Amman

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Amman
عَمَّان (ar)
Flag of Amman (en)
Flag of Amman (en) Fassara


Suna saboda Ammonites (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 31°57′N 35°56′E / 31.95°N 35.93°E / 31.95; 35.93
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaJordan
Governorate of Jordan (en) FassaraAmman Governorate (en) Fassara
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 4,007,526 (2015)
• Yawan mutane 2,385.43 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 1,680 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 784 m-765 m
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Rabba (en) Fassara
Tsarin Siyasa
• Gwamna Yousef Shawarbeh (en) Fassara (2017)
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Lambar aika saƙo 11110–17198
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo ammancity.gov.jo
Amman_Skyline_In_Day
Amman_Skyline_In_Day

Amman ( English:  : / ə ˈmɑːn / ; Larabci: عَمَّان‎ , ʻammān pronounced [ʕamːaːn] ; Ammonawa : 𐤓𐤁𐤕 𐤏𐤌𐤍 Rabat `Amān ) babban birni ne kuma yana a tsakiyar Jordan, kuma cibiyar tattalin arziki, siyasa, da al'adu ta ƙasar Jordan. Tare da yawan jama'a 4,061,150 kamar na 2021, Amman shine babban birni na Jordan kuma shine birni mafi girma a yankin Levant, birni na biyar mafi girma a cikin duniyar Larabawa, kuma yanki na tara mafi girma a cikin Gabas ta Tsakiya [1][2]

Shaidar farko ta zama a Amman ta kasance a cikin karni na 8 BC, a cikin rukunin Neolithic da aka sani da 'Ain Ghazal, inda aka gano tsoffin mutum-mutumi na siffar ɗan adam a duniya. A lokacin Iron Age, an san birnin da Rabat Aman kuma ya zama babban birnin Masarautar Ammonawa . A karni na 3 BC, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Fir'auna na Ptolemaic Masar, an sake gina birnin kuma an sake masa suna "Philadelphia", yana mai da shi cibiyar yanki na al'adun Hellenistic . A karkashin mulkin Romawa, Philadelphia na ɗaya daga cikin biranen Greco-Roman guda goma na Decapolis kafin a yi masa sarauta kai tsaye a matsayin wani yanki na lardin Arabiya Petraea . Halifancin Rashidun ya mamaye birnin daga hannun Rumawa a karni na 7 miladiyya, ya maido da tsohon sunansa na Semitic sannan ya kira shi Amman. Amman an yi watsi da shi sosai tun daga karni na 15 har zuwa 1878, lokacin da hukumomin Ottoman suka fara daidaita Circassians a can.[3]

Asali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Garin Amman ya samo sunansa daga tsoffin mutanen Ammonawa, wanda babban birninsu ya kasance tun ƙarni na 13 KZ. Ammonawa sun ba shi suna 𐤓𐤁𐤕 𐤏𐤌𐤍, Rabat `Ammān, tare da kalmar Rabat ma'ana "Babban birni" ko "King's Quarters". A cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki na Ibrananci, ana kiran Rabat `Amman da “Rabbat Bnei ʿAmmon” ( Ibrananci na Littafi Mai Tsarki :  Tiberian Hebrew Rabbaṯ Bəne ʿAmmôn ), an gajarta a cikin Ibrananci na zamani zuwa "Rabbat Ammon", kuma ya bayyana a cikin fassarorin Turanci kamar "Rabbath Ammon". Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Sarkin Makidoniya na Masarautar Ptolemaic wanda ya yi sarauta daga 283 zuwa 246 BC, ya sake kiran birnin "Philadelphia" ( Ancient Greek  ; a zahiri: " ƙaunar 'yan uwantaka "), bayan kansa, bayan shagaltar da ita. A zamanin Musulunci, Halifancin Rashidun ya maido da sunansa na dadadden tarihi kuma ya kira shi Amman a karni na 7 miladiyya. [4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutum-mutumin 'Ain Ghazal a matsayin mafi tsufa kusa da girman ɗan adam da aka taɓa samu.

Gidan Neolithic na Ain Ghazal a yau yana kwance a bayan Amman. A tsayinsa, kusan shekara 7000 BC (shekaru 9000 da suka gabata), tana da fadin 15 hectares (37 acres) kuma CA. 3000 mutane (hudu zuwa sau biyar yawan jama'ar Jericho na zamani). A lokacin, wurin ya kasance ƙauyen Neolithic na al'ada . Gine-ginen gine-ginen gine-gine ne masu tubalin laka guda huɗu waɗanda suka haɗa da babban falo falo, wanda bangonsa ya kasance da filastar lemun tsami. An gano wurin ne a shekara ta 1974 yayin da ma'aikatan gine-gine ke aiki a kan hanyar da ta ratsa yankin. A shekara ta 1982, lokacin da aka fara tonon sililin, kusan 600 metres (2,000 ft) na hanya ta bi ta wurin. Duk da barnar da fadada birane ya haifar, ragowar Ain Ghazal ya ba da bayanai masu yawa.

'Ain Ghazal sananne ne ga wasu ƙananan mutum-mutumin da aka samu a cikin 1983, lokacin da masu binciken kayan tarihi na gida suka yi tuntuɓe a gefen wani babban rami mai 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) ɗauke da su. Wadannan mutum-mutumin mutane ne da aka yi da farar filasta, masu fentin idanu. An samu adadi talatin da biyu a cikin caches guda biyu, goma sha biyar daga cikinsu cikakkun adadi, busts goma sha biyar, da kawuna guda biyu. Uku daga cikin bust ɗin sun nuna haruffa masu kai biyu, waɗanda ba a bayyana mahimmancin su ba.

Ƙarfe: Ammonawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rujm Al-Malfouf Hasumiyar Ammonawa da aka gina kusan 1000 BC

A cikin karni na 13 BC, Amman shine babban birnin Masarautar Ammonawa, kuma an san shi da "Rabat Amman". Rabat Amman ya samar da albarkatun kasa da dama ga yankin, da suka hada da dutsen yashi da dutsen farar kasa, tare da fannin noma mai albarka wanda ya mayar da shi muhimmin wuri a kan titin Sarki, tsohuwar hanyar kasuwanci da ta hada Masar da Mesopotamiya, Siriya da Anatoliya . Kamar yadda Edomawa da Mowabawa suka yi, cinikin da ke kan wannan hanya ya ba wa Ammonawa kuɗi mai yawa. Ana kiran Milcom a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki na Ibrananci a matsayin Shugaban Kasa na Rabat Amman. Wani tsohon Shugabanci, Moloch, yawanci yana hade da yin amfani da yara a matsayin hadaya, kuma an ambace shi a cikin Littafi Mai-Tsarki a matsayin Shugaban Ammonawa, amma wannan tabbas kuskure ne ga Milcom. Duk da haka, binciken da masana ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi suka yi a kusa da filin jirgin saman Amman ya gano wani haikali, wanda ya hada da bagadi mai dauke da gutsuttsuran kashi na mutane. Kasusuwan sun nuna shaidar konewa, wanda ya haifar da zato cewa bagadin yana aiki a matsayin pyre kuma ana amfani dashi don hadayar ɗan adam .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Lipiński, Edward (2006). On the Skirts of Canaan in the Iron Age: Historical and Topographical Researches. Peeters Publishers. p. 295. ISBN 978-9042917989.
  2. Parpola, Simo (1970). Neo-Assyrian Toponyms. Kevaeler: Butzon & Bercker. p. 76.
  3. "Revealed: the 20 cities UAE residents visit most". Arabian Business Publishing Ltd. 1 May 2015. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  4. Michael Dumper; Bruce E. Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2015.