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Harshen Oromo

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Harshen Oromo
Afaan Oromoo
'Yan asalin magana
harshen asali: 24,000,000 (2007)
36,000,000
Baƙaƙen boko da Geʽez script (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 om
ISO 639-2 orm
ISO 639-3 orm
Glottolog nucl1736[1]

Oromo (/ˈɒrəmoʊ/ ko /ɔːˈrOʊmOʊ/; Oromo: Afaan Oromoo), a tarihi kuma ana kiranta Galla [2] (sunan da Oromo ke ɗauka a matsayin abin kunya), yare ne na Afroasiatic wanda ke cikin reshen Cushitic. Yana da asali a jihar Oromia da Arewacin Kenya na Habashawa kuma yawancin Mutanen Oromo da kabilun makwabta ne ke magana da shi a Horn of Africa. [3] amfani dashi azaman harshen magana musamman a Yankin Oromia da arewa maso gabashin Kenya.

Tare da fiye da masu magana miliyan 36 wanda ya kai kashi 33.8% na yawan mutanen Habasha, Oromo yana da mafi yawan masu magana da asali a Habasha, kuma ya zama na biyu mafi yawan yaren da ake magana a Habasha ta yawan masu magana (ciki har da masu magana da harshen na biyu) bayan Amharic. Ana magana nau'ikan Oromo a matsayin yare na farko ta ƙarin mutane rabin miliyan a wasu sassan arewa da gabashin Kenya. Har ila yau, ƙananan masu ƙaura a wasu ƙasashen Afirka kamar Afirka ta Kudu, Libya, Masar da Sudan suna magana da shi. Oromo ita yaren Cushitic da aka fi magana da shi kuma daga cikin harsuna biyar na Afirka tare da mafi yawan mutanen da ke da yaren uwa.

Oromo yana aiki ne a matsayin ɗayan harsunan aiki na hukuma na Habasha [4] kuma harshe ne na aiki na jihohi da yawa a cikin tsarin tarayya na Habasha ciki har da Oromia, Harari da Dire Dawa yankuna da na Yankin Oromia a Yankin Amhara . Harshen ilimi ne na firamare a Oromia, Harari, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz da Addis Ababa da kuma Yankin Oromia a Yankin Amhara . amfani dashi azaman harshen intanet don shafukan yanar gizo na tarayya tare da Tigrinya. karkashin mulkin Haile Selassie, an dakatar da Oromo a ilimi, a tattaunawa, da kuma al'amuran gudanarwa.

Iri-iri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Iri-iri da yaruka na Oromo

Ethnologue (2015) ya ba da lambobin ISO guda biyar ga Oromo:

  • Boranaa-Arsii-Gujii Oromo (Kudancin Oromo, gami da yarukan Gabra da Sakuye), lambar ISO [gax]
  • Oromo na Gabas (Harar), lambar ISO [hae]
  • Orma (Munyo, Orma, Waata/Sanye), lambar ISO [orc]
  • Yammacin Tsakiyar Oromo (Yammacin Oromo da Tsakiyar Oro, gami da Mecha / Wollega, Raya, Wello (Kemise), Tulema / Shewa), lambar ISO [gaz]
  • Waata, lambar ISO [ssn]

Blench (2006) ya raba Oromo zuwa harsuna huɗu:

  • Yammacin Oromo (Maca)
  • Shewa (Tuulama, Arsi)
  • Oromo na Gabas (Harar)
  • Kudancin Oromo (Ajuran, Borana, Gabra, Munyo, Orma, Sakuye, Waata)

bincika wasu nau'ikan Oromo kuma an rarraba su.

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Oromo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. Empty citation (help)
  4. Shaban, Abdurahman (2020-03-04).

Masu magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kimanin kashi 85 cikin dari na masu magana da Oromo suna zaune a Habasha, galibi a Yankin Oromia. Bugu kari, a Somaliya akwai kuma wasu masu magana da yaren. Kenya, Ethnologue ya kuma lissafa masu magana da 722,000 na Borana da Orma, harsuna biyu da ke da alaƙa da Oromo na Habasha. A cikin Habasha, Oromo shine yaren da ke da mafi yawan masu magana da asali.

A cikin Afirka, Oromo shine harshen da ke da mafi yawan masu magana na huɗu, bayan Larabci (idan mutum ya ƙidaya nau'ikan Larabci marasa fahimta a matsayin yare ɗaya kuma yana ɗaukar iri ɗaya ga nau'ikan Oromo), Swahili, da Hausa.

Baya ga masu magana da harshe na farko, yawancin mambobin wasu kabilun da ke hulɗa da Oromo suna magana da shi a matsayin yare na biyu. Dubi, alal misali, Bambassi mai magana da Omotic da Kwama mai magana da Nilo-Sahara a arewa maso yammacin Oromia .

Manufofin Harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Oromo suna amfani da al'adar magana mai tasowa sosai. A cikin karni na 19, malamai sun fara rubutu a cikin harshen Oromo ta amfani da Rubutun Latin. A cikin 1842, Johann Ludwig Krapf ya fara fassarar Linjila ta Yahaya da Matiyu zuwa Oromo, da kuma ƙamus da ƙamus na farko. Masanin Jamusanci Karl Tutschek ne ya samar da ƙamus na farko na Oromo da ƙamus a cikin 1844. Bugawa farko ta fassarar yaren Oromo ta kasance a cikin 1846 a cikin wata jaridar Jamusanci a cikin wata kasida game da Oromo a Jamus.

Bayan da Abyssinia ta mamaye yankin Oromo, an katse ci gaban harshe a cikin cikakken kayan aikin rubutu. Ayyukan da aka buga, musamman fassarorin Onesimos Nesib da Aster Ganno na Littafi Mai-Tsarki daga ƙarshen karni na 19, an rubuta su a cikin haruffa na Ge'ez. Bayan Juyin Juya Halin 1974, gwamnati ta gudanar da kamfen na karatu da rubutu a cikin harsuna da yawa, gami da Oromo, kuma an fara bugawa da watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo a cikin yaren. Dukkanin kayan Oromo da aka buga a Habasha a wannan lokacin, kamar jaridar Bariisaa, Urjii da sauransu da yawa, an rubuta su a cikin rubutun gargajiya na Habasha.  [ana buƙatar hujja][<span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (July 2021)">citation needed</span>]

Shirye-shiryen gabatar da koyar da harshen Oromo a makarantu, duk da haka, ba a cika su ba har sai an hambarar da gwamnatin Mengistu Haile Mariam a shekarar 1991, sai dai a yankunan da Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) ke sarrafawa. Tare da kirkirar jihar Oromia a karkashin sabon tsarin kabilanci a Habasha, ya yiwu a gabatar da Oromo a matsayin matsakaiciyar koyarwa a makarantun firamare a duk yankin, gami da yankunan da wasu kabilun ke zaune suna magana da yarensu, kuma a matsayin harshen gudanarwa a cikin yankin. Tun lokacin da OLF ta bar gwamnatin rikon kwarya ta Habasha a farkon shekarun 1990, kungiyar Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization (OPDO) ta ci gaba da bunkasa Oromo a Habasha.  [ana buƙatar hujja][<span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (July 2021)">citation needed</span>]

An fara watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo a cikin harshen Oromo a Somalia a cikin 1960 ta Rediyon Mogadishu . Shirin ya ƙunshi kiɗa da farfaganda. Waƙar Bilisummaan Aannaani (Yanci shine Milk) ta zama babbar nasara a Habasha. Don yaki tasirin Somaliya, Gwamnatin Habasha ta fara shirin rediyo na yaren Oromo na kansu. cikin Kenya an yi watsa shirye-shiryen rediyo a cikin Oromo (a cikin yaren Borana) a kan Muryar Kenya tun aƙalla shekarun 1980. An buga Littafi Mai-Tsarki na Borana a Kenya a cikin 1995 ta amfani da haruffa na Latin, amma ba ta amfani da ka'idojin rubutun kamar yadda yake a cikin Qubee na Habasha ba. Times Oromiffa Group (JTOG) ne suka kirkiro ƙamus na farko na Oromo a kan layi tare da hadin gwiwar SelamSoft . [1] Muryar Amurka kuma tana watsa shirye-shirye a cikin Oromo tare da sauran shirye-shiryen ƙaho na Afirka. A watan Mayu na shekara ta 2022, Google Translate ya kara da Afaan Oromo a matsayin fassarar. Oromo da Qubee a halin yanzu ana amfani da su ta rediyo na gwamnatin Habasha, tashoshin talabijin da jaridar gwamnatin yanki.

Phonology da orthography[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Tsarin rubuce-rubuce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An image of a table presenting the glyphs created by Bakri Sapalo. The columns classify the vowels for each glyph, and alternate shapes in case of gemminated or word-ending consonants. Each row represents a different consonant.
Rubutun Sapalo, wanda aka cire daga rubuce-rubucen Sapalo.

An rubuta Oromo tare da haruffa na Latin da ake kira Qubee wanda aka karɓa a hukumance a 1991. yi amfani da nau'o'i daban-daban na rubutun Latin a baya, galibi ta Oromos a wajen Habasha da kuma OLF a ƙarshen 1970s (Heine 1986). [1] Tare da karɓar Qubee, an yi imanin an rubuta ƙarin matani a cikin harshen Oromo tsakanin 1991 da 1997 fiye da shekaru 100 da suka gabata. A Kenya, Borana da Waata suma suna amfani da haruffa na Roman amma tare da tsarin daban-daban.

Rubutun Sapalo rubutun asalin Oromo ne wanda Sheikh Bakri Sapalo (1895-1980; wanda aka fi sani da sunansa na haihuwa, Abubaker Usman Odaa) ya kirkira a ƙarshen shekarun 1950, kuma ya yi amfani da shi a karkashin kasa daga baya. Duk da tasirin tsari da ƙungiyoyi daga Ge'ez da Rubutun Larabci, halitta ce mai zaman kanta da aka tsara musamman don ilimin Oromo. Yana da yawa alphasyllabic a cikin yanayi, amma ba shi da wasula na asali wanda ke cikin irin waɗannan tsarin; a cikin ainihin amfani, duk haruffa masu ma'ana suna da alama ko dai tare da alamun wasula (samar da sautin CV) ko kuma tare da alamomi daban-daban da aka yi amfani da su don nuna dogon sassan da sassan da ba a bi su ba (misali a cikin yanayin kalma-ƙarshe ko kuma a matsayin wani ɓangare na ƙididdigar sassan sassan).[1]

An kuma yi amfani da Rubutun Larabci a wasu lokuta a yankunan da ke da yawan Musulmai.

Sautin da sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar sauran harsunan Habasha, ko Semitic, Cushitic, ko Omotic, Oromo yana da saiti na consonants masu fitarwa, wato, tsayawa marasa murya ko affricates waɗanda ke tare da Glotalization da fashewar iska. Oromo yana da wani wayar glottalized wanda ya fi ban mamaki, wani implosive retroflex tsayawa, "dh" a cikin Oromo orthography, sauti wanda yake kamar Turanci "d" da aka samar tare da harshe da aka juya baya dan kadan kuma tare da iska da aka zana don a ji wani glottal tsayawa kafin mai zuwa ya fara. Yana retroflex a cikin mafi yawan yaruka, kodayake ba shi da ƙarfi sosai kuma yana iya ragewa zuwa flap tsakanin wasula. Wa majiya ta bayyana shi a matsayin mara murya.

Oromo yana da saiti na Eastern Cushitic na gajeren sautin biyar da tsawo biyar, wanda aka nuna a cikin orthography ta hanyar ninka wasula biyar. Bambancin tsawon ya bambanta, alal misali, hara 'kogi', haaraa 'haaraa'. Jemination kuma yana da mahimmanci a cikin Oromo. Wato, tsawon ma'anar na iya rarrabe kalmomi daga juna, alal misali, 'mummunan', baddaa 'dutse'.

A cikin haruffa na Qubee, haruffa sun haɗa da digraphs [2] ch, dh, ny, ph, sh. Ba lallai ba ne a yi alama da jima'i don digraphs, kodayake wasu marubuta sun nuna shi ta hanyar ninka kashi na farko: qopphaa'uu 'suna shirye'. A cikin sigogi da ke ƙasa, ana nuna alamar Harshen Harshen Harkokin Kasuwanci na Duniya don phoneme a cikin ƙuƙwalwa inda ya bambanta da harafin Oromo. Alamomin /p v z/ sun bayyana a cikin parentheses saboda ana samun su ne kawai a cikin kalmomin da aka karɓa kwanan nan. /tʃʼ/"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAQw" lang="und-fonipa" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">/tʃʼ/"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAQg" lang="und-fonipa" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">[tʼ] ƙananan canje-canje a cikin rubutun tun lokacin da aka fara karɓar shi: An samo asali ne, kuma an sami rikice-rikice tsakanin marubutan a cikin amfani da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden ƙayyadyadaddun /tʃ/ da /tʃ, tare da wasu ayyukan farko ta amfani da ƙaya don /tʃ/- da kuma 化chʹ/ har ma da ƙayƙayyadaddur daban-daban dangane da inda ya bayyana a cikin kalma. Wannan labarin yana amfani da shi akai-akai don /tʃʼ/ da kuma /tʃ/.

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi
Labari Alveolar / Retroflex
Palato-alveolar<br id="mwASQ"> Velar Gishiri
Bayyanawa da Ƙididdiga
Africates
ba tare da murya ba (p) t SashenYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya k Sunan ʔ ake cikiYanayinSanya
murya b d dʒ shafi na gabaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya ɡ yi amfani da shiSanya
fitarwa pʼ yi amfani da shi a matsayinYa shafiSanya SanyaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya SunanciYanayinSanya kʼ'Abin da ya shafiYanayinSanya
fashewa Sanya ta gaba
Rashin jituwa ba tare da murya ba f s SashenYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya h
murya (v) (z)
Hanci m n Sunan ɲ aka yiYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya
Ƙididdigar w l j zama hakaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya
Rhotic r
Sautin sautin
A gaba Tsakiya Komawa
Kusa iː ɪ kuma SayiSanya ta gaba uːʊ, SunubiYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya
Tsakanin eːɛ, da kuma SunanYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya oːOwu da ake kira Sunan da aka yi amfani da suYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya
Bude ɐ yayaYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya An tsara shi neYa kamata a yi amfani da shiSanya

 

Sauti da damuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

kawai sashi ƙarshe ko na ƙarshe na tushen zai iya samun sautin mai girma, kuma idan sashi na biyu yana da girma, na ƙarshe dole ne ya zama mai girma; wannan yana nuna cewa Oromo yana da tsarin sautin sauti (wanda ake buƙatar ƙayyade sautin kawai a kan sautin ɗaya, sauran suna iya hangowa) maimakon tsarin sautin (wanda kowane sashi dole ne ya sami sautin sautin sa a ƙayyade shi), kodayake ka'idojin sautin sa na iya ba da kansa ga tsarin sautin saurin sautin sautunan sautin sauti na farko, don kalmar kalmar kalmar kalmar da aka fahimta, don haka "ma ta farko".

Harshen harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Sunaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar sauran harsunan Afroasiatic, Oromo yana da jinsi biyu, namiji da mace, kuma duk sunayen suna cikin ko dai ɗaya ko ɗayan.Jima'i na harshe a cikin Oromo ya shiga cikin harshe ta hanyoyi masu zuwa:

  • Kalmomin (sai dai ga copula be) sun yarda da batutuwan su a cikin jinsi lokacin da batun mutum ne na uku (shi ko ita).
  • Mutum na uku sunayen mutum guda ɗaya ('shi', ita, da dai sauransu, a cikin Turanci) suna da jinsi na sunan da suke magana a kai.
  • Adjectives sun yarda da sunayen da suke canzawa a cikin jinsi.
  • Wasu adjectives masu mallaka ("na", "ku") sun yarda da sunayen da suka gyara a wasu yaruka.

Sai dai a wasu yarukan kudanci, babu wani abu a cikin mafi yawan sunayen da ke nuna jinsi. Ƙananan sunaye nau'i-nau'i ga mutane, duk da haka, sun ƙare a cikin -eessa (m.) da -eettii (f.), kamar yadda adjectives ke yi lokacin da ake amfani da su azaman sunaye: obboleessa 'ɗan'uwa', obboleettii 'obboleessa', dureessa 'mai arziki (m.) ', hiyyeettii 'matalauci (f.) '. Jima'i na harshe yawanci ya yarda da jinsi na halitta ga mutane da dabbobi; don haadha sunaye kamar Abbaa 'mahaifi', Ilma 'ɗan', da sangaa 'zaki' namiji ne, yayin da sunaye kamar haadha 'mahaihuwa' da intala 'yar' mace ce. Koyaya, yawancin sunayen dabbobi ba su ƙayyade jinsi na halitta ba.

Sunayen jikin taurari mata ne: aduu 'ranar', urjii 'taurari'. Jima'i na wasu sunayen marasa rai sun bambanta da ɗanɗano tsakanin yaruka.

Adadin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oromo yana nuna adadi ɗaya da na jam'i, amma sunayen da ke nufin ƙungiyoyi da yawa ba lallai bane su kasance jam'i: nama 'mutum' namoota 'namoota', nama shan 'mutane biyar' namoota shan 'mutumi biyar'. Wata hanyar kallon wannan ita ce bi da nau'in "singular" kamar yadda ba a bayyana shi ba don lamba.numbernama 'man' namoota nama shan' namoota shan

Lokacin da yake da mahimmanci a bayyana yawan mai magana, ana amfani da nau'in jam'i na suna. Ana samar da sunayen da yawa ta hanyar ƙara ƙayyadaddun kalmomi. Mafi yawan ma'anar jam'i shine -oota; ana sauke wasula ta ƙarshe a gaban ma'anar, kuma a cikin yarukan yamma, ma'anar ta zama -ota bayan syllable tare da dogon wasali: mana 'gida', manoota 'gida', hiriyaa 'abokai', hiriyoota 'abokai,' barsiisaa 'malami', barsiiso(o)ta 'malamai'. ilmaan cikin sauran ƙididdigar jam'i na yau da kullun sune -(w)wan, -een, da - (a) an; biyun na ƙarshe na iya haifar da sau biyu: waggaa 'shekara', waggaawwan 'waggaa', laga 'kogin', laggeen 'kogin,' ilma 'ɗan'.

Tabbatacce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oromo has no indefinite articles (corresponding to English a, some), but (except in the southern dialects) it indicates definiteness (English the) with suffixes on the noun: -(t)icha for masculine nouns (the ch is geminated though this is not normally indicated in writing) and -(t)ittii for feminine nouns. Vowel endings of nouns are dropped before these suffixes: karaa 'road', karicha 'the road', nama 'man', namicha/namticha 'the man', haroo 'lake', harittii 'the lake'. For animate nouns that can take either gender, the definite suffix may indicate the intended gender: qaalluu 'priest', qaallicha 'the priest (m.)', qallittii 'the priest (f.)'. The definite suffixes appear to be used less often than the in English, and they seem not to co-occur with the plural suffixes.

Shari'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunayen Oromo sun bayyana a cikin shari'o'i bakwai na ilimin lissafi, kowannensu ya nuna ta hanyar ƙayyadaddun, tsawo na wasula na ƙarshe, ko duka biyun. Ga wasu lokuta, akwai nau'o'i daban-daban masu yiwuwa, wasu suna rufe fiye da ɗaya, kuma bambance-bambance a ma'ana tsakanin waɗannan madadin na iya zama mai wuyar fahimta.

Absolutive
The absolutive case is the citation form or base form that is used when the noun is the object of a verb, the object of a preposition or postposition, or a nominal predicative.
  • mana 'house', mana binne 'we bought a house'
  • hamma 'until', dhuma 'end', hamma dhumaatti 'until (the) end'
  • mana keessa, 'inside (a/the) house'
  • inni 'he', barsiisaa 'teacher'
  • inni barsiisaa (dha) 'he is a teacher'
Nominative
The nominative is used for nouns that are the subjects of clauses.
  • Ibsaa (a name), Ibsaan 'Ibsaa (nom.)', konkolaataa '(a) car', qaba 'he has':
  • Ibsaan konkolaataa qaba 'Ibsaa has a car'.
Most nouns ending in short vowels with a preceding single consonant drop the final vowel and add -ni to form the nominative. Following certain consonants, assimilation changes either the n or that consonant (the details depend on the dialect).
  • nama 'man', namni 'man (nom.)'
  • namoota 'men'; namootni, namoonni 'men (nom.)' (t + n may assimilate to nn)
If a final short vowel is preceded by two consonants or a geminated consonant, -i is suffixed.
  • ibsa 'statement', ibsi 'statement (nom.)'
  • namicha 'the man', namichi 'the man (nom.)' (the ch in the definite suffix -icha is actually geminated, though not normally written as such)
If the noun ends in a long vowel, -n is suffixed to this. This pattern applies to infinitives, which end in -uu.
  • maqaa 'name', maqaan 'name (nom.)'
  • nyachuu 'to eat, eating', nyachuun 'to eat, eating (nom.)'
If the noun ends in n, the nominative is identical to the base form.
  • afaan 'mouth, language (base form or nom.)'
Some feminine nouns ending in a short vowel add -ti. Again assimilation occurs in some cases.
  • haadha 'mother', haati (dh + t assimilates to t)
  • lafa 'earth', lafti
Genitive
The genitive is used for possession or "belonging"; it corresponds roughly to English of or -'s. The genitive is usually formed by lengthening a final short vowel, by adding -ii to a final consonant, and by leaving a final long vowel unchanged. The possessor noun follows the possessed noun in a genitive phrase. Many such phrases with specific technical meanings have been added to the Oromo lexicon in recent years.
  • obboleetti 'sister', namicha 'the man', obboleetti namichaa 'the man's sister'
  • hojii 'job', Caaltuu, woman's name, hojii Caaltuu, 'Caaltuu's job'
  • barumsa 'field of study', afaan 'mouth, language', barumsa afaanii 'linguistics'
In place of the genitive it is also possible to use the relative marker kan (m.) / tan (f.) preceding the possessor.
  • obboleetti kan namicha 'the man's sister'
Dative
The dative is used for nouns that represent the recipient (to) or the benefactor (for) of an event. The dative form of a verb infinitive (which acts like a noun in Oromo) indicates purpose. The dative takes one of the following forms:
  • Lengthening of a final short vowel (ambiguously also signifying the genitive)
  • namicha 'the man', namichaa 'to the man, of the man'
  • -f following a long vowel or a lengthened short vowel; -iif following a consonant
  • intala 'girl, daughter', intalaaf 'to a girl, daughter'
  • saree 'dog', sareef 'to a dog'
  • baruu 'to learn', baruuf 'in order to learn'
  • bishaan 'water', bishaaniif 'for water'
  • -dhaa or -dhaaf following a long vowel
  • saree 'dog'; sareedhaa, sareedhaaf 'to a dog'
  • -tti (with no change to a preceding vowel), especially with verbs of speaking
  • Caaltuu woman's name, himi 'tell, say (imperative)', Caaltuutti himi 'tell Caaltuu'
Instrumental
The instrumental is used for nouns that represent the instrument ("with"), the means ("by"), the agent ("by"), the reason, or the time of an event. The formation of the instrumental parallels that of the dative to some extent:
  • -n following a long vowel or a lengthened short vowel; -iin following a consonant
  • harka 'hand', harkaan 'by hand, with a hand'
  • halkan 'night', halkaniin 'at night'
  • -tiin following a long vowel or a lengthened short vowel
  • Afaan Oromo 'Oromo (language)', Afaan Oromootiin 'in Oromo'
  • -dhaan following a long vowel
  • yeroo 'time', yeroodhaan 'on time'
  • bawuu 'to come out, coming out', bawuudhaan 'by coming out'
Locative
The locative is used for nouns that represent general locations of events or states, roughly at. For more specific locations, Oromo uses prepositions or postpositions. Postpositions may also take the locative suffix. The locative also seems to overlap somewhat with the instrumental, sometimes having a temporal function. The locative is formed with the suffix -tti.
  • Arsiitti 'in Arsii'
  • harka 'hand', harkatti 'in hand'
  • guyyaa 'day', guyyaatti 'per day'
  • jala, jalatti 'under'
Ablative
The ablative is used to represent the source of an event; it corresponds closely to English from. The ablative, applied to postpositions and locative adverbs as well as nouns proper, is formed in the following ways:
  • When the word ends in a short vowel, this vowel is lengthened (as for the genitive).
  • biyya 'country', biyyaa 'from country'
  • keessa 'inside, in', keessaa 'from inside'
  • When the word ends in a long vowel, -dhaa is added (as for one alternative for the dative).
  • Finfinneedhaa 'from Finfinne'
  • gabaa 'market', gabaadhaa 'from market'
  • When the word ends in a consonant, -ii is added (as for the genitive).
  • Hararii 'from Harar'
  • Following a noun in the genitive, -tii is added.
  • mana 'house', buna 'coffee', mana bunaa 'cafe', mana bunaatii 'from cafe'
An alternative to the ablative is the postposition irraa 'from' whose initial vowel may be dropped in the process:
  • gabaa 'market', gabaa irraa, gabaarraa 'from market'

Wakilan sunaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wakilan mutum[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin mafi yawan harsuna, akwai ƙananan bambance-bambance na mutum, lambar, da kuma sau da yawa jinsi waɗanda ke taka rawa a cikin ƙamus na harshe. Oromo da Ingilishi sune irin waɗannan harsuna. Mu'nawa' gani wadannan bambance-bambance a cikin saiti na asali na su mutum masu zaman kansu, misali, Turanci I, Oromo ani; Turanci su, Oromo 'isaani' da saiti na adjectives da sunayen sarauta, misali, Ingilishi na, Oromo koo; Turanci na, Oromo kan koo. A cikin Oromo, ana nuna bambance-bambance iri ɗaya a cikin yarjejeniyar magana: kalmomin Oromo (tare da 'yan kaɗan) sun yarda da batutuwa su; wato, mutum, lamba, da (mutum na uku) jinsi na batun aikatau ana nuna suffixes akan aikatau. Saboda wadannan suffixes sun bambanta sosai tare da takamaiman kalma / fasalin / yanayi, ba a dauke su a matsayin sunaye ba kuma ana tattauna su a wasu wurare a cikin wannan labarin a ƙarƙashin kalma.

A duk waɗannan yankuna na harshe - sunaye masu zaman kansu, adjectives masu mallaka, sunaye masu mallaka. Ga mutum na farko da na biyu, akwai bambanci tsakanin guda biyu ('I', 'you sg.') da jam'i ('mu', 'ku pl.'), yayin da ga mutum na uku, akwai bambancin hanyoyi biyu a cikin mutum ɗaya ('shi', 'ta') da kuma nau'i ɗaya don jam'i ("su'). Saboda Oromo yana da jinsi biyu kawai, babu wani wakilin da ya dace da Turanci; ana amfani da wakilin namiji ko mace bisa ga jinsi na sunan da ake magana a shi.

Oromo yare ne mai fafutuka. Wato, jimloli masu tsaka-tsaki waɗanda ba a jaddada batun ba sa buƙatar sunayen sunaye masu zaman kansu: kaleessa dhufne 'mun zo jiya'.Kalmar Oromo da ke fassara 'mu' ba ta bayyana a cikin wannan jumlar ba, kodayake mutum da lambar suna da alama a kan aikatau dhufne ('mun zo') ta hanyar -ne. Lokacin da batun a cikin irin waɗannan jimloli yana buƙatar a ba shi daraja saboda wasu dalilai, ana iya amfani da wakilin mai zaman kansa: 'nuti kaleessa dhufne' 'mu zo jiya'.

Teburin da ke ƙasa yana ba da siffofi na wakilan sirri a lokuta daban-daban, da kuma adjectives masu mallaka. Ga mutum na farko da mutum na uku na mata, akwai bambanci mai yawa a cikin yaruka; kawai wasu daga cikin yiwuwar an nuna su.

Adjectives masu mallaka, waɗanda aka bi da su a matsayin kalmomi daban-daban a nan, wani lokacin ana rubuta su a matsayin sunayen sunaye. A cikin mafi yawan yaruka akwai bambanci tsakanin adjectives na namiji da na mace don mutum na farko da na biyu (tsarin da ya yarda da jinsi na sunan da aka gyara). Koyaya, a cikin yarukan yamma, ana amfani da siffofin namiji (waɗanda suka fara da k-) a duk lokuta. Adjectives masu mallaka na iya ɗaukar ƙarshen shari'a don sunayen da suka gyara: ganda kootti 'zuwa ƙauyen na' (-tti: yanayin wuri).

Oromo personal pronouns
English Base Subject Dative Instrumental Locative Ablative Possessive

adjectives
I ana, na ani, an naa, naaf, natti naan natti narraa koo, kiyya

[too, tiyya (f.)]
you (sg.) si ati sii, siif, sitti siin sitti sirraa kee

[tee (f.)]
he isa inni isaa, isaa(tii)f, isatti isaatiin isatti isarraa (i)saa
she isii, ishii, isee, ishee isiin, etc. ishii, ishiif, ishiitti, etc. ishiin, etc. ishiitti, etc. ishiirraa, etc. (i)sii, (i)shii
we nu nuti, nu'i, nuy, nu nuu, nuuf, nutti nuun nutti nurraa keenna, keenya

[teenna, teenya (f.)]
you (pl.) isin isini isinii, isiniif, isinitti isiniin isinitti isinirraa keessan(i)

[teessan(i) (f.)]
they isaan isaani isaanii, isaaniif, isaanitti isaaniitiin isaanitti isaanirraa (i)saani

Kamar yadda yake a cikin harsuna kamar Faransanci, Rasha, da Turkiyya, ana amfani da jam'i na mutum na biyu na Oromo a matsayin nau'i mai ladabi, don ambaton mutanen da mai magana yake so ya nuna girmamawa. Wannan amfani misali ne na abin da ake kira Bambancin T-V wanda aka yi a cikin harsuna da yawa. Bugu da kari, ana iya amfani da jam'i na mutum na uku don ambaton mutum na uku (ko dai 'shi' ko 'ta').

Don sunayen sarauta ('na', 'ku', da dai sauransu), Oromo ya kara adjectives na mallaka ga kan 'na': kan koo 'na', kan kee 'ku', ni dai sauransu.

Ma'anar ma'ana da ma'ana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oromo yana da hanyoyi biyu na bayyana sunayen masu tunani ('kai', 'kai', da dai sauransu). Ɗaya shine amfani da sunan da ke nufin 'kai': of(i) ko if(i). Wanof sunan an canza shi don shari'a amma, sai dai idan an jaddada shi, ba don mutum, lamba, ko jinsi ba: isheen of laalti 'ta dubi kanta' (nau'in tushe na), isheen ofiif makiinaa bitte 'ta sayi kanta mota' (dative of).

Sauran yiwuwar ita ce amfani da sunan da ke nufin 'kai', mataa, tare da ƙayyadaddun mallaka: mataa koo 'kai', mata kee 'kai (kai) ', da dai sauransu.

Oromo yana da wakilin wal (Turanci 'kowane ɗayan') wanda ake amfani dashi kamar of/if. Wato, an canza shi don shari'a amma ba mutum ba, lamba, ko jinsi: wal jaalatu 'suna son juna' (nau'in tushe na wal), kennaa walii bitan 'sun sayi wa juna kyauta' (dative na wal).

Wakilan da ke nunawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar Ingilishi, Oromo yana yin bambanci tsakanin hanyoyi biyu tsakanin proximal ('wannan, waɗannan') da distal ('wannan', waɗancan') sunayen nunawa da adjectives. Wasu yaruka suna rarrabe namiji da mace don sunayen da ke kusa; a cikin yarukan yamma ana amfani da siffofin namiji (farawa da k-) ga maza biyu. Ba kamar a cikin Turanci ba, ba a rarrabe masu nunawa guda ɗaya da jam'i ba, amma, kamar yadda yake ga sunaye da sunayen mutum a cikin harshe, an rarrabe shari'ar. Sai kawai tushe da siffofin suna nunawa a cikin teburin da ke ƙasa; sauran lokuta an kafa su ne daga nau'in tushe kamar yadda yake ga sunaye, misali, sanatti 'a / a / a cikin wannan' (lokaci na locative).

Oromo demonstrative pronouns
Case Proximal

('this, these')
Distal

('that, those')
Base kana

[tana (f.)]
san
Nominative kuni

[tuni (f.)]
suni

Kalmomin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani aikatau na Oromo ya kunshi ƙananan tushe, wanda ke wakiltar ma'anar kalma, da kuma ma'anar, wanda ke wakilta lokaci ko bangare da yarjejeniyar batun. Misali, a cikin dhufne 'mun zo', dhuf- shine tushe ('ku zo') kuma -ne yana nuna cewa lokacin ya wuce kuma cewa batun aikatau shine mutum na farko da yawa.

Kamar yadda yake a wasu harsunan Afroasiatic da yawa, Oromo yana yin bambanci na asali a cikin tsarin aikatau tsakanin siffofin da suka gabata (ko "cikakke") da na yanzu (ko "marasa cikakke" ko "marasa wucewa"). Kowane ɗayan waɗannan yana da saiti na sautin lokaci / yarjejeniya. haa haɗuwa ta uku bisa ga yanzu wanda ke da ayyuka uku: ana amfani da shi a maimakon yanzu a cikin sassan da ke ƙasa, don jussive ('bar ni / mu / shi, da dai sauransu V', tare da ƙwayoyin haa), da kuma mummunan halin yanzu (tare da ƙwayoyen hin). Misali, deemne 'mun tafi', deemna 'mun tafi,' kamar deemnu 'cewa muna tafi', haa deemnu 'Bari mu tafi', hin deemnu 'ba mu tafi'. Har ila yau, akwai wani nau'i mai mahimmanci: deemi 'go (sg.)!'.

Aikin aure[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Teburin da ke ƙasa yana nuna haɗuwa a cikin tabbatacce da mara kyau na aikatau beek- 'beek-'. Mutum na farko na yanzu da kuma abubuwan da suka gabata suna buƙatar ma'anar -n don bayyana a kan kalmar da ke gaban aikatau ko kalmar nan gaban aikatau. Rashin ƙarancin hin, wanda aka nuna a matsayin kalma daban a cikin teburin, wani lokacin ana rubuta shi azaman prefix akan aikatau.

Magana ta Oromo
Abubuwan da suka gabata Yanzu Mai Tsarki, Mai Bukatar
Babban sashi Sashe mai ƙasƙanci
Tabbatacce Rashin jituwa Tabbatacce Rashin jituwa Tabbatacce Rashin jituwa Tabbatacce Rashin jituwa
Na -n beeke hin beekne -n beeka hin beeku -n beeku hin beekne haa beeku hin beekin
kai (sg.) beekte beekta hin beektu beektu beeki hin beek(i)in
shi beeke beeka hin beeku beeku haa beeku hin beekin
ita beekte beekti hin beektu beektu haa beektu
mu beekne beekna hin beeknu beeknu haa beeknu
kai (pl.) beektani beektu, beektan(i) hin beektan beektani beekaa hin beek(i)inaa
su beekani beeku, beekan(i) hin beekan beekani haa beekanu hin beekin

Ga aika<spa i="">n</spa> about="#mwt679" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"lang","href":"./Template:Lang"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"om"},"2":{"wt":"t"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwBls" title="Oromo-language text" typeof="mw:Transclusion">t tare da ƙwayoyin da suka ƙare a wasu ƙayyadaddun da suka fara da ƙayyadiddun ƙayƙwalwa (watau, t ko n), akwai canje-canje da za a iya hangowa ga ɗaya ko ɗayan ƙayyadamuran. Harsunan sun bambanta sosai a cikin cikakkun bayanai, amma canje-canje masu zuwa sun zama ruwan dare.

b- + -tbd qabda 'ku (sg.) kana da'
g- + -tgd dhugda 'ku (sg.) abin sha'
r- + -nrr barra 'mun koyi'
l- + -n → llYa kasance galla 'mun shiga'
q- + -tqx dhaqxa 'ku (sg.) tafi'
s- + -tft baafta-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"lang","href":"./Template:Lang"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"om"},"2":{"wt":"baas-"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwBpA" title="Oromo-language text" typeof="mw:Transclusion">Baas- 'ka fitar', baafta 'ka (sg.) ka fitar'
s- + -nfn baas- 'ka fita', baafna 'muna fitar'
t-/d-/dh-/x- + -nnn biti 'sayi', binna 'muna sayi'; nyaadhaa 'ci', nyaanna 'muna cinye'
d- + -tdd fid- ' kawo', fidda 'ku (sg.) kawo'
dh- + -t → ttttani taphadh- 'wasa', taphatta 'ka (sg.) wasa'
x- + -txx fix- 'ƙarewa', fixxa 'ka (sg.) gama'

Kalmomin da asalin su ya ƙare a cikin ƙayyadaddun kalmomi guda biyu kuma wanda ƙayyadaddensa ya fara da ƙayyadyadaddun dole ne ya saka wasali don karya ƙayyadamuran tunda harshe ba ya ba da izinin jerin ƙayyadamsun kalmomi uku. ai hanyoyi guda biyu da wannan zai iya faruwa: ko dai an saka wasula i tsakanin tushe da ƙayyadaddun, ko kuma an canza ma'anar ƙarshe (misali na metathesis) kuma an saka wasila a tsakanin su. Misali, arg- 'duba', arga 'yana gani', argina ko agarra (daga agar-na) 'mun gani'; kolf- 'dariya', kolfe 'ya yi dariya', kolfite ko ko kofalte 'ka (sg.) ya yi dariya'.

Kalmomin da asalin su ya ƙare a cikin ma'anar ' (w zai iya bayyana a matsayin h, w, ko y a wasu kalmomi, dangane da yaren) na cikin nau'o'i daban-daban guda uku; ajin ba a iya hangowa daga ma'anar aikatau ba. Su n siffofin da ke gaba da ƙayyadaddun da ke farawa da ƙayƙwalwa (t da n) waɗanda suka bambanta da tsarin da aka saba. Mutum na uku namiji guda ɗaya, mutum na biyu guda ɗaya, da kuma mutum na farko da aka nuna nau'ikan yanzu don misali a kowane aji.

  1. du'- 'ya mutu': du'a 'ya mutu', duuta 'ka (sg.) ka mutu', duuna 'mun mutu'dudaga-ve-ignore="true" href="./Category:Articles_containing_Oromo-language_text" id="mwBuw" rel="mw:PageProp/Category"/>
  2. a
  3. dha'- 'ji': dhaga' a 'ji ji', dhageessa 'ji (sg.) ji', dhageenya 'mun ji' (suna canzawa)

Kalmomin yau da kullun t="#mwt724" data-mw='{"parts":[{"template":{"target":{"wt":"lang","href":"./Template:Lang"},"params":{"1":{"wt":"om"},"2":{"wt":"fedh-"}},"i":0}}]}' data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwBww" title="Oromo-language text" typeof="mw:Transclusion">fedh- 'yana so' da godh- 'yi' karkatarwa daga tsarin haɗin kai na asali a cikin wannan dogon wasula sun maye gurbin ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadadden waɗanda za su haifar lokacin da aka kara suffixes da suka fara da t ko n: feena 'yana so', feeta 'ku (sg.) muna so', feetu 'ku (ku) muna so', hin feene 'ba sa so', da dai sauransu.

Kalmomin dhuf- 'kawo' yana da ma'anar koottu, koottaa . Kalmomin deem- 'go' yana da, tare da siffofi na yau da kullun, abubuwan da ba daidai ba deemi, deemaa .

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tushen aikatau na Oromo na iya zama tushen muryoyi uku da aka samo, masu wucewa, masu haifar da su, da kuma masu cin gashin kansu, kowannensu ya samo asali ne tare da ƙara ma'anar zuwa tushen, yana ba da tushe wanda aka kara ma'anar juyawa.

Passive voice
The Oromo passive corresponds closely to the English passive in function. It is formed by adding -am to the verb root. The resulting stem is conjugated regularly. Examples: beek- 'know', beekam- 'be known', beekamani 'they were known'; jedh- 'say', jedham- 'be said', jedhama 'it is said'
Causative voice
The Oromo causative of a verb V corresponds to English expressions such as 'cause V', 'make V', 'let V'. With intransitive verbs, it has a transitivizing function. It is formed by adding -s, -sis, or -siis to the verb root, except that roots ending in -l add -ch. Verbs whose roots end in ' drop this consonant and may lengthen the preceding vowel before adding -s. Examples: beek- 'know', beeksis- 'cause to know, inform', beeksifne 'we informed'; ka'- 'go up, get up', kaas- 'pick up', kaasi 'pick up (sing.)!'; gal- 'enter', galch- 'put in', galchiti 'she puts in'; bar- 'learn', barsiis- 'teach', nan barsiisa 'I teach'.
Autobenefactive voice
The Oromo autobenefactive (or "middle" or "reflexive-middle") voice of a verb V corresponds roughly to English expressions such as 'V for oneself' or 'V on one's own', though the precise meaning may be somewhat unpredictable for many verbs. It is formed by adding -adh to the verb root. The conjugation of a middle verb is irregular in the third person singular masculine of the present and past (-dh in the stem changes to -t) and in the singular imperative (the suffix is -u rather than -i). Examples: bit- 'buy', bitadh- 'buy for oneself', bitate 'he bought (something) for himself', bitadhu 'buy for yourself (sing.)!'; qab- 'have', qabadh- 'seize, hold (for oneself)', qabanna 'we hold'. Some autobenefactives are derived from nouns rather than verbs, for example, hojjadh- 'work' from the noun hojii 'work'.

Za'a iya haɗa ƙididdigar murya ta hanyoyi daban-daban. Abubuwa biyu masu haifar da su suna yiwuwa: ka'- 'tafi', kaas- 'karɓar', kaasis- 'saboda karɓar'. Za'a iya bin abin da ya haif da s ta hanyar wucewa ko kuma auto-enefactive; a wannan yanayin s na abin da ya faru an maye gurbinsa da f: deebi'- 'komawa (intransitive) ', deebis- 'komawa' (transitive), amsa', deebifam- 'ka dawo, ka amsa', deebifadh- 'ka koma don kanka'.

Another derived verbal aspect is the frequentative or "intensive," formed by copying the first consonant and vowel of the verb root and geminating the second occurrence of the initial consonant. The resulting stem indicates the repetition or intensive performance of the action of the verb. Examples: bul- 'spend the night', bubbul- 'spend several nights', cab- 'break', caccab- 'break to pieces, break completely'; dhiib- 'push, apply pressure', dhiddhiib- 'massage'.

Wani bangare na magana da aka samo shi ne mai maimaitawa ko "mai tsanani," wanda aka kafa ta hanyar kwafin ma'anar farko da fasalin na tushen aikatau da kuma yin amfani da ma'anar ta farko ta biyu. Sakamakon ya nuna maimaitawa ko aiki mai zurfi na aikin aikatau. Misalan: bul- 'yi amfani da dare', bubbul- 'yi aiki da dare da yawa', cab- 'yi tafiya', caccab- 'yi wasa, yi tafiya gaba daya'; dhiib- 'taɓawa, yi amfani da matsin lamba', dhiddhiib- 'tabbatarwa

Bayanan da aka ambata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Empty citation (help)
  2. called Qubee Dachaa in the Oromo language.

Bayanan littattafai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harshen harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]