

Damuwa a matsayin dukiyar jumla[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tare da cire gajerun sautunan karshe na preverbal, yawanci kalmomin preverbal a yanzu da na baya suna da damuwa. Bambanci tsakanin dokar damuwa ta preverbal ko kasancewar mai haɗawa mai haɗawa ba koyaushe ba ne lokacin da aka ƙayyade yadda damuwa ta preverball ta samo asali. Misali tsarin damuwa na kalmar Gabaya:

  • [a]ani y[a]a kalee b[i]llaa gabay[a]ad'd'e[2]

fassarar 1:

  • (aani yaa kalee billaa gabaya[a] bit+ad'd'+e)
  • I (SUBJ) FOC kasuwar wuka jiya (w/ damuwa ta gaba) saya+MIVO+1sgPAST

fassarar 2:

  • (aani yaa kalee billaa gab[a]yaa bit+ad'd'+e)
  • I (SUBJ) FOC kasuwar wuka jiya LIN=SCOPE buy+MIVO+1sgPAST
  • [2]"Yaube na sayi wuka a kasuwa"

Yanayi

  • SUBJ = Batun
  • FOC = Mai da hankali
  • MIVO = Tsawon magana ta tsakiya
  • 1sgPAST = Farko na farko da ya gabata
  • [2]=SCOPE = Linker clitic yana nuna iyaka [1]

Yanayin Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai matakai da yawa na morphological da ke faruwa a cikin Boraana Oromo. Ƙungiyoyin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta a fadin iyakokin morpheme sun samo asali ne a cikin nau'ikan aikatau, sunaye, adjectives a wasu lokuta suna da fahimta biyu saboda bambancin kyauta, rata a cikin bayanai, ko toshewar ma'ana a ɗaya daga cikin bambance-bambance. Saboda wadannan matakai ma'anar shigarwa ta bambanta da ma'anar fitarwa.

Takaitaccen bayani game da tsarin morphophonemic:[2]

1. na ƙarshe + t b + t = bt, d' + t = tt, g + t = dd

2. ƙarshen ma'anar + n b + n = mn, d + n = nn, g + n =nn

3. ƙars ma'anar + s d + s =c, d' + s = s, k' + s / nsd + s =c, d' + s = s, k' + s= ns

4. [5] (h) [i]n- ko (h) in- + farkon sashi [1]

[2] cikin Boraana Oromo akwai canje-canje na morphophonemic da suka shafi wasula da slides, canje-canje a cikin wasula a fadin iyakokin morpheme, canji na n zuwa sifili, ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden ƙayyadada, juyawa na ƙayyadamuran ƙayyadamshi da tsawo na gajerun wasula a cikin ƙayyadamar syllable.

Magana mai suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya canza sunan ta hanyar mallaka, adjective, da kuma nunawa kuma suna da hankali ga jinsi tare da tsari mai zuwa.

[2] - mai sauƙin kai - mai sauƙaƙe - mai sauyaƙe [1]

haattii ijoolle tana afraanii guddoo hiyeettii

(haad'a + har zuwa yara tana afraani ii guddoo hiyeettii)

uwa + SUBJ yara wadannan hudu LIN=GEN matalauta sosai

"Mahaifiyar wadannan yara huɗu matalauciya ce sosai".

A wasu lokuta lambar na iya zuwa tsakanin sunan da adjective, tsakanin mai mallaka da adjectif, da kuma tsakanin adjective da nunawa ko a ƙarshen kalma. "Sunayen, adjectives, lambobi, masu nunawa, sunayen mutum, masu mallaka, sunayen da suka dace da juna da kuma postpositions suna da nau'in "tushen" a cikin matsayi na abu kai tsaye, matsayi na magana, a cikin maganganun lokaci da na wuri, kafin postpositions da suffixes da kuma a cikin kalma-da-kalma elicitation. " [1] Akwai kuma alamar batun wanda ya bambanta da rukunin kalmar. Adjectives da sunaye suna alama don batun ta hanyar suffixes yayin da wakilan nunawa da na mutum suna da siffofi daban-daban.[2]

woraabesii (woraabesa + ii) hyena + SUBJ "hyena"

Duk wani alaƙar ilimin lissafi da ba ta wuce ta hanyoyin da aka ambata a baya ana bayyana ta hanyar haɗin kai. Haɗin haɗin kai [2] ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden kuma suna nuna alaƙar nahawu tare da dangantaka ɗaya da za a iya bayyana a cikin ɓangaren ƙarshe na kalma.

Mine Ciifaa (mina ciifa aa) shugaban gidan LIN=GEN "Gidan shugaban"

Sunan suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunayen da aka ware suna cikin nau'in tushe wanda ya ƙunshi tushen kadai ko tushen tare da tsawo (jama'a, singulative ko derivational suffixes). [2] ila yau, yana da mahimmanci a raba sunaye bisa ga wasulan su na ƙarshe.

Suni="mwBPk">a da suka ƙare a: a) gajeren wasali a ko i:

mina - "gida" harka - "hannu" nawa'eeni - "mace" yaak'a - "Baobab-itace"

[2]b) dogon wasali: niitii - "mace" eegee - " wutsiya" mak'aa - "sunan" aduu - "ranar" [1][2]

Jima'i
Ƙarshen sautin mata mai tsawo Sunayen mata da suka ƙare a cikin -a, ko -i Kalmomin maza dogon wasali ƙarshen Kalmomin maza gajeren wasali ƙarshen
dubbii - Magana / al'amari dook'a - lu'u-lu'u mataa - Kai Sa'a d'alaa - Cow
Simp'irree - Tsuntsu Ma'adinai - Dewlap gurbaa - yaro korma lukuu - kaza namiji
buyyoo - Ciyawa nad'eeni - Mata - dannabaa arbaa - Guguwa mace
aduu - Rana ƙasa - Duniya, ƙasa - -

[2]

Ana iya ƙayyade lambobi ko ba a ƙayyade su ba ta jam'i da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden amma sau da yawa sunaye ba a ƙayyadadan su ba ta lamba. [2] wani ma'ana wannan yana nufin wani lokacin ba za ku sami hanyar da za ku iya fassara abin da ke ɗaya ko yalwa a cikin adadi ba amma mahallin na iya samar da wannan bayanin. Akwai wasu ƙuntatawa tare ko sunayen namiji da suka ƙare a cikin -ni kuma saboda yawan su dole ne a gane su a matsayin jam'i kamar aanani - madara, bisaani - ruwa. Sunayen da ke da ƙididdigar jam'i gabaɗaya suna nufin ƙididdigan ko ƙididdigat ƙungiyoyin abubuwa yayin da sunayen da ke nuna rayayyun halittu na iya ɗaukar ƙididdigas.

Taƙaitaccen ƙididdigar ƙididdiga
1 -Olee
2 -Llee
3 -oota
4 -utee
5 -ii
6 -yyii
7 -yyee
8 - (a) ani
9 - (o) wa (a) ni
10 -oo
11 -eeni

Ragewa na ƙididdigar jam'i masu yawa sune -oo, -ee, -aa, -ti, -ni, -ii, -ll.

Ƙaddamarwa guda ɗaya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

[2]<i id="mwBX8">-ttii (f) da -ca (m) sune ƙididdigar ƙididdiga don sunayen da ke nuna rayayyun halittu, musamman ma ethnonyms, kuma suna ci gaba da wasali na i. Sunaye tare da ƙididdigatattun sun rasa ma'anarsu kuma sun koma ga ƙungiyar kalmomin da ba a bayyana su ba don lamba. -sa (m) da -ttii (f) ana samun su a cikin ƙananan ƙungiyoyi waɗanda ke da tushen da ke ƙare a cikin -ee. Ana iya gano ma'anar asali amma a wasu lokuta ba a gano su ba.

sidamtica - Mutumin Habasha sidamtittii - Wata mace Habasha obbolee - 'yan'uwa maza da mata obboleettii - ɗan'uwa (s) obboleettii - 'Yar'uwa (S)

[2] a yi wa sunaye alama don tabbatarwa amma ana amfani da masu nunawa a maimakon haka don wannan dalili kuma ana nuna rashin tabbas ta hanyar tokko "daya" (namica tokko - mutum). Akwai sunayen denominal, deverbal da de-adjectival waɗanda za a iya samo su daga sunaye, daga adjectives da kuma daga aikatau ta hanyar suffixes.

Adjectives[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Adjectives yawanci suna ƙare a cikin dogon wasali a cikin nau'in tushe wanda ya ƙunshi tushen ko tushen tare da tsawo. Adjectives kuma na iya zama namiji ko mace da suka yarda da jinsi tare da sunan da suke gyara yayin da wasu adjectives ba su da jinsi. Mutum na iya tantance jinsi ta hanyar kallon ƙarshen adjectival. maza sune -aa, -ca, -sa da ƙarewa na mata sune -oo, -tuu, -ttii.tii.[2]

Ƙarshen ƙayyadaddun jinsi
Maza -aa Maza -ca Maza -sa Mata -oo -tu -tuu Mata -ttii
K'allaa - Ƙanƙara, Ƙanƙanta dullaca - tsoho gogeesa - bushe K'alloo - kunkuntar, mai laushi Baratu - lafiya dullattii - tsoho
huk'aa - mai laushi, mai laushi gurraaca - baki Hardness - wadata huk'oo - mai laushi, mai laushi diimtuu - ja gurraattii - baki

Sunayen sirri, na tunani da na ma'ana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wakilan sirri a cikin nau'in tushe: Singular 1 - naa, ana 2 - sii 3m - isa, iisa 3f - isii, ishii

Yawancin [2] - nuu 2 - isani 3 - isaani, worra [1]

Misali na wakilan sirri a cikin nau'in tushe: a cikin Matsayi na Kai tsaye aani takka iisa hingarre (aani takka iisha hin+gar+ne) I (SUBJ) da zarar shi NEG + duba + NEG. PAST "Ban taɓa saduwa da shi ba (lit. gani)

a cikin Matsayi mai mahimmanci obboleesa kiya k'arooni iisa (obboleesa kiya k 'aroo+ni iisa) ɗan'uwana mai basira + SUBJ shi "Shi ɗan'uwata ne mai basira"

Misali:

inni daawitii keesaani ufi arge - Ya ga kansa a cikin madubi isiini d'iirsa ufii ufi d'aatuu k'abdi - Tana da mijinta kusa da guyyoo*fi galgaloo wo argani - Guyyo da Galgalo sun ga juna

Masu mallaka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu mallakar na iya zama namiji ko mace dangane da sunan kai jinsi kuma suna bin sunan kai.

Masu mallaka
SG headnoun (m) SG heanoun (f) PL headnoun (m) PL headnoun (f) Haske
1st kiy (y) a Yaki na farko (da) atiy (da) a keenna na farko Taron farkoteenna SG - na, PL - namu
Na biyu kiyaye, kankeeci gaba, kankee Tayi na biyu,te, tantee keesani na biyu teesani na biyu SG - ka, PL ka
Na uku (m) shi Na uku (f) shi Na ukuya fito Na ukuya fito SG - nasa, PL - su
Na uku (f) shidaSai shida Na uku (f) shidaSai shida ya damu ya damu SG ita, su

  anini obboleettii tiya arge - Na ga 'yar'uwata guyyoo obboleesa kiya - Guyyo ɗan'uwana ne obboleettiini tiya worra jirti - 'yar'uwa tana gida

Kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abin da ba za a iya ragewa na kowane nau'in magana ana kiransa tushen aikatau". Tushen yana ba da ma'anar ma'anar ƙamus kuma ana iya faɗaɗa shi tare da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden ƙayyadamden ƙayƙwalwar ƙayyadagden ƙayayyadaddden ƙayyar ƙayyadyadaddun. Dukansu ma'anar kalma mai sauƙi da mai tsawo suna da alamomi masu alaƙa da nau'ikan lamba, mutum, jinsi, lokaci da tabbatarwa / musantawa.[2]


Abubuwan [2] ke cikin maganganu sune:

(h)in-
Zaɓin da aka jaddada wanda nan da nan ya riga ya wuce babban sashi na yanzu da na baya tare da jaddadawa akan maganganun. 
(h)in-
Unstressed tilas clitic cewa nan da nan ya riga da mummunar kalma a cikin manyan da ƙananan sassan a yanzu, baya da kuma imperative.   

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren kudancin Oromo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44 2.45 2.46 2.47 2.48 2.49 2.50 2.51 2.52 Stroomer 1995.
  3. Gragg 1982
  4. Lewis 1966.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Stroomer 1987.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Gragg 1982.
  7. Andrzejewski 1957.

Bayanan littattafai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]