Abu Kabir

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Abu Kabir
human settlement
ƙasaIsra'ila Gyara

Abu Kabir da Larabci ابو كبير, wani kauye ne dake kewayen garin Jaffa wanda wasu yan kasar Misira suka samar da ita, sakamakon cin galabar da Ibrahim Pasha yasamu akan mayakan kasar Turkiya na Daular Usmaniya a waccan lokacin a yankin Falasdinu. Yayin yakin Falasdinu na 1948, an bar garin da kuma lalata ta, amma bayan kafa Kasar Israila a 1948, sai bangaren garin yazama daga cikin kudancin sabon garin Tel Abib. Wanda akayi wa suna da Giv'at Herzl (da harshen Hebrew kuma גבעת הרצל, ma'anarsa shine Tsaunin Herzl), sunan garin dake fuskantar yahudawa, sunan Abu Kabir an cigaba da amfani dashi, wanda bangaren garin Abu Kabir koma duka garin ansauya masa suna zuwa Tabitha daga Tel Aviv municipality a shekarar 2011.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulkin Misirawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sojojin Misira na Shugaba Ibrahim Pasha sun kwace birnin Jaffa da kewayenta bayan wani gwabza yaki da sukayi da mayakan Daular Usmaniyya a 1832. Hakane yasa mulkin birnin karkashin Misirawan yacigaba har zuwa 1840, musulman kasar misira sun zauna a ciki da wajen garin Jaffa, inda suka kafa kauyen Sakhanat Abu Kabir, da Sakhanat al-Muzariyya, da sauransu.[1][2] wani gari dake gabashin Jaffa, yawancin mutanen misira dake zaune aciki sun zo ne daga Tall al Kabir (ko Tel Abu Kabir), sai suka sama wurin sunan mazauninsu.[1][3]

Lokacin Usmaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jerin sunayen kauyukan Daular Usmaniyya da akasamu a 1870 yanuna Saknet Abu Kebir a matsayin wani "Sansanin Beduin", dake da gidaje 136 da yawan al'ummah 440, saidai yawan mutanen maza kawai aka irga.[4][5]

A wani binciken na Yammacin Falasdinu (1881), an rawaito sunan da Sâknet Abu Kebîr wato fassara ta, "Mazaunan Abu Kebir p.n.; (great father)."[6] Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau, the French archaeologist, ya ziyarci garin a 1873-1874, yana neman inda tsohuwar makabartar yahudu take a Joppa (Jaffa). Ya bayyana "Saknet Abu K'bir" a matsayin hamlet, kuma yadanganta tafiya a cikin "extensive gardens that close in Jaffa on every side" to reach it.[7] ya fahimci cewar yayin Lokacin ruwan bazara, lunbunan dake tsakanin Jaffa da Saknet Abu Kabir na zama wani karamin tabki da ake kira al-Bassa daga mazauna garin, tareda sanin cewa wannan sunan yan Syria na amfani dashi ga tabkunan dake ciki duk season, da tunin sunan bissah dake Hebrew Bible shima na nufin pond ne, inda yanuna cewar kaman can Kalmar Larabci data Hebrew ya nuna cewa kalmar zai yiwu yarukan arosa sukayi daga wani harshen daya gabace su.[8]

Karkashin wani kasida mai suna The Jewish necropolis of Joppa, Clermont-Ganneau yasanar da cewa bayan bincike dayayi da mazaunan fellahin (peasants) a Abu Kabir, an jagorance shi "tafiya kankanuwa" daga hamlet, "dake tsakiyar wasu poorly tilled gardens," inda yankauyen ke fashin duwatsun gini. Laid bare by their activities were, "sepulchral chambers hollowed out in the calcareous tufa." Yace makabartu irin wadannan ansame su a garuruwa n dake tsakanin Abu Kabir har zuwa Mikveh Israel da makabartar katolika. Wasu fellahin sun gaya masa of finds a tsakanin Saknet Abu Kabir da Saknet al-'Abid, kuma wasu sun gaya masa artifacts da suka samu daga nan. Daya daga cikin artifact ankawo masa yasiya: karamin marble titulus with a four-line Greek inscription and a seven-branched candlestick (or menorah). Clermont-Ganneau identified this as Helleno-Jewish funeral epigraphy, ascribing it to Hezekiah, and writes that it, "settled once and for all the nature of the burial ground I had just discovered."[7] A wani wasika da Palestine Exploration Fund suka wallafa, he expressed his hope to return noting, "We must at least find two or three more inscriptions of the same kind coming from the same neighbourhood." [9] tareda nuna kaburburan a wani kewaye, "Ardh (ko Jebel) Dhabitha," yake nunin, "the great gardens outside Jaffa, bounded by a little hamlet called Abou K'bir* (Abu Kebir), and by the well of Aboa Nabbout (Abu Nabbut)."[9]

Yahudawa necropolis was looted mainly during the late 19th da farkon Karni na 20th. Dating the site is a challenge due to the lack of objects found in situ, but estimates are that the tombs were used between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD. Yawancin necropolis na nanne yanzu a Russian Orthodox Saint Peter's Church compound.[10]

According to Mark LeVine, the Biluim pioneers set up a commune among the orange and lemon groves of the Abu Kabir neighborhood between 1882 and 1884.[11] The house used by the commune members is now located in the Neve Ofer neighborhood of Tel Aviv.

Lokacin Biritaniya Mandate[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Historic Arab house in Abu Kabir

A 1921 yayin Rikicin Jaffa, fadan yakai har Abu Kabir. Gidan Yitzker na yahudawa sun mallaki dairy farm a wajen garin neighborhood, wanda suke bayarda bayan Dakuna, a Lokacin rikicin, Yosef Haim Brenner, daya daga cikin pioneers of modern Hebrew literature yana zaune anan. A watan Mayu 2, 1921, dukda gargadi Yitzker da Brenner sunki subar gonan haka yasa aka kashe su, tareda dan Yitzker's teenaged son, his son-in-law da wasu masu haya biyu.[12]

Kamar yadda Jaffa ta fadada a 1920s da 1930s, Abu Kabir was incorporated within the municipal boundaries of Jaffa but retained much of its agricultural character.[13] It consisted of a main built-up part bordering the Jewish sector of Jaffa from the south, and several small concentrations of houses within the surrounding citrus groves.[13]

A fara yaki a gabar dake tsakanin Jaffa da Tel Aviv, Shugaban nin Tel Aviv sun nemi kai garuruwan yahudawa dake Jaffa dan komawa Tel Aviv. Sun shirya cewar dukkanin Manshiyya, tareda Hassan Bey Mosque, da mafi yawan Abu Kabir neighborhood, be transferred to the borders of the new Jewish city and state."[14]

A watan Augusta 23, 1944, British Criminal Investigation Department (CID) barracks dake Jaffa, da police stations dake Abu Kabir da Neve Shaanan yan Irgun sunfar masu domin sace makamai[15]

Yakin 1947 zuwa 1948[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Church in Abu Kabir

A 1947, Abu Kabir na nan ne a mashigar Tel Aviv akan babbar hanyar zuwa Jerusalem.[16][17] A 30 November 1947, rana daya bayan zaben UN akan Partition Plan, wani balarabe maraji a Abu Kabir akai wa wata motar fasanja tareda yahudawa aciki farmaki, inda yakashe duka mutum ukun dake ciki. Yahudawa sun rama da kaddara da hari. A 2 December the Haganah's Kiryati Brigade sun tarwatsa wani gidan Larabawa a Abu Kabir, and the IZL torched several buildings four days later, killing at least two persons.[18]

During Operation Lamed Hey (Hebrew for "35"), named for the 35 casualties of an attack on the Convoy of 35, Abu Kabir was raided to "cleanse it of the forces acting there."[19] A daren 12–13 February 1948, the Haganah struck simultaneously at Abu Kabir, Jibalia, Tel a-Rish and the village of Yazur. At Abu Kabir, 13 Arabs were killed, including the Mukhtar, and 22 injured.

Kamar yadda "Palestine Post" suka ce, A 16 February 1948 The Haganah repulsed an Arab attack on Tel Aviv from Abu Kabir. [20]

A second major attack on Abu Kabir was launched on 13 March, the objective of which was, "the destruction of the Abu Kabir neighborhood". By this time the neighborhood was mostly abandoned by its inhabitants and was guarded by a few dozen militiamen. Sappers blew up a number of houses and this was the first attack in which Yishuv-produced Davidka mortars were used to shell the neighborhood. Inaccurate and very loud, the mortars had a demoralizing effect claimed to have reached "as far as Gaza".[18]

Wata daya bayan kwato Abu Kabir, David Ben-Gurion yasamar da Israeli Provisional Government that Jaffa's Arab population should not be allowd to return: "If there will be [an] Abu Kebir again - this would be impossible. The world needs to understand we are 700,000 against 27 million, one against forty ... It won't be acceptable to us for Abu Kebir to be Arab again."[17]

Walid Khalidi ya rubuta cewar Haganah zasu kammala rushe Abu Kabir kafin March 31.[21] On April 19, 1948, The Palestine Post reported that "In the Abu Kebir area, the Haganah dispersed Arabs who tried to erect an emplacement facing the Aka factory in Givat Herzl. Two Arabs were shot as they approached the Maccabi Quarter."[22]

Garin Kasar Israel[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abu Kabir detention center

After 1948, Abu Kabir was renamed Giv'at Herzl,[1] although the Arabic name, Abu Kabir, is still used by the now largely Hebrew speaking population.[23][24] The Tel Aviv Municipality offered Prof. Heinrich Mendelssohn, Director of the Biological-Pedagogical Institute, the option of moving the Institute to Abu Kabir, and it was moved into a structure originally planned as a hospital.[25] Haim Levanon, Deputy Mayor of Tel Aviv in the early 1950s and mayor from 1953–59 energetically campaigned for the founding of a university in Tel Aviv. The idea was realized on August 16, 1953, when the Municipal Council of Tel Aviv-Yafo decided to transform the Biological-Pedagogical Institute into the Academic Institute of Natural Sciences, under the leadership of Prof. Mendelssohn, which would "form the core of a future university." The Abu Kabir campus in southern Tel Aviv had 24 students in its first year.

In 1954, the Academic Institute of Jewish Studies was established in Abu Kabir. A university library was also founded, new study tracks were opened, a teaching staff was formed, laboratories and classrooms were built, and an administration established for the campus.[26][27] The L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine, locally known as the Abu Kabir Forensic Institute, was established that year.

In 1956, the Academic Institutes were officially upgraded into the new "University of Tel Aviv". The Zoological Gardens became part of the University. The Zoological and Botanical Gardens were moved to the Ramat Aviv campus in 1981. The Nature Gardens still host the original facilities. The gardens at Abu Kabir are recommended in an Israeli guide to Tel Aviv as a destination for nature lovers.[28] In the tour book Israel and the Palestinian territories (1998), "the former village of Abu Kabir" is described as being located in a green space to the east of Jaffa.[29]

Salvage excavations were undertaken by Israeli archaeologists in the burial complex at "Saknat Abu Kabir" in 1991.[30]

The Tel Aviv Detention Center, known as the Abu Kabir Prison is also in the area.[31][32]

Israeli media reported in January 2011 that the part or all of the area in south Tel Aviv known as Abu Kabir, the hill or neighborhood, was given a new name, Tabitha, by the Tel Aviv municipality's naming committee.[33][34]

Anazarci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: a historical encyclopedia. p. 200. ISBN 1-57607-919-8. 
  2. Benvenisti, Meron. Sacred landscape: the buried history of the Holy Land since 1948. p. 102. 
  3. Template:Citation
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  5. Hartmann, M. (1883). "Die Ortschaftenliste des Liwa Jerusalem in dem türkischen Staatskalender für Syrien auf das Jahr 1288 der Flucht (1871)". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 6: 148, 102–149. 
  6. Conder & Kitchener (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine. Printed for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund by Harrison & sons. p. 216. 
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  8. Clermont-Ganneau, p. 157-8.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Letters from M. Clemont-Ganneau". Quarterly Statement, Palestine Exploration Fund. 1873. 
  10. Cite web|url=http://www.khm.uio.no/utstillinger/doedskult/deadclassic/text_15.html |title=The Jews: Jewish Funeral Rites |publisher=Museum of Cultural History: University of Oslo |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110604183209/http://www.khm.uio.no/utstillinger/doedskult/deadclassic/text_15.html |archivedate=2011-06-04 |df=
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  12. Sarah Honig (September 2017). "Another Tack: The May Day massacre of 1921". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2009-10-17 dead link.  Unknown parameter |fix-attempted= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |bot= ignored (help);
  13. 13.0 13.1 Arnon Golan (2009), War and Postwar Transformation of Urban Areas: The 1948 War and the Incorporation of Jaffa into Tel Aviv, Journal of Urban History, doi|10.1177/0096144209347104
  14. LeVine, Mark (2005). Overthrowing geography: Jaffa, Tel Aviv, and the struggle for Palestine, 1880-1948 (Illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-520-23994-4. 
  15. Bell, J. Bowyer (1996). Terror out of Zion: the fight for Israeli independence (Reprint ed.). Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-870-5. 
  16. Yigal Allon, native son: a biography, Anita Shapira and Evelyn Abelalong, p. 182.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Mark LeVine (2005). Overthrowing geography: Jaffa, Tel Aviv, and the struggle for Palestine, 1880-1948 (Illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-520-23994-4. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Template:Citation
  19. Tal, David (2004). War in Palestine, 1948: Strategy and diplomacy. pp. 60–62. ISBN 0-7146-5275-X. 
  20. "Tel Aviv border Attack Repulsed". The Palestine Post. 17 February 1948. "The Haganah repulsed an Arab attack from AbuKebir last knught, chasing the gangster as far as Kheria village, where it blew up a two story house that was used by snipers against the nearby Efal settlement " 
  21. Khalidi, Walid (1984). Walid Khalidi, ed. Before their diaspora: a photographic history of the Palestinians, 1876-1948 (Illustrated ed.). Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 978-0-88728-143-3. 
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  23. About the map of Tel Aviv and its Palestinian villages Template:Webarchive, Zochrot
  24. Life After Baghdad, Sasson Somekh
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  28. Tel Aviv: General Info
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  30. Excavations and surveys in Israel, Volumes 11-14, Agaf ha-ʻatiḳot ṿeha-muzeʾonim, Israel. p. 46.
  31. Yael Cohen, Identifying dead, comforting the survivors at Abu Kabir, Cleveland Jewish News, 27 September 2002
  32. Judy Siegel, Foreign experts to inspect Abu Kabir forensic institute, Jerusalem Post, 28 December 2000
  33. New life for Tabitha, Tom Segev, Haaretz, January 21, 2011
  34. cite web |url= http://www.nrg.co.il/online/54/ART2/208/902.html |title=מקומי - תל אביב-יפו nrg - ...ת'א: סיפורה של הכנסייה הרוסית |work=nrg.co.il |year=2012 |accessdate=8 July 2012